*************************Earth..Space..Science*************************

By: pcola57 , 12:46 PM GMT on March 23, 2013



I have decided to start a new blog in order to post information about the Earth..Space..and Science..
Feel free to add or comment..
There are several pages here so..Enjoy!!



“Tell me and I forget, teach me and I may remember, involve me and I learn.”

Benjamin Franklin


“There can be no friendship without confidence, and no confidence without integrity.”

Samuel Johnson


“Consider how hard it is to change yourself and you’ll understand what little chance you have in trying to change others.”

Benjamin Franklin

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1457. pcola57


Earth Image of the day

8,000-meter Peaks of the Himalaya and Karakoram - January 28, 2014






Eight thousand seems like a perfectly arbitrary number. Yet, no other number looms larger for mountain climbers. Fourteen mountain peaks on Earth stand taller than 8,000 meters (26,247 feet). There could have been many more of these “eight-thousanders” if the commission that established the length of the meter (in 1793) had made it just a bit shorter; there would be hardly any if they had made the meter longer.

The decision to make the meter equivalent to one ten-millionth of the distance between the equator and the North Pole left the world with fourteen 8K peaks: Shisha Pangma, Gasherbrum II, Broad Peak, Gasherbrum I, Annapurna, Nanga Parbat, Manaslu, Dhaulagiri, Cho Oyu, Makalu, Lhotse, Kangchenjunga, K2, and Mount Everest. All of them are found in either the Karakoram or Himalayan mountain ranges of central Asia.

The geological story of the world’s tallest mountains is one that began some 40 million years ago, when the Indian tectonic plate began a slow-motion collision with the Eurasian plate. As India smashed into Eurasia, the crust along the line of impact buckled, building up soaring mountain ranges. The height of the individual 8K peaks is changeable, a constant fight between the rate of uplift and the erosive power of wind, rain, snow, and glacial ice.

In the topographic map at the top of this page, the locations of the 14 peaks are marked with red circles. Data for the map was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The map highlights the stark contrast between the high Tibetan Plateau and the low Indo-Gangetic plain. The plateau is currently the largest and highest plateau on Earth’s surface and possibly to ever exist during the planet’s history, with an average elevation exceeding 5,000 meters (16,400 feet).

The natural-color image helps illustrate the major effect that the mountains have on the region’s climate. While the plains south of the mountains are green with vegetation, and the long line of peaks is white with snow, most of the Tibetan Plateau is brown and barren. Most of the moisture moving in from the south is lost on the south side of the mountains due to a rain shadow.
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1456. pcola57


Earth Science Image of the day


Explaining Ring Patterns in a Frozen Puddle - January 28, 2014




Photographer: Douglas Stith:
Summary Authors: Douglas Stith; Steven Arcone CRREL; Zachary Stith

My son, Zachary, found this curious frozen puddle in Concord, New Hampshire on the afternoon of February 1, 2013. January 31 had unseasonably warm temperatures (in the 50s F, about 12 C) and heavy rain, but temperatures plummeted after sundown. The official morning temperature on February 1 was 16 F (-9 C), but the temperature was still well below freezing later in the day. The puddles diameter was approximately 6 ft (2 m). Upon closer inspection we found that the ice wasn't completely frozen to the puddle's shallow bottom. We easily picked up the thin frozen layers on the puddle that were no more than about a quarter inch (5 mm) thick. We also observed slight bulges below the rings of ice. The overall milky-white color resulted from the presence of minute air bubbles, but some clear bubbles were also present.

How various ice features form, change shape and melt is rarely straightforward and sometimes quite confounding. Factors such as water purity, the rate of cooling, the preferred growth of ice in crystalline planes, etc., all play a role.

The shallowness of this puddle suggests that it rapidly froze; only a thin water layer remained below the puddle. Then the fast-falling temperatures likely caused the ice to contract, which produced the cracking. Continued cooling widened the cracks. The ring pattern shows that the main direction of the stress force was radial, but the scalloped pattern along the rings shows that some stress varied with angle around the center. The small amount of water that didn't freeze rose into the cracks due to the hydrostatic pressure of the ice above and capillary action. Water in the rings then froze and expanded, and as it did it widened the rings and also directed the remaining small amount of liquid to the top of the ice. The slight bulges on the bottom of the rings were remnants of its last contact with the deepest water. In other words, the unfrozen water at the bottom of the puddle was, in essence, pushed and suctioned into the cracks.

