WunderBlog Archive » Category 6™

Category 6 has moved! See the latest from Dr. Jeff Masters and Bob Henson here.

Confirmed: 2016 the Warmest Year in History of Global Recordkeeping

By: Jeff Masters and Bob Henson 4:28 PM GMT on January 18, 2017

For the third year in a row, Earth has experienced the warmest surface temperatures in global data extending back to 1880. In its annual climate summary released on Wednesday, NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) calculated that the average global temperature across both land and ocean surfaces for 2016 was 1.69°F (0.94°C) above the 20th-century average of 13.9°C (57.0°F). This made 2016 the warmest calendar year on record, coming in 0.07°F (0.04°C) ahead of the record set just last year. Using a slightly different technique, NASA also confirmed that 2016 was the warmest year in this 136-year period.

Last year was also the warmest on record for satellite-based estimates of temperature through the lowest five miles of the atmosphere, as calculated by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). In the UAH dataset, 2016 came in just 0.02°C (0.04°F) ahead of 1998. Because these calculations are indirect, large-scale estimates of temperature well above ground level, derived from satellite data, they need not correspond to trends in direct ground-based measurements of surface temperature.

The second year of a major El Niño tends to warm the global atmosphere even more than the first, as the atmosphere gradually adjusts to the ocean-surface warming. This gave 2016 a very good shot at breaking the global temperature record that was just set by 2015, which in turn beat out 2014. The absence of a strong El Niño heading into 2017 tells us that the coming year, while expected to be very warm by 20th-century standards, is unlikely to continue the remarkable three-year string of consecutive global heat records set by 2014, 2015, and 2016.

It’s worth noting that only about 0.2°C of last year’s departure from long-term average temperature can be explained by El Niño, especially given that the tropical Pacific transitioned to a weak La Nina by late 2016. The fact that 2016 was still the warmest year on record can mostly be attributed to the steady build-up of heat-trapping greenhouse gases due to human activities.


Figure 1. Departure from the 20th-century average for the global January-through-December temperature for the years 1880 - 2016. Last year saw the warmest temperatures on record, following previous global record highs in 2014 and 2015. Image credit: NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI).

Third warmest December on record
December 2016 was Earth's third warmest December since record keeping began in 1880, reported NOAA/NCEI on Wednesday. December 2016 was 0.79°C (1.42°F) warmer than the 20th-century December average, but 0.33°C (0.60°F) cooler than the record warmth of 2015. NASA reported that December 2016 was the second warmest December in its database, behind December 2015 and just ahead of December 2014. The difference between the two data sets is, in large part, due to how they handle the data-sparse areas in the Arctic, which was record warm in December. NOAA does not include most of the Arctic in their global analysis, while NASA does.


Figure 2. Departure of temperature from average by region for December 2016, the third warmest December for the globe since record keeping began in 1880. Record warmth was observed across parts of southern Mexico and Central America, western Norway, parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and parts of the Middle East and southern Asia along a belt from Iran to eastern China. Cooler-than-average conditions were observed across the northwest United States, southeast Europe, and western Russia. Image credit: NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI).

As noted above, a weak La Niña event is now under way in the eastern tropical Pacific, and the cool waters present there have helped cool the planet slightly below the record warm levels observed during the strong El Niño event that ended in May 2016. The fact that December 2016 was still among the three warmest Decembers on record despite the presence of La Niña can mostly be attributed to the steady build-up of heat-trapping greenhouse gases due to human activities.

Ocean-only, land-only, and lower atmosphere temperatures in December
Ocean-only temperatures this December were the fourth warmest on record, while land-only temperatures were the sixth warmest on record. (Since most of Earth’s surface is covered by ocean, the land-plus-ocean reading is dominated by the ocean-only temperatures.) For the lowest 8 km of the atmosphere, global satellite-measured temperatures in December 2016 were the third warmest in the 38-year record, behind December 2016 and 1997, according to the University of Alabama in Huntsville.

Arctic sea ice hits its second lowest December extent on record
December 2016 Arctic sea ice extent was the second lowest in the 38-year satellite record, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Arctic sea ice set new records for low extent in 2016 for the months of January, February, April, May, June, October,and November. Ice extent has also been very low in the Antarctic, where record lows were set in both November and December. As we discussed in a November post, sea ice extents in the Arctic and Antarctic vary through mostly independent processes, so the simultaneous record lows in recent months are somewhat unexpected.


