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The 360-degree Rainbow

By: Dr. Jeff Masters, 8:18 PM GMT on April 14, 2005

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Most people don't realize it, but a rainbow is actually a full circle. You usually can't see the full circle, since half of the rainbow lies beneath the horizon, where it is not raining. After all, there is no weather underground. However, if one is in an airplane or overlooking a waterfall, the 360-degree rainbow can be seen. I know--I have seen them twice from research airplanes that were flying through rain showers. Check out the 360-degree rainbow image at the bottom. Note that there is a separate optical phenomena, called a glory (caused by diffraction), surrounding the shadow of the airplane. Unfortunately, I only had a 23mm wide angle lens, and could not capture the entire 360-degree rainbow. To my knowledge, no one has captured a photograph of a full NATURAL 360-degree rainbow. You can easily photograph one using a sprinkler, as this photographer has done here.

I challenge all you wunderphotographers to capture a 360-degree rainbow image in rain or waterfall mist. First photographer to post such a natural 360-degree rainbow image wins a free 2-year wunderground.com membership!

Update: In 2013, a photographer on a helicopter in Australia captured a beautiful picture of a 360-degree rainbow, posted at NASA's Astronomy Picture of the Day website.

Jeff Masters
360-degree rainbow
360-degree rainbow
A rainbow is not a half-circle, but a full circle, as this photo taken from NOAA's P-3 Orion weather reseach aircraft demonstrates. A rain shower beneath the aircraft allowed me to see the entire circle of the rainbow, although the 23-mm wide angle lens was not quite wide enough to capture the entire circle.

Atmospheric Phenomena

The views of the author are his/her own and do not necessarily represent the position of The Weather Company or its parent, IBM.

Reader Comments

A rainbow is a true sight of beauty. Not only that but the have a sense of peace about them. Too bad they seem so limited in time.
Thanks! I've seen this from an airplane, too, but was beginning to doubt my memory because no one I know has seen such a thing. This is gorgeous!
I've seen the 360 rainbows many times. I always have a window seat in the front of the jet. One of the best is desending into cloud tops with the sun directly behind... in the water vapor that is the cloud top, you get a 360 rainbow that circles the shadow of the airplane... never have got the camara out in time...
The 360 rainbow that circles the shadow of the airplane that ruffair refers to is a separate optical phenomena, called a glory, and is not a true rainbow. A glory is an optical diffraction effect consisting of concentric rings of color centered about the shadow of an observer's head, located on a cloud of water drops. You can see a glory surrounding the shadow of the airplane in my 360-degree rainbow photo. Also, check out this glory photo, taken from a mountaintop.
Never seen a 360, but I have seen a double, at least once, in Scotland I think. Have seen glories as an airline passenger.

But, courtesy of Uncle Sam's Great Grey Ocean Liners, I have also seen the Green Flash of the Tropics and The Corposant once each. Was watching for the Green Flash, but the Corposant was a surprise, and a year and an ocean before seeing the Green Flash.
I wondered if you saw this photo from Albania. It struck me and then I read your blog and it reminded me of this photo.
This is the URL.
You can also create a link to an image by selecting the text you wish to link and clicking the link button above the comment text box. Like so.
If a rainbow is a full circle...then WHERE'S THE POT OF GOLD???? I feel cheated.
Jeff says "After all, there is no weather underground." If this is true, then where are we??? LOL
I have seen these before, when I'm skydiving and I steer my parachute into a cloud. I wish I would have had a camera with me!
I have seen the "glory" rainbow many times from my plane but have also heard it called "the aviator's halo".
Welcom to WU Dr. Master's! ROFL!!!
21. Alec
hey im here!!!!!!!cooooooooool!!!!!!!!
Flash to the past. Back to the future.
Just thought I'd drop a message on the "original."