Photo details: Camera Model: Canon PowerShot SX120 IS; Lens: 6.0-60.0 mm; Focal Length: 6mm; Aperture: f/2.8; Exposure Time: 0.033 s (1/30); ISO equiv: 250.
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1454. pcola57


Earth Image of the day


Western Sahara Desert, Mauritania - January 27, 2014



This photograph of cloud bands over southern Mauritania was taken from the International Space Station with an oblique angle such that the cloud shadows are a prominent part of the view. Beneath the clouds, the plateau of dark sedimentary rocks appears as a ragged, near-vertical escarpment . Isolated remnants of the plateau appear as dark mesas (flat-topped hills) across the top and near the center of the image. The escarpment is about 250 meters high, with a field of orange-colored dunes at the base.

Prevailing winds in this part of the Sahara Desert blow from the northeast. (Note that north is to the right.) The wavy dunes are aligned transverse (roughly right angles) to these winds. The sand that makes the dunes is blown in from a zone immediately upwind (just out of the bottom of the image), where dry river beds and dry lakes provide large quantities of mobile sand. This pattern is typical in the western Sahara Desert, where plateau surfaces are mostly dune free and dune fields are located in the surrounding lowlands. Larger rivers deposit sandy sediment on the few occasions when they flow, sometimes only once in decades.
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1453. pcola57


Earth Science Image of the day

Moonlight on the First Bend of the Yangtze River - January 27, 2014




Photographer: Jeff Dai;
Summary Author: Jeff Dai

The panorama above shows moonlight illuminating a sharp meander on the Yangtze River. Known as the Mother River of China, it's the third longest river on earth. From its source on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, it surges southeastward until encountering the Hengduan Mountain Range (at center). This extraordinary obstruction forces the Yangtze to make a sudden, nearly 180 degree turn: the First Bend of the Yangtze River.

The Big Dipper lies above the Hengduan Range. The North Star (Polaris) is at upper left center. At far left is Cassiopeia. Photo taken on December 22, 2013.

Photo details: EOS 5D Mark II camera; Nikkor 14-24mm lens; f/2.8G; 14mm; ISO 1250; f/4; 30 second exposure; 4 photo panorama; Software: Adobe Photoshop CS6 (Windows).
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1452. pcola57


The whirl of stellar life



Released 27/01/2014 12:10 pm
Copyright ESA / Herschel / XMM-Newton. Acknowledgements: "Physical Processes in the Interstellar Medium of Very Nearby Galaxies" Key Programme, Christine Wilson
Description

The Whirlpool Galaxy, also known as M51 or NGC 5194, is one of the most spectacular examples of a spiral galaxy. With two spiral arms curling into one another in a billowing swirl, this galaxy hosts over a hundred billion stars and is currently merging with its companion, the smaller galaxy NGC 5195.

Around 30 million light-years away, the Whirlpool Galaxy is close enough to be easily spotted even with binoculars. Using the best telescopes available both on the ground and in space, astronomers can scrutinise its population of stars in extraordinary detail.

In this image, observations performed at three different wavelengths with ESA’s Herschel and XMM-Newton space telescopes are combined to reveal how three generations of stars coexist in the Whirlpool Galaxy.

The infrared light collected by Herschel – shown in red and yellow – reveals the glow of cosmic dust, which is a minor but crucial ingredient in the interstellar material in the galaxy’s spiral arms. This mixture of gas and dust provides the raw material from which the Whirlpool Galaxy’s future generations of stars will take shape.

Observing in visible and ultraviolet light, astronomers can see the current population of stars in the Whirlpool Galaxy, since stars in their prime shine most brightly at shorter wavelengths than infrared. Seen at ultraviolet wavelengths with XMM-Newton and portrayed in green in this composite image are the galaxy’s fiercest stellar inhabitants: young and massive stars pouring powerful winds and radiation into their surroundings.