Figure 3. Daily mean temperatures by Julian day for 2016 over the Arctic north of 80°N, as compiled by the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). Temperatures for 2016 (red line) are compared to the long-term averages (green line.) Temperatures in October, November, and December were 5 -  20°C (9 - 36°F) above average. This is by far the warmest multi-month anomaly measured since DMI began tracking Arctic temperatures in 1956. According to the 2016 Arctic Report Card, issued last week, the average surface air temperature of the Arctic for the year ending September 2016 was by far the highest since 1900. Temperatures in the Arctic are continuing to warm at roughly twice the pace of the global average, which is an expected outcome of climate change caused by human-produced greenhouse gases.

No billion-dollar weather disasters in December 2016
According to the December 2016 Catastrophe Report from insurance broker Aon Benfield, no billion-dollar weather-related disasters hit the planet in December. During 2016, there were 31 billion-dollar weather disasters globally. This is the fourth greatest number of such disasters in any year since 1990. See our post from January 17 for a full summary.

Notable global heat and cold marks set in December 2016
Hottest temperature in the Northern Hemisphere: 42.8°C (109.0°F) at Diourbel, Senegal, 2 December
Coldest temperature in the Northern Hemisphere: -56.9°C (-70.4°F) at Suhana, Russia, 31 December
Hottest temperature in the Southern Hemisphere: 46.3°C (115.3°F) at Birdsville Airport, Australia, 2 December
Coldest temperature in the Southern Hemisphere: -44.0°C (-77.1°F) at Dome A, Antarctica, 2 December
(Courtesy of Maximiliano Herrera.)

Major weather stations that set (not tied) new all-time heat or cold records in December 2016 (Courtesy of Maximiliano Herrera)
Santiago (Chile) max. 37.3°C, 14 December
Santiago Airport (Chile) max. 37.0°C, 14 December
Rapel (Chile) max. 36.4°C, 14 December
Oruro (Bolivia) max. 27.6°C, 18 December
Big Bend (Swaziland) max. 46.1°C, 22 December
Vuvulane (Swaziland) max. 44.3°C, 22 December
Ambon (Indonesia) max. 36.4°C, 22 December
Mouyondzi (Congo Brazzaville) max. 36.4°C, 22 December
Luanda (Angola) max. 36.9°C, 22 December

More nations set all-time highs in 2016 than in any other year
From January through December 31, 2016, a total of 22 nations or territories tied or set all-time records for their hottest temperature in recorded history.  This breaks the record of eighteen all-time heat records in 2010 for the greatest number of such records set in one year. Just one nation or territory—Hong Kong—set an all-time cold temperature record in 2016. "All-time" record here refers to the warmest or coldest temperature ever reliably reported in a nation or territory. The period of record varies from country to country and station to station, but it is typically a few decades to a century or more. Most nations do not maintain official databases of extreme temperature records, so the national temperature records reported here are in many cases not official. Our data source is international weather records researcher Maximiliano Herrera, one of the world's top climatologists, who maintains a comprehensive list of extreme temperature records for every nation in the world on his website. If you reproduce this list of extremes, please cite Maximiliano Herrera as the primary source of the weather records. Here are 2016's all-time heat and cold records:

The Comoros: December 22, 2016, 35.6°C (96.1°F) at Hahaya Airport (tie).
French Guiana : September 27, 2016, 38.0°C (100.3°F) at Saint Laurent du Moroni.
The Marshall Islands: August 24, 2016, 35.6°C (96.1°F) at Utirik Atoll.
The Cayman Islands (United Kingdom territory) : August 21, 2016, 34.9°C (94.8°F) at Owen International Airport (tie).
The British Virgin Islands [United Kingdom territory]: July 22, 2016, 35.0°C (95.0°F] at Terrance B. Lettsome International Airport.
Iraq: July 22, 2016, 53.9°C (129.0°F) at Basrah.
Iran: July 22, 2016, 53.0°C (127.4°F) at Delhoran (tie).
Kuwait : July 21, 2016, when the mercury hit 54.0°C (129.2°F) at Mitribah.
Guernsey (United Kingdom territory): July 19, 2016, 35.0°C (95°F) at the small island of Alderney (tie).
Hong Kong Territory (China): July 9, 2016, 37.9°C (100.2°F) at Happy Valley (tie).
Niger: June 8, 2016, 49.0°C (120.2°F) at Bilma.
Palau: June 8, 2016, 34.4°C (93.9°F) at Koror AWS (tie).
India : May 19, 2016, 51.0°C (123.8°F) at Phalodi.
Maldives: April 30, 2016, 35.0°C (95.0°F) at Hanimaadhoo.
Thailand: April 28, 2016, 44.6°C (112.3°F) at Mae Hong Son.
Cambodia: April 15, 2016, 42.6°C (108.7°F) at Preah Vihea.
Burkina Faso: April 13, 2016, 47.5°C (117.5°F) at Dori.
Laos: April 12, 2016, 42.3°C (108.1°F) at Seno.
Vanuatu in the South Pacific: February 8, 2016, 36.2°C (97.2°F) at Lamap Malekula.
Tonga: February 1, 2016, 35.5°C (95.9°F) at Niuafoou.
Wallis and Futuna Territory (France): January 10, 35.8°C (96.4°F) at Futuna Airport.
Botswana: January 7, 2016, 43.8°C (110.8°F) at Maun.

Hong Kong Territory (China) set its all-time coldest mark on January 24, 2016, -6.0°C (21.2°F) at Tai Mo Shan (elevation 950 meters.) Tai Mo Shan has a period of record going back to 1996; the coldest temperature near sea level since record keeping began at the Hong Kong Observatory in 1884 was 0°C (32°F) on January 18, 1893.

Monthly national and territorial records of highest temperature beaten or tied (excluding records valid for any month):  145
Monthly national and territorial records of lowest temperature beaten or tied  (excluding records valid for any month):  4

Station records (not including tied records)
Number of stations that beat their all-time highest temperature: 316
Number of stations that beat their all-time lowest temperature: 21

Worldwide extreme temperatures for 2016
Highest in Northern Hemisphere:  54.0°C (129.2°F) at Mitribah, Kuwait, on July 21
Lowest in Northern Hemisphere:  –61.3°C (–78.3°F) at Geo Summit, Greenland, on February 11

Highest in Southern Hemisphere:  48.6°C (119.5°F) at Augrabies Falls, South Africa, on January 5
Lowest in Southern Hemisphere:  –82.4°C (–116.3°F) at Concordia, Antarctica, on July 8

Global, hemispheric and continental records for 2016
Highest temperature ever recorded in February in Northern Hemisphere:  45.0°C at Nguigmi (Niger) on February 26 (tie)
Highest reliable minimum temperature ever recorded in Africa:  37.5°C at Yelimane (Mali) on May 1
Highest minimum temperature ever recorded in May in Australia+Oceania:  29.6°C at Troughton Island (Australia) on May 2
Highest temperature ever recorded in May in South America:  41.4°C at Valledupar, Colombia, on May 23
Highest temperature ever recorded in May in Antarctica: 17.2°C at Esperanza on May 26
Highest minimum temperature ever recorded in Antarctica: 8.8°C at Esperanza on May 27
Highest temperature ever recorded in June in Southern Hemisphere:  39.5°C at Picos, Brazil, on June 4
Highest minimum temperature ever recorded in June in Australia+Oceania:  28.8°C at Troughton Island, Australia, on June 6
Highest temperature ever recorded in June in Australian+Oceania:  37.9°C at Bradshaw, Australia, on June 7
Highest temperature ever recorded in Asia:  54.0°C at Mitribah, Kuwait, on July 21
Highest temperature ever recorded in July in Australia+Oceania:  38.3°C at Kalumburu, Australia, on July 24
Lowest temperature ever recorded in Northern Hemisphere in July:  –30.5°C at Geo Summit, Greenland, on July 31
Highest minimum temperature ever recorded in the world in August:  40.8°C at Delhoran, Iran, on August 2
Highest temperature ever recorded in September in Asia:  51.2°C at Mitribah, Kuwait, on September 4
Highest temperature ever recorded in September in Europe:  45.7°C at Montoro, Spain, on September 6
Highest minimum temperature ever recorded in September in Australia+Oceania:  30.0°C at Warmun, Australia, on September 28
Lowest temperature ever recorded in October in Africa:  –10.5°C at Buffelsfontein, South Africa, on October 5
Highest temperature ever recorded in December in the Northern Hemisphere:  42.8°C in Diourbel, Senegal, on December 2