Too cool.
Oh this blog has no idea what it's in for..
A different but also exciting phenomena is the "sundog"; in which rays refract through ice crystals. The differing index of refraction of solid water leads to a smaller radius rainbow even without clouds or rain present. Since the radius is tighter, one can often see the full circle. I saw one three days ago in Madison, WI, but I didn't have my camera. Here's an example: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-473524/Dazzling-image-circle-rainbow.html
If only one knew where this blog would be now.... Thanks for the original entry Dr. M.
TomTaylor was here
Quoting CybrTeddy:
Oh this blog has no idea what it's in for..

Yeah...you've got that right, lol.
Wow, the first entry... 31 comments in 7 years.
Can we make this the new hangout spot?
33. MTWX
Was reading back through the old Katrina Blogs, and figured I'd stop in to see where it all began....

MTWX was here...
I had to see where it all started.

wxchaser97 was and is here...
38. Kumo
You should totally get this guy to do commentary on a 360-degree rainbow.
spreading like poison ivy..favorable conditions throughout the basin
So who won the photo of a 360 degree rainbow?
No weather under ground, then how come some caves here in MO are always 58 F and 100% humidity?
As a young merchant seaman many years ago, caught in a sudden tropical downpour in bright sunshine, I'd climbed the ladder to the next deck and looking behind me saw a double rainbow making a complete circle.

It was in the form of a slanted disc with the bottom of the disc at my feet and the top above the horizon (seemingly a long way away).

I realised that the angle of the disc was in a line with the sun behind me passing through my head to the illusion in front of me.

Since that time I know that I have to look for the rainbow with the sun behind me, and that latitude, and the height of the sun above the horizon, determines how high the top of the rainbow appears to be in the sky.
I like how it is a circle rainbow...great capture

Printing Services
On mobile and got here by mistake. So glad I did! I had no idea a full circle rainbow could be viewed.
Very interesting on rainbow science. Thanks.
Dr. Masters first blog entry in 2005 was on the 360 degree rainbow.
Well, since I keep on ending up here, I will leave a comment.
Never saw a 360 rainbow in my life! But the pic is cool!
terry and i drove into the pot of gold once here in e.cen florida. colors illuminated inside the car! amazing. once in a lifetime
Maybe in your neck of the woods!
atmosphere around here looks stagnant and pressurized
just a couple small simpsons clouds and haze....

Quoting 39. islander101010:

spreading like poison ivy..favorable conditions throughout the basin
what basin?

Quoting 54. 19N81W:

Maybe in your neck of the woods!
atmosphere around here looks stagnant and pressurized
just a couple small simpsons clouds and haze....

if conditions are improving why are we so dry?
Try my recent video of 360 degree rainbows. Shot from my aircraft.
Ahh!, ok I finally found the legendary rainbow post! (the zero indexing of the "entrynums" led me astray) :D
Oh wow, I remember this from a long time ago, after the hurricanes in 2004 I was excited to find this site. I've logged in nearly daily ever since, for over a decade!
Hello 2005,..

Sit down, we have a lot to talk about.

Might as well start posting here since we are being redirected to this locale anyway.
Rainbows in Art Many paintings inside link.
Well, here I am again! I love this particular blog, but I've been here one too many times! ;-) (I do love rainbows....)

Back to the 360-degree Rainbow ! Woohoo !

I have seen the main Bow almost close itself below with the shadow of the airplane in the centre.
Last I looked Wiki told me that the main Bow is a circle around your shadow at 42 degrees from line of sight.
What the hell, how did i get back to 2005? Has the last decade been a dream? Boy, the things I know now that I didn't know then.
Quoting 92. washingaway:

What the hell, how did i get back to 2005? Has the last decade been a dream? Boy, the things I know now that I didn't know then.

Wait until you find out who becomes President in a decade...
Oh my.

