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Over 500 Killed in India's Monsoon Floods

By: Dr. Jeff Masters, 4:25 PM GMT on June 21, 2013

Earth's deadliest natural disaster so far in 2013 is the deadly flooding in India's Himalayan Uttarakhand region, where torrential monsoon rains have killed at least 556 people, with hundreds more feared dead. At least 5,000 people are missing. According to the Indian Meteorological Department, Uttarakhand received more than three times (329%) of its normal June rainfall from June 1 - 21, and rainfall was 847% of normal during the week June 13 - 19. Satellite estimates indicate that more than 20" (508 mm) or rain fell in a 7-day period from June 11 - 17 over some regions of Uttarakhand, which lies just to the west of Nepal in the Himalayas. Dehradun, the capital of Uttarakhand, received 14.57" (370 mm) of rain in 24 hours on June 16 - 17. This was the highest 24-hour rainfall in city history, according to an official from the India Meteorological Department. Dr. Dave Petley's Landslide Blog details that the torrential rains triggered a massive landslide that hit Uttarakhand's Hindu shrine in Kedarnath, which lies just a short distance from the snout of two mountain glaciers. The shrine is an important pilgrimage destination this time of year, and was packed with visitors celebrating the char-dham yatra: a pilgrimage to the four holy sites of Gangotri, Kedarnath, Yamnotri and Badrinath. Apparently, heavy rainfall triggered a collapse event on the mountain above Kedarnath, which turned into a debris flow downstream that struck the town. The main temple was heavily damaged, and numerous buildings in the town were demolished. It was Earth's deadliest landslide since the August 2010 Zhouqu landslide in China.

According to Aon Benfield's May Catastrophe Report, Earth's deadliest natural disasters of 2013 so far:

Winter weather, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, 1/1 - 1/20, 329 deaths
Earthquake, China, 4/20, 196 deaths
Flooding, Southern Africa, 1/10 - 2/28, 175 deaths
Flooding, Argentina, 4/2 - 4/4, 70 deaths
Flooding, Kenya, 3/10 - 4/30, 66 deaths


Figure 1. Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) arrive to rescue stranded Sikh devotees from Hemkunt Sahib Gurudwara, a religious Sikh temple, to a safe place in Chamoli district, in northern Indian state of Uttarakhand, India, Monday, June 17, 2013. AP photo.


Figure 2. Satellite-estimated rainfall for the 7-day period June 11 - 17, 2013, from NASA's TRMM satellite exceeded 20 inches (508 mm) over portions of India's Uttarakhand province, leading to catastrophic floods. Image credit: NASA.

A record early arrival of the monsoon
The June 2013 monsoon rains in Uttarakhand were highly unusual, as the monsoon came to the region two weeks earlier than normal. The monsoon started in South India near the normal June 1 arrival date, but then advanced across India in unusually rapid fashion, arriving in Pakistan along the western border of India on June 16, a full month earlier than normal. This was the fastest progression of the monsoon on record. The previous record for fastest monsoon progression occurred in 1961, when all of India was under monsoon conditions by June 21. Reliable monsoon records go back to 1961, and are patchy before then. Fortunately, no more heavy rain is expected in Uttarakhand over the next few days, as the monsoon will be active only in eastern India. Heavy rains are expected again in the region beginning on June 24. Wunderblogger Lee Grenci's post, Summer Monsoon Advances Rapidly across India: Massive Flooding Ensues, has more detail on the meteorology of this year's monsoon. There is criticism from some that the devastating floods were not entirely a natural disaster--human-caused deforestation, dam building, and mining may have contributed. "Large-scale construction of dams and absence of environmental regulations has led to the floods," said Sunita Narian, director general of Delhi based advocacy group Centre for Science and Environment (CSE).


Figure 3. The summer monsoon arrived in southwest India right on schedule (June 1) in South India, but it spread northward much faster than usual, reaching Pakistan a full month earlier than normal. Solid green contours indicate the progress of the 2013 summer monsoon (each contour is labeled with a date). You can compare this year's rapid advance to a "normal" progression, which is represented by the dashed, red contours (also labeled with dates).

Monsoons in India: a primer
Disastrous monsoon floods are common in India and surrounding nations, and 60,000 people--an average of 500 people per year--died in India due to monsoon floods between 1900 - 2012, according to EM-DAT, the International Disaster Database. EM-DAT lists sixteen flood disasters which killed 1,000 or more people in India since records began in 1950. Here are the number of people killed in these events, along with the month and year of occurrence and locales affected:

4892, Jul 1968, Rajasthan, Gujara
3800, Jul 1978, North, Northeast
2001, May - Oct, 1994, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh
2000, Jul 1961, North
1811, Aug 1998, Assam, Arunachal, Bihar
1600, Aug 1980, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar
1591, Jul 28, 1989, Maharashtra, Andhra Prade
1479, Sep 1995, Bihar, Haryana, Punjab
1442, Aug 1997, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal
1200, Jul 24 - Aug 5, 2005 Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh
1200, Aug 1987, Assam, Bihar, West Bengal
1103, Jul 3 - Sep 22, 2007, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh
1063, Jun 11 - Jul 21, 2008 West Bengal, Orissa
1023, Jun 1971, North
1000, Sep 22 - Oct 9, 1988, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh
1000, Oct 1961

The monsoon occurs in summer, when the sun warms up land areas more strongly than ocean areas. This happens because wind and ocean turbulence mix the ocean's absorbed heat into a "mixed layer" approximately 50 meters deep, whereas on land, the sun's heat penetrates at a slow rate to a limited depth. Furthermore, due to its molecular properties, water has the ability to absorb more heat than the solid materials that make up land. As a result of this summertime differential heating of land and ocean, a low pressure region featuring rising air develops over land areas. Moisture-laden ocean winds blow towards the low pressure region and are drawn upwards once over land. The rising air expands and cools, condensing its moisture into some of the heaviest rains on Earth--the monsoon. Monsoons operate via the same principle as the familiar summer afternoon sea breeze, but on a grand scale. Each summer, monsoons affect every continent on Earth except Antarctica, and are responsible for life-giving rains that sustain the lives of billions of people. In India, home for over 1.1 billion people, the monsoon provides 80% of the annual rainfall. The most deadly flooding events usually come from monsoon depressions (also known as monsoon lows.) A monsoon depression is similar to (but larger than) a tropical depression. Both are spinning storms hundreds of kilometers in diameter with sustained winds of 50 - 55 kph (30 - 35 mph), nearly calm winds at their center, and generate very heavy rains. Typically, 6 - 7 monsoon depressions form each summer over the Bay of Bengal and track westwards across India.

The future of monsoons in India
A warming climate loads the dice in favor of heavier extreme precipitation events. This occurs because more water vapor can evaporate into a warmer atmosphere, increasing the chances of record heavy downpours. In a study published in Science in 2006, Goswami et al. found that the level of heavy rainfall activity in the monsoon over India had more than doubled in the 50 years since the 1950s, leading to an increased disaster potential from heavy flooding. Moderate and weak rain events decreased during those 50 years, leaving the total amount of rain deposited by the monsoon roughly constant. The authors commented, "These findings are in tune with model projections and some observations that indicate an increase in heavy rain events and a decrease in weak events under global warming scenarios." We should expect to see an increased number of disastrous monsoon floods in coming decades if the climate continues to warm as expected. Since the population continues to increase at a rapid rate in the region, death tolls from monsoon flooding disasters are likely to climb dramatically in coming decades. However, my greater concern for India is drought. The monsoon rains often fail during El Niño years, and more than 4.2 million people died in India due to droughts between 1900 - 2012. Up until the late 1960s, it was common for the failure of the monsoon rains to kill millions of people in India. The drought of 1965 - 1967 killed at least 1.5 million people. However, since the Green Revolution of the late 1960s--a government initiative to improve food self-sufficiency using new technology and high-yield grains--failure of the monsoon rains has not led to mass starvation in India. It is uncertain whether of not the Green Revolution can keep up with India's booming population, and the potential that climate change might bring more severe droughts. Climate models show a wide range of possibilities for the future of the Indian monsoon, and it is unclear at present what the future might hold. However, the fact that one of the worst droughts in India's history occurred in 2009 shows that serious droughts have to be a major concern for the future. The five worst Indian monsoons along with the rainfall deficits for the nation:

1) 1877, -33%
2) 1899, -29%
3) 1918, -25%
4) 1972, -24%
5) 2009, -22%

References
Goswami, et al., 2006, " Increasing Trend of Extreme Rain Events Over India in a Warming Environment", Science, 1 December 2006:Vol. 314. no. 5804, pp. 1442 - 1445 DOI: 10.1126/science.1132027

Unnatural Disaster: How Global Warming Helped Cause India’s Catastrophic Flood

Wunderground's climate change blogger Dr. Ricky Rood wrote a nice 3-part series about the challenges India faces due to climate change after he completed a 2009 trip there.


Video 1. Flood waters claim a multi-story apartment building in Uttarakhand province, India, on June 17, 2013.

Historic flooding in Calgary, Alberta
Torrential rainfall on Wednesday night and Thursday has resulted in the most extensive flooding in Alberta Province, Canada in at least 8 years, with some 100,000 people facing evacuations in the city of Calgary. Wunderblogger Christopher C. Burt has a look at the disaster in his latest post. The floods are due, in part to the "stuck" jet stream pattern that brought record heat to Alaska this week.

Jeff Masters

Flood Climate Change

The views of the author are his/her own and do not necessarily represent the position of The Weather Company or its parent, IBM.

Reader Comments


Quoting mikatnight:


Go ahead, make me feel a little dumber. It's Monday, bring it on, I can take it (shuffles off to the corner...)