The reading of 54°C at Mitribah, Kuwait, on July 21 ties the highest global temperature that has been measured reliably by contemporary standards. See the October blog post from WU weather historian Christopher Burt for a discussion of the WMO world heat record of 134°F (56.7°C), recorded in Death Valley, California, on July 10, 1913. For a variety of reasons, Burt concluded, “the best explanation for the record high report(s) in July 1913 is observer error.”

We'll be back with a new post on Friday.

Jeff Masters and Bob Henson

Climate Summaries

The views of the author are his/her own and do not necessarily represent the position of The Weather Company or its parent, IBM.

Reader Comments

Quoting 499. FranklinGray:



I see them talking about a storm in the Indian ocean and something near French Polynesia, but nothing near Fiji. Maybe they just have the coordinates wrong.


This better?



LINK (takes forever to load though).
FranklinGray~ Didn't realize that one was still in play. My bad. I'll have more coffee:)

Here is Fiji's Met service's three day outlook. It's marked as a LOW chance of development for the next three days.
Quoting 498. daddyjames:



From ricderr's site. This may be what you are looking for:

184
WWPS21 NFFN 200900
Tropical Disturbance Summary For area Equator to 25S, 160E to 120W
ISSUED FROM RSMC NADI Jan 200914 UTC.

TROPICAL DISTURBANCE 07F CENTRE [1002HPA] WAS ANALYSED NEAR 22.1S
152.8W AT 200600UTC. POSITION POOR. TD07F SLOW MOVING. CONVECTION
REMAINS PERSISTENT BUT DISPLACED TO THE EAST OF SUPPOSED LLCC.
ORGANISATION REMAINS POOR. TD07F LIES SOUTH OF AN UPPER RIDGE IN A
MODERATE SHEARED ENVIRONMENT. SST AROUND 26 DEGREES CELSIUS. GLOBAL
MODELS HAVE PICKED UP THE SYSTEM AND MOVE IT SOUTHEASTWARDS WITH
LITTLE INTENSIFICATION.

POTENTIAL FOR THE SYSTEM TO DEVELOP INTO A TROPICAL CYCLONE IN THE
NEXT 24 TO 48 HOURS IS LOW.

************************************************* ********************
************

NO OTHER SIGNIFICANT TROPICAL DISTURBANCE ANALYSED OR FORECAST IN THE
AREA.

The Fiji Met.



22.1S 152.8W is way east of the system I am referring to by about 1,500 nm.
Quoting 495. FranklinGray:

Well, that is interesting. They don't talk about it either. Obviously they are not looking at the same satellite loop pictures I am. There is a definite spinning going on just SW of Fiji. GFS model predicts something forming E of Fiji in about 4 days but nothing on this guy.

http://www.eldoradocountyweather.com/satellite/ss ec/australia/spacific-ir-sat.html

Definite spin there. Anyone trying to copy/paste his link to the Himiwari satellite loop will run into difficulties. Here's the Link
This surface map is from last night Fiji time, so it's about 9 hours old. It's the most recent one I could see on the Fiji Met site.

506. elioe
Good day... you know what day... :)

Time for a poll. How much will the carbon dioxide concentration at Mauna Loa be on January 20, 2021? My guess is 418.11 ppm.

Franklin, this has some discussion of the low near Fiji (scroll down for bolded part, where discussion of the low starts):

South West Pacific Marine

MARINE WEATHER BULLETIN FOR ISLANDS AREA
EQUATOR TO 25S BETWEEN 160E AND 120W.
ISSUED BY FIJI METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE EQUATOR to 25S between 160E and
120W
issued by Fiji Meteorological Service Jan 200800 UTC.

PART 1 : WARNINGGALE WARNING 023 ISSUED FROM RSMC NADI Jan 200720
UTC.