I'm back.
Now this is funny, the 2005 blog only had 17 comments.
Actually, comments 1, 5, 6, 10, 11, and 18 were deleted, so I am
not sure if comment 18 was from 2005 or 2006.
Counting mine, we now have 22 comments this year.
At the rate we keep getting sent here we could double that before
the end of the year. LOL

5 in 2006
2 in 2008
1 in 2009
1 in 2010
7 in 2012
5 in 2013
3 in 2014
2 in 2015

That totals 65 comments, so 30 comments have been deleted.
We have discovered an internet Worm Hole right here on WU. heh heh heh

I'm getting out of here while I still can.
Add another for 2016!
The rainbow is back!
How did I end up here!!!
Check out the 360 degree rainbow from a canyon waterfall on this website: https://steemit.com/life/@volent/the-rainbow
WOW! Back again!!! 2 nights in a row!
We need to keep track of this. Thanks!

Quoting 96. RTLSNK:

Now this is funny, the 2005 blog only had 17 comments.
Actually, comments 1, 5, 6, 10, 11, and 18 were deleted, so I am
not sure if comment 18 was from 2005 or 2006.
Counting mine, we now have 22 comments this year.
At the rate we keep getting sent here we could double that before
the end of the year. LOL

5 in 2006
2 in 2008
1 in 2009
1 in 2010
7 in 2012
5 in 2013
3 in 2014
2 in 2015

That totals 65 comments, so 30 comments have been deleted.
We have discovered an internet Worm Hole right here on WU. heh heh heh

I'm getting out of here while I still can.

Patrap posted a pic of Rod Serling from Twilight Zone yesterday; TV has become reality....................I have started to trim down getting ready to shed some pounds for my "year of health" in 2017. But I never imagined in my wildest dreams that I would also become 10 years younger on the Eve of Christmas; Thank You Santa......................
Time warp again!
It looks like mankind is destined to revisit its past and to revisit our past words. on the bright side, we look so much younger. ;)
Did I have a blackout?
The only scary part is that I am stuck in time with PensacolaDoug.
What in the world, lol.
Well!! 3 nights in a row!
This is getting scaring now!
seeing a rainbow again.
I have been rainbowed!
Quoting 96. RTLSNK:

Now this is funny, the 2005 blog only had 17 comments.
Actually, comments 1, 5, 6, 10, 11, and 18 were deleted, so I am
not sure if comment 18 was from 2005 or 2006.
Counting mine, we now have 22 comments this year.
At the rate we keep getting sent here we could double that before
the end of the year. LOL

5 in 2006
2 in 2008
1 in 2009
1 in 2010
7 in 2012
5 in 2013
3 in 2014
2 in 2015

That totals 65 comments, so 30 comments have been deleted.
We have discovered an internet Worm Hole right here on WU. heh heh heh

I'm getting out of here while I still can.

Who stole the comments!
I've been redirected here so many times over the last few months, might as well add to the comment section!
Time stamp!
Well..hello 2005, we have to talk.
ANyone seen my Xmas Balls here? Thanks in advance.
I think i got rainbowed!
Lets do the time warp again!
2nd time today!
Dear Future Madame Secretary,

Please purchase a summer cottage outside of Piitsburgh, one near Kalamazoo, and another north of Green Bay. The future thanks you.

Yours truly,

The 21st Century.
Merry Christmas to all who might mysteriously end up here today.
Merry Christmas, many blessings and Joy for Christmas 2016 to all. May this rainbow signify the storms moving out of people's lives and beauty moving in.
I think we all should just hang out on this blog post from now on.
I guess we all get a trip to the rainbow for Christmas LOL.
There may be more comments from 2016 than from the original posting...
Am I the 1st 1st-timer here? Never before did I get rainbowed ... now I know :/
Yeah, I'm in the 360° rainbow club!

Is this some sort of parallel universe? Second time transported here, first time commenting. Lol.
So 2005, lemme tell ya about Life in December 2016 .

Sit down, itsa gonna be a spell.

Hey, my first trip here. Now I know what all the fuss is about...
Sigh. Finally let out of log in purgatory . . . you could log in, but not into your account . . . and I end up here. Well, it could be worse I suppose. Let's see if I can return once again to 2016. Although, given how that year turned out, maybe going back to 2005 would be better.
We have got to stop meeting like this ;-)

So, hey 2005,look what the GOP has done to Science in yer futcha'..