Peace & Apologies.   Not my intent to harass.  

I was miffed at the chart.  It reminded me of one of my pet peeves, and that's what set me off.
Good morning, everyone. Afternoon Barbamz and VR. Evening, Aussie. Would have checked in last night when I got home, but big thunderstorm, no rain, and no electric. : (

74 degrees and feels very nice out there. I should be working in the garden, but need a day of rest. Had a great time at the dog show though, very successful Meet the Breed and Judge's Education on the Russian Toy.

I drove past where the tornado hit. It's one thing to see it on TV, but it's another thing to see it with your own eyes, brings a sense of reality that can't be gotten from pictures or video.

Breakfast's on the sideboard: Steak and eggs, English muffins with your choice of jellies or cinnamon butter, yogurt and to keep it healthy, fresh fruit, smoked salmon, tomato and egg whites on a whole wheat English muffin and fresh squeezed orange juice.
Quoting SLU:
All systems go



PDO has cooled again.

Quoting Grothar:


E=mc². There, take that! :)
It's all relative.
And to follow up a bit more on warming in Alaska, I'll post the GIStemp Northern Hemisphere map for the period 1981-2012. That's well after the sudden increase in 1977 documented in the graph above.



What we find is that there is indeed no warming trend in the southern portion of Alaska. However, as we proceed north, the warming signal emerges -pretty clearly in the northern most portion.

I'm color-blind, so I don't know exactly what color I'm looking at there, but it looks to me like the increase is 0.5C, or about 0.17C/decade. That's a little less than the trend over land globally, but still a respectable amount of warming.
Quoting Levi32:


And I realize some may take offense to me posting this, but we can't pretend that context doesn't exist, can we?

As record-breaking as this summer is for my home state, it is necessary to point out that in Alaska, specifically, no global warming signal exists (yet). The warming in the state from 1949-2012 is solely due to a giant step up in 1976-1977 due to the flip of the PDO from its negative phase to its positive phase. Our state is perhaps the most sensitive place in the world to the PDO. So far, that signal overwhelms everything else on a multidecadal scale, and there is no overall global warming signal, as much as some may wish that there was.

AK Temps:



Source

PDO:



Source
Oh, by all means, let's keep things in context. So despite the fact that Alaska is hotter than its been at any time in recorded history, and despite the fact that this is happening at a time when the much-vaunted PDO should be inducing a cooling signal in the state, some are still ignoring the event. Gee, that seems a little like saying, "Except for that 100 pounds I've put on in the last year, my weight-loss routine is going great!" ;-)

Anyway, I've seen some of the most vocal climate change denialists delusionalists such as JB, Maue, and Watts go on and on about the PDO as though it's got some fantasy powers that will allow it to overwhelm CO2-induced global warming. It's definitely a crutch of sorts, and a well-worn one at that. But the problem with all well-worn crutches is that there comes a time they can no longer support anything--and I think we're there with the PDO.

Anyway, you should know that your statement about the PDO--"The warming in the state from 1949-2012 is solely due to a giant step up in 1976-1977 due to the flip of the PDO from its negative phase to its positive phase."--is scientifically invalid, as it not supported by the evidence. If you'd like to claim that the relationship is uncertain or that the causes are ambiguous, that's okay. But blanket terms such as "solely" have no place in discussions of this sort.
2008. hydrus
Quoting Neapolitan:
Oh, by all means, let's keep things in context. So despite the fact that Alaska is hotter than its been at any time in recorded history, and despite the fact that this is happening at a time when the much-vaunted PDO should be inducing a cooling signal in the state, some are still ignoring the event. Gee, that seems a little like saying, "Except for that 100 pounds I've put on in the last year, my weight-loss routine is going great!" ;-)

Anyway, I've seen some of the most vocal climate change denialists delusionalists such as JB, Maue, and Watts go on and on about the PDO as though it's got some fantasy powers that will allow it to overwhelm CO2-induced global warming. It's definitely a crutch of sorts, and a well-worn one at that. But the problem with all well-worn crutches is that there comes a time they can no longer support anything--and I think we're there with the PDO.

Anyway, you should know that your statement about the PDO--"The warming in the state from 1949-2012 is solely due to a giant step up in 1976-1977 due to the flip of the PDO from its negative phase to its positive phase."--is scientifically invalid, as it not supported by the evidence. If you'd like to claim that the relationship is uncertain or that the causes are ambiguous, that's okay. But blanket terms such as "solely" have no place in discussions of this sort.
I still cannot believe there are people saying that the Earth is not warming. There are times when I do not even bring up the fact that humans may be responsible for the co2 levels, just the evidence that the globe is on a warming trend, and they scream like I blamed them for it...People will not accept the truth until it burns the ground into ashes, then say its a natural cycle..Some folks like to argue just to argue, or to stir the pot .