IN THE AREA BOUNDED WITHIN 20S 152W 19S 151W 19S 148W 20S 147W 25S
146W 25S 150W 20S 152W, EXPECT NORTHWEST TO NORTHEAST WINDS UPTO 35
KNOTS OVER WATERS ONLY.

AREA OF GALES SLOW MOVING.

THIS WARNING CANCELS AND REPLACES WARNING 022.


PARTS 2 AND 3 : SYNOPSIS AND FORECAST VALID UNTIL Jan 210600 UTC.

TROPICAL DISTURBANCE TD07F CENTRE [1002PA] WAS LOCATED NEAR 22.0S
152.9W AT 200600UTC. TD07F SLOW MOVING. POSITION POOR.

LOW L [1005HPA] ANALYSED NEAR 19.0S 178.0E AT 200600UTC SLOW MOVING.
POSITION POOR.


CONVERGENCE ZONE CZ1 04S 160E 05S 165E 07S 175E 10S 177W 13S 174W
SLOW MOVING. POOR VISIBILITY IN OCCASIONAL SHOWERS, HEAVY AT TIMES
AND SQUALLY THUNDERSTORMS WITHIN 300 NAUTICAL MILES OF CZ1. WITHIN
210 NAUTICAL MILES NORTH OF CZ1, EXPECT 20 TO 25 KNOTS NORTHWEST
WINDS. ROUGH SEAS.

CONVERGENCE ZONE CZ2 09S 172W 10S 165W 15S 156W 20S 147W 22S 146W
SLOW MOVING. POOR VISIBILITY IN PERIODS OF RAIN, HEAVY AT TIMES AND
FEW SQUALLY THUNDERSTORMS WITHIN 210 NAUTICAL MILES OF CZ2. OUTSIDE
GALE WARNING 023 AREA AND IN THE AREA SOUTH OF 13S AND WITHIN 180
NAUTICAL MILES EAST OF CZ2 EXPECT, 20 TO 30 KNOTS NORTHERLY WINDS.
ROUGH TO VERY ROUGH SEAS.

TROUGH T1 12S 160E 10S 170E 12S 177E 15S 180 18S 180 SLOW MOVING.
POOR VISIBILITY IN OCCASIONAL SHOWERS, HEAVY AT TIMES AND FEW
THUNDERSTORMS WITHIN 180 NAUTICAL MILES OF T1.

TROUGH T2 FM LOW L TO 20S 180 19S 175W 17S 170W SLOW MOVING. POOR
VISIBILITY IN OCCASIONAL SHOWERS, HEAVY AT TIMES AND FEW
THUNDERSTORMS WITHIN 180 NAUTICAL MILES OF T2.

TROUGH T3 22S 154W TO TD07F TO 23S 152W 25S 150W SLOW MOVING. POOR
VISIBILITY IN PERIODS OF RAIN, HEAVY AT TIMES AND FEW THUNDERSTORMS
WITHIN 180 NAUITCAL MILES EAST OF T3. ELSEWHERE SOME SHOWERS AND FEW
THUNDERSTORMS WITHIN 120 NAUTICAL MILES OF T3.

TROUGH T4 12S 128W 13S 125W 15S 120W SLOW MOVING. POOR VISIBILITY IN
OCCASIONAL SHOWERS AND FEW THUNDERSTORMS WITHIN 150 NAUTICAL MILES OF
T4.

IN THE AREA NORTH OF 15S AND BETWEEN 175E AND 145W, EXPECT MODERATE
NORTHERLY SWELLS.

IN THE AREA SOUTH OF 15S AND BETWEEN 165W AND 135W, EXPECT MODERATE
NORTHEASTERLY SWELLS.

(Source - Fiji Met Service)
Quoting 503. FranklinGray:



22.1S 152.8W is way east of the system I am referring to by about 1,500 nm.


Well, then I guess what you are interested in, no one else deems significant enough to talk about just yet.
Quoting 505. LAbonbon:

This surface map is from last night Fiji time, so it's about 9 hours old. It's the most recent one I could see on the Fiji Met site.