Wisconsin DNR: Climate change cause debatable

Environment The Associated Press · Madison, Wis. · Dec 29, 2016

The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources has quietly removed language from its website that said humans and greenhouse gases are the main cause of climate change.

The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel reports the website now states the cause of climate change is debatable. Gone are sentences attributing global warming to human activities and rising carbon dioxide levels. Also gone is language saying that scientists agree the Great Lakes region will see longer summers and shorter winters, decreased ice cover and changes in rain and snow patterns if climate change continues.

• More: Climate coverage

The new language states: "As it has done throughout the centuries, the earth is going through a change. The reasons for this change at this particular time in the earth's long history are being debated and researched by academic entities outside the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources."

The blurb goes on to state that the DNR's responsibility is to manage Wisconsin's natural resources through whatever event presents itself and the staff is ready to adapt its strategies to protect lakes, waterways, plants and wildlife.

Most scientists agree burning fossil fuels has increased greenhouse gases and caused global warming. A 2014 United Nations report found that human influence on climate is clear. The report also found global warming is unequivocal and unprecedented.

Republican Gov. Scott Walker controls the DNR. He and his fellow Republicans have been critical of President Barack Obama's climate change initiatives. Republican Attorney General Brad Schimel joined other states in a 2015 federal lawsuit challenging limitations on power plant carbon emissions. The DNR has removed other online information about global warming since Walker took office, including a trove of information compiled by former Democratic Gov. Jim Doyle's global warming task force and a teaching guide on climate change. The agency turned that guide over to the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point.

DNR spokesperson James Dick told the Journal Sentinel that the climate change language revisions "reflects our position on this topic that we have communicated for years, that our agency regularly must respond to a variety of environmental and human stressors from drought, flooding, wind events to changing demographics."

Joel Bammeier, president of the Chicago-based Alliance for the Great Lakes, said he doesn't understand why the DNR made the climate change revisions.

"To me, it looks like they are trying to cover up a debate that really isn't happening."

Paul Robbins, director of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies said the revisions don't surprise him.

"When climate change gets so politicized" he said, "you can imagine agencies and its leaders haggling over wording."

Stay Informed
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Rainbowed again. (sigh)
Maybe I oughtta just stay HERE -
Yup,..IBM rocks.

2005 we love ya.
I'm gonna go hide under a rock!
Happy New Year All!

Quoting 144. Xandra:

Happy New Year All!

For which year then? LOL

Quoting 145. mitthbevnuruodo:

For which year then? LOL

It's a free choice! ;)
2nd time today!
Hmmm, I should probably leave myself a note about the thunderstorm that hits
tonight. No, I don't remember stuff from last week, no way I will remember what
I wrote twelve years ago. heh heh heh
(waves hi to everyone....AGAIN)

hey aqua- this is FUTURE aqua- you're gonna be a GREAT gardener- have faith!!
So strange!
I got a Happy New Year email from a (non-WU) friend earlier today that was ALSO from 2005...there must be a message here somewhere!
Ya know, I could use a do-over of 2005.
Well, darn.

I found my keys from 2005. But the car is now toast,so....

should we post ever time we visit? I mean, we really oughtta have some rules or guidelines or something.
This is starting to become a daily occurrence.
I'm just gonna start posting LOLCats.

I predict Donald Trump will run for President in 2016 and win. I predict Taz will change his name to Twilightzone. I also predict Pensacoladoug and Patrap will have an argument in 2016 which will carry over to 2017. I predict aquak9 will grow the biggest green tomatoes you've ever seen. I predict that the blog will be so screwed up we won't be able to find each other and we go into deep depression from "blog envy". I predict I will look just as good in 2017 as I did in 2005 and the rest of you won't. Now, for the most important event, I predict that in 2017.....................