The image also shows the remains of previous stellar generations, which shine brightly in X-rays and were detected by XMM-Newton. Shown in blue, these sources of X-rays are either the sites where massive stars exploded as supernovae in the past several thousand years, or binary systems that host neutron stars or black holes, the compact objects left behind by supernovae.
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1451. pcola57


Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Image of the day

The State of Statoliths - January 26, 2014




Squids make statoliths, an important part of their balance organ, from calcium carbonate. But increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is causing ocean acidification, which reduces carbonate in the oceans and may make it difficult for animals to make and maintain such structures in the future. MIT-WHOI Joint Program student Max Kaplan and biologist Aran Mooney raised squids in seawater with normal and high levels of carbon dioxide showed that squid from high-carbon-dioxide water (left) produced smaller, more misshapen statoliths than squids from normal seawater (right). (Image courtesy of T. Aran Mooney, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)
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1450. pcola57


National Geographic Image of the day

Hungary Birds - January 26, 2014




Photograph by Réka Zsimon

“On a good day in the field, a birder might see a flock of birds,” writes photographer Réka Zsimon of this photo of great egrets in the tidal area of the Danube in Hungary. The image received an honorable mention in the Nature category of the 2013 National Geographic Photo Contest.
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1449. pcola57


Astronomy Picture of the Day


Sunspot Loops in Ultraviolet - 2014 January 26




Explanation: It was a quiet day on the Sun. The above image shows, however, that even during off days the Sun's surface is a busy place. Shown in ultraviolet light, the relatively cool dark regions have temperatures of thousands of degrees Celsius. Large sunspot group AR 9169 from the last solar cycle is visible as the bright area near the horizon. The bright glowing gas flowing around the sunspots has a temperature of over one million degrees Celsius. The reason for the high temperatures is unknown but thought to be related to the rapidly changing magnetic field loops that channel solar plasma. Large sunspot group AR 9169 moved across the Sun during 2000 September and decayed in a few weeks.
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1448. pcola57


Earth Image of the day

Haze in the Sichuan Basin - January 26, 2014




A layer of haze filled China’s Sichuan Basin on January 23, 2014, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite acquired this natural-color image. The haze obscured many features usually visible in satellite images of the area, including Sichuan province’s largest city, Chengdu. In the eastern part of the basin the tops of a series of ridges were visible above the layer of pollution. Skies were clear in the highlands west of the basin, while tendrils of pollution snaked into valleys northeast and southeast of it.

On the day this image was acquired, measurements from ground-based sensors at the U.S. Consulate in Chengdu reported PM2.5 measurements of 267 micrograms per cubic meter of air. Fine, airborne particulate matter (PM) that is smaller than 2.5 microns (about one thirtieth the width of a human hair) is considered dangerous because it is small enough to enter the passages of the human lungs. Most PM2.5 aerosol particles come from the burning of fossil fuels and biomass (wood fires and agricultural burning). The World Health Organization considers PM2.5 to be safe when it is below 25.

Haze in this region tends to worsen in the winter, when cold, heavy air traps pollutants near the surface. In this case, the haze was likely trapped in the Sichuan Basin by a temperature inversion. Normally, air is warmest near the surface of the Earth. Occasionally, a mass of warm air will move over cooler air so that the atmosphere actually warms with altitude. Since the cool air does not have the energy to rise through the warm air, vertical circulation slows and air becomes trapped near the surface.

Any pollutant that enters the air gets trapped as well, and haze builds up over time. Temperature inversions often form in basins and valleys because surrounding higher-elevation land helps contain cold air. Daily images of the Sichuan Basin show that that the pollution has persisted for several days.
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1447. pcola57


Earth Science Image of the day

Belt of Venus Panorama - January 26, 2014




Photographer: John Chumack
Summary Author: John Chumack

While fishing late in the day at a favorite spot near Indian Lake, Ohio, I couldn’t help noticing the red glow on the eastern horizon, shown above in a panorama composed of five separate shots. The reddened light of the Belt of Venus with the Earth’s shadow below it are seen arching above the eastern horizon. Also known as the anti-twilight arch, the Belt of Venus is simply sunlight scattered off the topmost part of the rising Earth's shadow. Together, they rise as the Sun sets and set as the Sun rises. Because the fish weren’t biting, the Belt of Venus was the only thing I caught this autumn afternoon. Photos taken on October 25 at 6:58.