Yeah, that is the low that I am worried about. Why the Fiji site is talking about something 1,500 nm east of them I have no idea. There is zero chance of that heading towards Fiji.
Quoting 506. elioe:

Good day... you know what day... :)

Time for a poll. How much will the carbon dioxide concentration at Mauna Loa be on January 20, 2021? My guess is 418.11 ppm.




I say 423
Quoting 509. FranklinGray:



Yeah, that is the low that I am worried about. Why the Fiji site is talking about something 1,500 nm east of them I have no idea. There is zero chance of that heading towards Fiji.

See post #507 - the 1005 Low is mentioned in the Marine Bulletin. Found it on the Fiji Met site, under 'Regional Forecasts', clicked the 'South West Pacific Marine' link (left side of page).


(Source)
'Dirty thunderstorm' (wikipedia) photographed on January 19 - Colima volcano (Mexico) - Click pic to enlarge:

Credit / more pics on Twitter: Sergio Tapiro.
* Volcano news: Colima Volcano (Mexico) - Volcanodiscovery.com
The funny thing is, I've had 3 Tongans tell me there is a cyclone out there somewhere. We can feel it coming. When it gets hot like this with no wind and no rain, we know one is coming.
Nuclear Event in Japan on January 19 2017 05:33 AM (UTC).

Nineteen corroded holes have been discovered in air ducts inside the No. 2 reactor at the Shimane nuclear power plant, the Mainichi Shimbun has learned. As a consequence of this discovery, the Nuclear Regulation Authority decided on Jan. 18 to order all electric power companies to carry out checks on ducts inside all of their nuclear power plants. The corroded holes were discovered when insulating material -- that had been wrapped around the ducts -- was removed during a check in December 2016 at the No. 2 reactor at the Shimane plant, which is operated by Chugoku Electric Power Co. The largest hole of the 19 was found to be approximately 30 centimeters by 100 centimeters in size. Corroded holes in ducts present a threat as there is a chance that radioactive material could flow into the central control room via the holes during an accident -- thereby exposing power plant staff to radiation.
JeffMasters has created a new entry.
Quoting 515. FranklinGray:

The funny thing is, I've had 3 Tongans tell me there is a cyclone out there somewhere. We can feel it coming. When it gets hot like this with no wind and no rain, we know one is coming.

Be safe out there, Franklin. Any chance you'd share a photo or two of your travels when you get a chance?
Quoting 518. LAbonbon:


Be safe out there, Franklin. Any chance you'd share a photo or two of your travels when you get a chance?


+
Quoting 506. elioe:

Good day... you know what day... :)

Time for a poll. How much will the carbon dioxide concentration at Mauna Loa be on January 20, 2021? My guess is 418.11 ppm.




I would say that your estimate will likely be quite close to the reality. I am a bit more optimistic and will go with 416.12. What it will be after 2025 will largely depend on what we do before the end of 2020. One thing is an almost certainty. Anyone that is born in 2017 will never experience a CO2 concentration below 400 ppm within their lifetime. The CO2 concentration was 311.8 ppm the year that I was born. I do not think that humans will ever it see it that low again.
Quoting 518. LAbonbon:


Be safe out there, Franklin. Any chance you'd share a photo or two of your travels when you get a chance?


I have no idea how to add a picture here.
Quoting 521. FranklinGray:



I have no idea how to add a picture here.

Ahh. Not the simplest thing. Perhaps when you're settled on dry land someone here could walk you through how to upload photos?

We discovered recently that getting photos (that have been uploaded to WU) onto the blog is not so simple. Apparently not everyone can see them once posted. Visible on mobile phones, but not to everyone on another device.

Anyway, be safe! I'd be interested to know how you make out with that low out there. Are you hanging out in Tonga, or are you headed elsewhere?
I am in the process of sailing around the world. I was supposed to be in the Philippines by now but decide to stay here and marry a beautiful Tongan woman. We will be leaving once I feel it is safe...I figure around late March or early April for Samoa, then Fiji, Vanuatu, New Caledonia and finishing the year up in Australia. We should be back in the Caribbean in 3 years and after that, who knows. Maybe a bigger boat and do it again or maybe settle down somewhere.
Quoting 523. FranklinGray:

I am in the process of sailing around the world. I was supposed to be in the Philippines by now but decide to stay here and marry a beautiful Tongan woman. We will be leaving once I feel it is safe...I figure around late March or early April for Samoa, then Fiji, Vanuatu, New Caledonia and finishing the year up in Australia. We should be back in the Caribbean in 3 years and after that, who knows. Maybe a bigger boat and do it again or maybe settle down somewhere.