Sorry, I've got to go

A tsunami of gravitational waves distorting space and time.....or the blog is just broken.
Another day another rainbow...nice.

The blog is in rough shape at the moment, Cat6 will load only half the time and with much difficulty.
I predict all of Grothar's predictions will come true ;-)
Back to the Future!
Hey California, after a 6 year drought the Rains are coming Hugely, bigly, the Greatest Rain evah'

For our WU Friends in California,...

It is the springtime of my loving - the second season I am to know
You are the sunlight in my growing - so little warmth I've felt before.
It isn't hard to feel me glowing - I watched the fire that grew so low.

It is the summer of my smiles - flee from me Keepers of the Gloom.
Speak to me only with your eyes. It is to you I give this tune.
Ain't so hard to recognize - These things are clear to all from time to time.

Talk, talk, talk, talk - I've felt the coldness of my winter
I never thought it would ever go. I cursed the gloom that set upon us, 'pon us, 'pon us...
But I know that I love you so. But I know that I love you so

These are the seasons of emotion and like the wind they rise and fall
This is the wonder of devotion - I see the torch we all must hold.
This is the mystery of the quotient, quotient - Upon us all, upon us all a little rain must fall.
It's just a little rain oh yeah

Utter nonsense.
IBM= Intelligently Blind Morons.
If we're gonna be sent back to the past every post now, we are expecting some travel Pay, big time.

I used to like rainbows. Sad
Washingaway was here 1/4/17
This was a cool story the first time i read it almost 11 years ago. not any longer. :(
Did you guys know rainbows are actually complete circles?
Well, WTH? right?

You know, I hated the movie Groundhog Day. And last night I watched Tom Cruise repeat everything over and over and over again in Edge of Tomorrow...ugh.

Life imitates fiction?
twice today.

Quoting 176. Patrap:

I've been telling you to stop drinking.
Quoting 100. PensacolaDoug:

How did I end up here!!!
Backsliding again, Doug ;)
Great selfie Pat!
Quoting 171. win1gamegiantsplease:

Did you guys know rainbows are actually complete circles?

As is this blog!
My mood blogging when the wunderblogs are unstable:

I've been going back and forth through time so much lately I'm beginning
to get motion sickness. I better leave myself a note to take some Dramamine
before I get on the Doc's blog in January of 2017. I'll leave some here too for
the rest of you. heh heh heh
This was funny at first, now it's just sad.
NAM still increasing the totals as we approach, love.

Greetings fellow time travelers...
188. SuzK
Quoting 53. islander101010:

terry and i drove into the pot of gold once here in e.cen florida. colors illuminated inside the car! amazing. once in a lifetime

My husband and I drove under the arch of a rainbow that disappeared into the rock wall along I-80 in Utah, coming over the pass. It was 2010 I think, we were eastbound and the wall was on the westbound side. You could see it more than 180 degrees but it went through the wall and I watched us drive under it. So bizarre. It felt like good luck. The rainbow that is my profile picture was from intense rainbows in the Black Rock desert of Nevada a week earlier.
One day, this blog is gonna end'

Quoting 189. Patrap:

One day, this blog is gonna end'

It's still kinda funny.
Thunder and lightning at 39.4 degrees down on da Bayou Grande. I've never seen lightning at this temp before!
I wonder what would happen if Dr. Masters deleted this entry. With no entry zero, would we stay at the current entry or just get flung back to entry #1?
Quoting 193. TheBigBanana:

I wonder what would happen if Dr. Masters deleted this entry. With no entry zero, would we stay at the current entry or just get flung back to entry #1?

We'd get flung back to this entry, but it would say "this entry has been removed" -
This blog post is older than some of our users probably.
Hey 2005, this happened, mmmmm,...but in real life, not the Movies.

Trump,Putin,and the Big Hack

By David Remnick January 6, 2017

Vyacheslav Molotov, Stalin’s foreign minister, once remarked while on a trip to Berlin in the early days of the Cold War, “The trouble with free elections is that you never know how they will turn out.”