Photo details: I used a simple point and shoot Canon SX 160 IS camera; hand-held for all 5 shots with 30 percent overlap for the panorama; no tripod; priority mode; F/4.5; ISO 400; 1/25th sec. exposure.
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1446. pcola57


NOAA Historical Images

E. von Petersen's photometer




Figure 7. E. von Petersen's photometer. Left: device before opening. Middle: device during exposure. Right: device after closing. This device was invented in 1886 by Eugen von Petersen, an engineer at the Naples zoological station. The design follows the specifications of Carl Chun. The first test of this ins trument was by Carl Chun off Capri in 250 meters water depth.
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1445. pcola57


Vog



The Vanuatu Archipelago is a collection of volcanic islands about 1,800 kilometers (1,100 miles) northeast of Australia. Two of the islands, Gaua and Ambrym, frequently vent sulfurous gases. In this natural-color satellite image, a volcanic plume from Ambrym spreads across the South Pacific.

This natural-color image was collected on January 7, 2014, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite.
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1444. pcola57


Venus Corona and M22



Planet Venus, the second brightest object in the Earth sky, appears minutes before it sets behind acacia trees in Amboseli National Park of Kenya. High clouds in the sky refracted the light of Venus to form a colorful atmospheric corona around it. The timely image shows Venus next to globular cluster M22 in Sagittarius. This tiny round cloud on the upper right is a cluster of several hundred thousand stars located some 10,000 light years away, almost a billion times further away than Venus in our planetary neighborhood.

Bio on Photographer:

Tunc Tezel

From: Turkey Age: 37



Tunc Tezel is a leading amateur astronomer and night sky photographer living in Turkey. Born in Bursa in 1977, he has been interested in the night sky as long as he can remember. His first recorded night of observation dates back to 29th February 1992. He also got involved in astrophotography in 1992 using very basic equipment.

After graduating with a civil engineering degree in 2002, Tezel spent a great deal of time observing and photographing the night sky as well as trekking, bird watching and skiing among the diverse nature of his country. After many years in photography, Tezel still favours taking wide-angle photos of the night sky with foregrounds of nature.

Tezel is also interested in solar eclipses and in 2006 he completed the first ever Analemma photograph that included a total Solar eclipse. This unique feat brought worldwide acclaim and publication of his photographs.

Tezel's other specialty in night sky photography is capturing rare conjunctions and occultations of bright stars, planets and bright clusters near the Moon. He also creates dramatic all-sky and time-lapse photographs that capture meteors and the motions of the cosmos.

One of Tezel's pictures, Galactic Paradise, won Earth and Sky category in Astronomy Photographer of the Year 2011 contest organised by Royal Museums Greenwich.
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1443. pcola57


Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Image of the day

Future of Ocean Science - January 25, 2014




Summer Student Fellow Anna Nisi shares the results of her research on the marine microbial food chain at the end of the Summer 2013 session. The Carleton College student worked with WHOI biologist Heidi Sosik to study ciliates—common microscopic grazers—using a technique called image-in-flow cytometry. Nisi's results shed light on the ways ciliates change with the seasons at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO). Applications for the 2014 SSF program are being accepted until February 15. (Photo by Tom Kleindinst, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)
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1442. pcola57


National Geographic Image of the day

Predawn Offering - January 25, 2014




Photograph by Alex Webb, National Geographic

Before dawn during India's Maha Kumbh Mela—the largest religious festival in the world—an old woman performs puja, a ritual offering to the gods. Kumbh Mela's most devout pilgrims are often elderly. They come for the entire festival and renounce all comfort while there.
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1441. pcola57