+
Quoting 523. FranklinGray:

I am in the process of sailing around the world. I was supposed to be in the Philippines by now but decide to stay here and marry a beautiful Tongan woman. We will be leaving once I feel it is safe...I figure around late March or early April for Samoa, then Fiji, Vanuatu, New Caledonia and finishing the year up in Australia. We should be back in the Caribbean in 3 years and after that, who knows. Maybe a bigger boat and do it again or maybe settle down somewhere.

Congratulations!!! That's wonderful! And your trip sounds verrrry nice too :)
folks in central/northern Florida, 60-80mph winds can do some damage,heed your warnings ok..
Seems it never rains in southern California
Seems I've often heard that kind of talk before
It never rains in California, but girl, don't they warn ya?
It pours, man, it pours

I'm out of work, I'm out of my head
Out of self respect, I'm out of bread
I'm underloved, I'm underfed, I want to go home
It never rains in California, but girl, don't they warn ya?
It pours, man, it pours

It is pouring at my casa in Soo Cal!
Cold front powered through the SF Bay Area around 4:30 AM with an unusually active thunderstorm, coming ashore with a radar bow echo, promting the NWS to issue a warning for possible waterspouts. As it was, frequent lightning, gusty winds, and heavy rain.

Jet stream max will lie just offshore by Monday as another even stronger system comes in late Saturday thru early Monday.

Quoting 479. Sfloridacat5:



And don't forget about the boat. I had a boat for about 30 years and they sucked gas like crazy. But I grew up fishing and enjoying water sports on boats.
Down in my area of the country boating is very popular.
As you mentioned, today should be sunny and 80 degrees here. There should be a lot of boats out on the local waters today.
My 20' Seacraft only uses about 40 gallons a day, will be buying a new motor when this one dies, and should see a 40% reduction in fuel usage. Living in South Florida, this is one of the few pleasures still left down here, that I truly enjoy. Yes I really am enjoying this warm winter weather, almost like boating in the Spring, thru Fall months. Now the big boat is a totally different story, it's a diesel hog, but that's part of the expenses of owning a larger boat.
Hi all!

Does anybody know where to find articles about the trade winds and ENSO? The more I read about it this coupled system between SOI and SST is like a "chicken or the egg" type of deal.
533. vis0

Quoting 523. FranklinGray:

I am in the process of sailing around the world. I was supposed to be in the Philippines by now but decide to stay here and marry a beautiful Tongan woman. We will be leaving once I feel it is safe...I figure around late March or early April for Samoa, then Fiji, Vanuatu, New Caledonia and finishing the year up in Australia. We should be back in the Caribbean in 3 years and after that, who knows. Maybe a bigger boat and do it again or maybe settle down somewhere.
then...Sailing around the world using solar winds as an astronaut....is that even possible... what type of (heat-cold) sail is needed???...remember i'm a nut.

 Best of luck well drenched in flowing logic.
Quoting 520. Some1Has2BtheRookie:



I would say that your estimate will likely be quite close to the reality. I am a bit more optimistic and will go with 416.12. What it will be after 2025 will largely depend on what we do before the end of 2020. One thing is an almost certainty. Anyone that is born in 2017 will never experience a CO2 concentration below 400 ppm within their lifetime. The CO2 concentration was 311.8 ppm the year that I was born. I do not think that humans will ever it see it that low again.


Both of you are optimistic. Trump has reaffirmed that he wants to dismantle and destroy environmental protection and climate initiatives, and with his picks in charge, the republicans in power, Russia slavering over the soon to be repealed sanctions, and itchy signing fingers loaded with power of executive orders you can be sure the such policies will be revoked in the very near future.

Oh, and if that inauguration speech he gave didn't raise any giant red flags for you regardless of which side of the aisle you sit on, you need a serious refresher on history (or see the last Batman movie).
.
Guys, there's a new blog, see below. For some reason the new blog isn't showing up on the Cat 6 page.