On the morning of November 9th, Molotov’s grandson, Vyacheslav Nikonov, a member of the Russian Duma’s foreign-affairs committee, announced to the parliament, “Three minutes ago, Hillary Clinton conceded defeat in the American Presidential elections. And just this second Donald Trump began his speech as President-elect.” The Duma members cheered and applauded.

In the days to come, there were more declarations of acid satisfaction among the Russian élite. Dmitri Kiselyov, the host of “News of the Week,” a popular current-affairs show on state-controlled television, gloated over Trump’s victory and Barack Obama’s inability to prevent it. Obama, he said, was a “eunuch.” Trump was an “alpha male”—and one who showed mercy to his vanquished rival. “Trump could have put the blonde in prison, as he’d threatened in the televised debates,” Kiselyov said on his show. “On the other hand, it’s nothing new. Trump has left blond women satisfied all his life.” Kiselyov further praised Trump because the concepts of democracy and human rights “are not in his lexicon.” In India, Turkey, Europe, and now the United States, he declared, “the liberal idea is in ruins.”

Vladimir Putin did not showboat, but he, too, made his satisfaction plain. His spokesman, Dmitri Peskov, told reporters that the similarity between Trump and Putin’s “conceptual approach to foreign policy” was “phenomenal.” Trump’s victory was the basis for Russia’s “moderate optimism”; now both sides could discuss how “to clear out the Augean stables in our bilateral relations.”

All of this is all the more alarming to recall now, in the light of the latest news: according to U.S. intelligence reports, Putin “ordered an influence campaign” to undermine Clinton and work with “a clear preference” to enhance Trump’s prospects.

A classified version of this intelligence has now been delivered to both the President and the President-elect. Briefed in New York on Friday by the heads of the C.I.A., F.B.I., and N.S.A., Trump, who earlier in the day called the focus on Russian hacking “a political witch hunt,” finally allowed, if obliquely, that the Russians—and not the Chinese, not “somebody sitting on their bed that weighs four hundred pounds”—might have hacked the e-mail accounts of the Democratic National Committee and Clinton’s campaign chairman, John Podesta. A declassified report concluded that Putin ordered a campaign of covert operations, from defamatory “fake news” articles about Clinton to the hack itself. Even as Trump seemed to shift his view of the source of the D.N.C. hack, he did not concede that the operation had helped his campaign. The declassified report, however, said that the C.I.A., F.B.I., and N.S.A. had uniformly “high confidence” that Putin ordered the operation in order to “undermine public faith in the US democratic process, denigrate Secretary Clinton, and harm her electability and potential presidency.”

The N.S.A. had only “moderate confidence” on some details, while the C.I.A. and F.B.I. had “high confidence.” The differences, while vague, seem to be over the degree of Putin’s personal role. The declassified version of the report was unrevealing about how the agencies had come to their conclusions or collected their information.

One should continue to demand even more information from the U.S. government, and one can readily concede that Trump won his Electoral College victory for a variety of reasons, including the disaffection of the white working class in states like Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Ohio; the F.B.I. director’s two letters, late in the campaign, about Clinton’s e-mail server; and Clinton’s deficiencies and tactical errors as a candidate.

And yet how is it possible, if these intelligence reports are true, to count the 2016 Presidential election as unsullied? We are two weeks away from Trump’s Inauguration, and American intelligence agencies, flawed as they are, have declared, publicly and clearly, that they have convincing evidence that Russia, at its President’s direction, interfered in a Presidential election. Congress clearly has a job to do, but it is not alone.

No matter how much it may offend Trump’s ego or his sense of self-possession, it will be his responsibility, his duty as President, to order the agencies at his command to dig even deeper, to provide as full a reckoning as possible. Will he resist Congress on this issue? Is he capable of questioning, in a sense, his own election? If he decides to refuse this duty, to just “move on,” as he likes to say, one will have to ask why.