Astronomy Picture of the Day


Opportunity's Decade on Mars - 2014 January 25




Explanation: On January 25 (UT) 2004, the Opportunity rover fell to Mars, making today the 10th anniversary of its landing. After more than 3,500 sols (Mars solar days) the golf cart-sized robot from Earth is still actively exploring the Red Planet, though its original mission plan was for three months. This self-portrait was made with Opportunity's panoramic camera earlier this month. The camera's supporting mast has been edited out of the image mosaic but its shadow is visible on the dusty solar panels arrayed across the rover's deck. For comparison, a similar self-portrait from late 2004 is shown in the inset. Having driven some 39 kilometers (24 miles) from its landing site, Opportunity now rests at Solander Point at the rim of Endeavour Crater.
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1440. pcola57


Earth Image of the day


Fresh Ash on San Miguel Volcano - January 25, 2014






The eruption of El Salvador’s San Miguel volcano on December 29, 2013 left the summit coated in a veneer of ash. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite collected a post-eruption image on January 15, 2014. The fresh, light gray ash rings the deep crater at the summit. An earlier natural-color image, collected by Landsat 8, shows the volcano and its immediate surroundings on July 31, 2013.

San Miguel is one of El Salvador’s most active volcanoes, with its last eruption in 2002. The December 2013 eruption sent a plume of ash about 9 kilometers (30,000 feet) into the atmosphere. The ash settled both on the slope of the volcano, as seen here, and on nearby towns, forcing 5,000 evacuations.

San Miguel’s distinctive symmetrical cone rises to an elevation of 2,130 meters (6,990 feet) and is capped with a large, deep summit crater. The volcano’s frequent eruptions fertilize the soil in the region, helping support the agricultural fields, particularly coffee plantations, that ring the mountain.
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1439. pcola57
Quoting 1437. Skyepony:
%u201CNature may reach the same result in many ways. Like a wave in the physical world, in the infinite ocean of the medium which pervades all, so in the world of organisms, in life, an impulse started proceeds onward, at times, may be, with the speed of light, at times, again, so slowly that for ages and ages it seems to stay, passing through processes of a complexity inconceivable to men, but in all its forms, in all its stages, its energy ever and ever integrally present. A single ray of light from a distant star falling upon the eye of a tyrant in bygone times may have altered the course of his life, may have changed the destiny of nations, may have transformed the surface of the globe, so intricate, so inconceivably complex are the processes in Nature. In no way can we get such an overwhelming idea of the grandeur of Nature than when we consider, that in accordance with the law of the conservation of energy, throughout the Infinite, the forces are in a perfect balance, and hence the energy of a single thought may determine the motion of a universe.%u201D
%u2015 Nikola Tesla


Thank you Skye for sharing..
Tesla was a very intelligent man for sure..

Wiki Bio on Nikola Tesla
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1438. pcola57


Earth Science Image of the day

Petrified Logs in Northern Arizona - January 25, 2014






The photo above shows a petrified log we discovered in northern Arizona. On our way to Flagstaff in early December 2013 we pulled off Highway 89 in the Navajo Nation south of Page and set up camp after dark. Only by morning light did we see that we had been camping on several nearly parallel petrified logs %u2013 the longest were approximately 50 ft (15 m) long and 20 in (50 cm) in diameter. They%u2019re embedded in the Chinle Formation. The Late Triassic Chinle is noted for its petrified logs %u2013 it%u2019s the major formation in Petrified Forest National Park. The presence of fine cross-bedded sandstone surrounding the logs suggests that the Chinle here is more fluvial than lacustrine. Though this area is high (4,774 ft or 1,455 m) and dry now, in the Triassic it was low-lying swampy land crisscrossed by slow moving streams lined with a type of conifer (Araucarioxylon arizonicum).

Photo details: Top - Camera Maker: NIKON; Camera Model: COOLPIX P510; Focal Length: 7.1mm (35mm equivalent: 40mm); Aperture: f/3.3; Exposure Time: 0.010 s (1/100); ISO equiv: 100. Left - Same except: Focal Length: 4.3mm (35mm equivalent: 24mm); Aperture: f/3.0; Exposure Time: 0.013 s (1/80).
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058
1437. Skyepony (Mod)
“Nature may reach the same result in many ways. Like a wave in the physical world, in the infinite ocean of the medium which pervades all, so in the world of organisms, in life, an impulse started proceeds onward, at times, may be, with the speed of light, at times, again, so slowly that for ages and ages it seems to stay, passing through processes of a complexity inconceivable to men, but in all its forms, in all its stages, its energy ever and ever integrally present. A single ray of light from a distant star falling upon the eye of a tyrant in bygone times may have altered the course of his life, may have changed the destiny of nations, may have transformed the surface of the globe, so intricate, so inconceivably complex are the processes in Nature. In no way can we get such an overwhelming idea of the grandeur of Nature than when we consider, that in accordance with the law of the conservation of energy, throughout the Infinite, the forces are in a perfect balance, and hence the energy of a single thought may determine the motion of a universe.”
― Nikola Tesla
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1436. pcola57


The Orion Nebula

By: Amir H. Abolfath



This single exposure image, made by a camera on a tracking mount to follow the stars during the exposure, displays a classic view of the Orion Nebula (M42), standing in the middle of the image. The Flame Nebula near the bright star Zeta Orionis at Orion's belt is on the upper left. Look carefully to the lower right of Zeta Orionis to find hints of the Horsehead dark nebula.

Bio on Photographer :

Amir H. Abolfath
From: Iran Age: 31




Amir Hossein Abolfath, the youngest member of TWAN, was born in 1983 in Tehran, Iran. His passion to astronomy since childhood led him to make his first astrophoto in 1992 when he was a student in an educational observatory in Tehran. In 2004 he started digital astrophotography by traveling all across his homeland country to find unique historic and natural locations and attractive celestial configurations. He is a talented amateur astronomer, astrophotography educator and innovative photographer with special interest to time-lapse videos and virtual reality all-sky images of the night sky.
Many of his photos are appeared in Iranian astronomical and tourism magazines, while some of his images are published internationally including on NASA’s website and calendar. His 2008 image of Iran Messier Marathon has published in the March 2010 issue of National Geographic, as one of the first astrophotos in Your Shot section of the magazine.
Amir is a dedicated astrophotographer and a ready to go traveler, whenever there is something new in the sky.
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1435. pcola57


Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Image of the day

Up From Below - January 24, 2014




A crane hoists Jason, WHOI's 9000-pound remotely operated vehicle (ROV), onto the deck of the research vessel Atlantis. The deep-sea robot had just spend several days more than one mile beneath the surface conducting experiments, taking measurements, and collecting samples s at hydrothermal vents on the seafloor. Scientists used the ship and ROV to explore how microbes live off chemicals in fluids spewed from the vents and form the base of a food chain that supports exotic communities of animals. You can learn more about the expedition on Dive and Discover and watch a video of Jason being deployed for its mission. (Photo by David Levin, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)
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1433. pcola57


Astronomy Picture of the Day

Bright Supernova in M82 - 2014 January 24




Explanation: Astronomers really don't find supernovae by looking for the arrows. But in this image taken January 23rd, an arrow does point to an exciting, new supernova, now cataloged as SN 2014J, in nearby bright galaxy M82. Located near the Big Dipper in planet Earth's sky, M82 is also known as the Cigar Galaxy, a popular target for telescopes in the northern hemisphere. In fact, SN 2014J was first spotted as an unfamiliar source in the otherwise familiar galaxy by teaching fellow Steve Fossey and astronomy workshop students Ben Cooke, Tom Wright, Matthew Wilde and Guy Pollack at the University College London Observatory on the evening of January 21. M82 is a mere 12 million light-years away (so the supernova explosion did happen 12 million years ago, that light just now reaching Earth), making supernova SN 2014J one of the closest to be seen in recent decades. Spectra indicate it is a Type Ia supernova caused by the explosion of a white dwarf accreting matter from a companion star. By some estimates two weeks away from its maximum brightness, SN 2014J is already the brightest part of M82 and visible in small telescopes in the evening sky.
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1432. pcola57


Earth Image of the day

Making Sense of Nepal’s Seti River Disaster - January 24, 2014





The first sign of trouble for residents along the upper Seti River in Nepal was the water. In late April and early May 2012, what was usually a roaring river had slowed to a trickle. And the milky-white water—colored by rock flour from glaciers upstream in the Sabche Cirque—had turned blue and clear.