Putin’s resentment of Clinton was always manifest; it is almost as severe as Trump’s. Putin saw the Clinton Administration of the nineties as having taken advantage of Russian weakness after the fall of the Soviet Union, twenty-five years ago. He viewed Hillary Clinton as a foreign-policy hawk who wanted regime change from Baghdad to Kiev to Moscow. In 2011, Putin, who lives in fear of spontaneous uprisings, events like the Arab Spring and the “color revolutions” in Ukraine and Georgia, accused Clinton of giving “a signal” to urge thousands of Russians to come out on the streets of Moscow to protest parliamentary-election “irregularities” and Putin’s intention to return once more to the Kremlin as President.

In the past few weeks, I’ve had conversations with Russian political experts, and all of them agreed that Putin was certainly pleased, at least initially, with Trump’s victory—and that satisfaction is reflected, too, on countless news and talk shows on television. These analysts added that Putin is undoubtedly cheered that Rex Tillerson, Trump’s appointment to head the State Department, was likely to leave behind American “sanctimony” about human rights and democracy and, following the pattern of his career at ExxonMobil, to concentrate on purely “transactional politics.” Some, however, wondered if Putin will remain enchanted with Trump once he encounters Trump’s inconsistencies, his alarming penchant for surprise pronouncements via Twitter.

Like many nationalist politicians in Europe, Trump has made plain his admiration for Putin, complimenting the Russian leader’s “great control over his country,” while at the same time failing to address the reality that Putin’s regime has instituted wholesale censorship of television, increased repressive measures on ordinary citizens, and unleashed his forces in Ukraine and Syria. (Putin, of course, discounts criticism of his policies as Western hypocrisy and points to everything from the invasion of Iraq, which he opposed, to the eastward expansion of nato, which he sees as an aggressive act.)

Trump’s argument throughout the campaign, the reason for his compliments for Putin, he has said, is related to his stated desire to ease tensions between Russia and the United States and avoid the ultimate disaster, a nuclear confrontation. But what concerns many seasoned American analysts, politicians, and diplomats is that Trump is deluding himself about Putin’s intentions and refuses to see the nature of Russia’s nationalist, autocratic regime clearly. Trump has spoken critically of nato and in support of European nationalist initiatives like Brexit to such a degree that, according to one Obama Administration official, “our allies are absolutely terrified and completely bewildered.”

Strobe Talbott, who was Bill Clinton’s closest adviser on Russia, told me recently that the hack of the D.N.C. and Putin’s other moves in Europe—including the annexation of Crimea, the Russian military presence in eastern Ukraine, and the financial support of nationalists like Marine Le Pen, of France—were part of a larger strategy intended to weaken the E.U. and nato.

“I try to be careful about superlatives,” Talbott said, “but I cannot think, going back to the Soviet Union or since, that there’s been a Moscow-Kremlin-instigated gambit that was so spectacularly successful as what they have done with our democracy. All of those assets that they tried to use on us over the years were far less by comparison; this was like winning seventeen jackpots all at once.”

David Remnick has been editor of The New Yorker since 1998 and a staff writer since 1992. More
It's interesting to find your post back here in the past Patrap:
I assume you also posted it in the future.
if I can just get to the present I'll read the rest of it.
Where are we now Ken?
You don't need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows.

Atmospheric CO2

December 2016

404.48 parts per million (ppm)
first! 1-8-17
will I get banned for claiming "first" ?
at least my posts are accepted here! as in...e.g. ...not disappeared
While I'm here,
While I'm here, Sofia BU 9°F ...Moscow RS -8° F ... London UK 48° F light rain, ... Barcelona SP 54° clear ...etc. ...
C'est la Tour du Monde j'ai peur
Until we meet again. Au revoir!
Je reviendrai sur l'avenir!
hmmm any posts for 1-9-2017??

Might as well.
Lighthouse rainbow, Polonsky manuscript from Poland, before 1200 AD.