Residents regarded the river changes as bizarre, but nobody connected the slowdown to anything dangerous upstream. So it came as a surprise when a slurry of sediment, rock, and water suddenly surged through the valley on May 5, 2012, obliterating dozens of homes and sweeping 72 people to their deaths. In the chaotic aftermath of the flood, questions swirled about where the water had come from and how it had arrived with so little warning.

Had a natural dam formed and then abruptly burst? Had debris from a rockslide dammed the Seti into a glacial lake and then failed? Had water long trapped in subterranean caves found its way out? Did an avalanche high on Annapurna triggered the deluge? “There were all sorts of theories in the beginning, but they were mostly speculation,” said Jeffrey Kargel, a University of Arizona hydrologist who has been studying the disaster. “We didn’t have hard data from the field that could prove or disprove most of them.”

Now they have that data. Twenty months after the disaster, experts like Kargel have made enough observations in the field, conducted enough tests in the lab, and analyzed enough satellite data to say quite definitely what happened. He has concluded that it was not just one event but a series of them that combined to produce the devastation.

It began weeks before the flood with a series of rockfalls that sent debris tumbling into the Seti River, backing water up in the extremely deep and narrow gorge. The last of these landslides occurred just a week or so before the flood. The situation grew dire on May 5, 2012, when an unusually powerful ice avalanche and rockfall tumbled down a vertical cliff on a ridge just south of Annapurna IV. The total drop from the Annapurna IV ridgeline to the bed of the Seti is about 6,100 meters (20,000 feet) spread over a distance of only 40 kilometers (25 miles)—more relief than anywhere in the continental United States.

“You can imagine what an enormous amount of force accompanied the avalanche,” said Kargel. “It was so powerful that huge amounts of snow melted due to the friction, and it produced a blast of hurricane-force winds that flattened old-growth forests near the Seti River Gorge.” As the force of the avalanche and winds poured into the gorge, it overwhelmed the natural dam created by the earlier rockslides. The dam burst and sent a surge of pent up water and avalanche debris rushing downstream.

Evidence of the massive rockfall and avalanche was still visible on December 22, 2013, when an astronaut on the International Space Station snapped a photograph (top) showing debris still coating the slopes below Annapurna IV. Next to the snow-covered slopes of the cirque, the debris-covered surfaces appear tan. The second image, a photograph by Kargel, shows the vertical cliff where the avalanche began.

Kargel’s research group has taken four separate trips to the area since 2012. In the process of piecing together how the disaster occurred, the team also analyzed whether a similar event could occur in the future. “There are good reasons to be concerned,” he said. “Something like this will happen again. It’s inevitable.”

His rationale? The Seti River Gorge is unusually prone to dangerous blockages because of how narrow and deep it is. And the same processes that triggered the spring 2012 rockfalls and avalanche are still at work. “The only question is whether future events will be as destructive or whether people in the Seti River Valley will have absorbed the lessons of 2012 and found ways to move their homes out of the flood plain.”
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1431. pcola57


Earth Science Image of the day

Corona and Church of Μary Krinas - January 24, 2014




Photographer: Stavros Hios;
Summary Author: Stavros Hios; Jim Foster

Shown above is the Church of Μary Krinas (Panagia Krina), in the rural region of Vavili, on the Greek island of Chios. Built in the 12th century adjacent to a reliable spring, this Byzantine structure is adorned with ornate arches and exquisite carvings. Krina means "spring of plenty". A starry wreath, the constellation Corona Borealis (Northern Crown), shines above the church. The bright blue colored star almost directly overhead of the church dome is known as R Coronae Borealis. This enigmatic, variable carbon star will now and then disappear from view, evidently due to accumulations of carbon dust clouds in the atmosphere. Photo taken on August 6, 2013.

Photo details: NIKON D7000 camera with tripod; Lens: 10.0-20.0 mm f/4.0-5.6; Focal Length: 10mm (35mm equivalent: 15mm); Focus Distance: Infinite; Aperture: f/4.0; Exposure Time: 53.000 s; ISO equiv: 1250; Software: Adobe Photoshop CS5 Windows; ASTROTRACK.
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058
1430. pcola57
Quoting 1428. trHUrrIXC5MMX:
Good morning my old friend...

How's life, weather and everything else treating you this morning?
It's cold here in Atlanta and much colder up in NYC as I discuss with Larry the snowstorm that just went through there.

I hope you feel better, better than before.
Your posts are still amusing and will be.

Take good care
Peace


Quoting 1429. trHUrrIXC5MMX:
What was an epic Michigan blizzard...!!!!!
Wow

See, if it wasn't through you I wouldn't know about these events in history.
Thank you


Thank you soo much for the compliment my friend..
Max you have been a great blogger and I really appreciate your comments here..
My health has been getting better and am glad to share that with you.. :)
The details are unimportant..
The results are..
Yeah when I saw that image and story about the storm in Michigan I just had to share..
I don't think I've ever seen snow that deep..
I love to share just like you do Max..
Thanks again for dropping in my friend..
GB and Peace.. :)
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058
What was an epic Michigan blizzard...!!!!!
Wow

See, if it wasn't through you I wouldn't know about these events in history.
Thank you
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Good morning my old friend...

How's life, weather and everything else treating you this morning?
It's cold here in Atlanta and much colder up in NYC as I discuss with Larry the snowstorm that just went through there.

I hope you feel better, better than before.
Your posts are still amusing and will be.

Take good care
Peace
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1427. pcola57


Backyard Lights

By: LeRoy Zimmerman




The northern lights or Aurora Borealis photographed over Alaska in a clear moonlit night of November. From the photographer: "It was the night after Thanksgiving, and I was babysitting my grandson while my daughter was away spending some time with her twin, the visiting mom. So I had the house to myself, and when the little guy was sleeping, I took a peek outside and saw the auroras were lighting up the sky. I do love to shoot the auroras over a wilderness setting, as those seem to be the most photogenic, but by taking this photo I wanted to show that auroras here in the north can be seen right from your own backyard. Yes, there are actually people that live here in the north who can see auroras just going to and from work, see auroras from their homes, from their own backyards, without having to go 'anywhere' to see them. Just step outside. Just a simple soft slow moving aurora on this moonlit night, beneath an 11 day old moon. Sometimes simple is just enough. A wonderful place to call home."

Bio for photographer LeRoy Zimmerman

From: USA






LeRoy Zimmerman, the northern most member of TWAN, is a panoramic photographer based out of Ester, Alaska, close to the Arctic circle. Panos are the only format he has used for 41 years. His panoramas are made up of three horizontal 35mm shots stitched together, creating a pano with a 1:4 image ratio. He began filming his panos in 1967 for use in his multi-image production, which he calls a PhotoSymphony, which is shown nightly to Alaska's visitors. In 1984 he devised a system to capture the auroras in his pano format. He discovered he was the first photographer to ever film the auroras in that format. His theater program is the only panoramic aurora presentation anywhere, a show that has now been seen by thousands.

In 1998 he discovered the digital world of scanners, printers, and PhotoShop. It was a life changing moment when he realized that his three projected slides could now be stitched together into a single image. It took this photographer 31 years before he could hold his first print. Recently he has converted from film to digital. Living in Alaska, the auroras have become his specialty. One of his aurora panos was recently used as the header image on a US Postage Stamp, released October 1, 2007, in celebration of the Polar Year. This was the first domestic aurora stamp ever issued by the USPS, a milestone of a lifetime for Zimmerman.

Horizontal panoramas are probably the most comfortable images for our human eyes to gaze upon, as the shape of that format most approximates that of our natural field of vision. So it was only natural to film what it really was that our eyes were seeing. Not only the subject of our vision, but the natural boundaries of our own eyes as well.
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058
1426. pcola57


Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Image of the day


Holding the Key - January 22, 2014




As the oceans become more acidic due to the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, marine scientists are studying how organisms, such as the several hundred young squid developing in these two egg cases, respond to changes in their environment. Squid are considered key species because of their central role as the primary prey for many top predators and the consumers of smaller prey, a role that supports healthy ecosystems and global fisheries. WHOI biologist T. Aran Mooney and WHOI-MIT Joint Program graduate student Casey Zakroff are conducting research which has shown that ocean acidification can cause delayed development in squid. Squid reared in more acidic seawater were about 5 percent smaller in size and had malformed statoliths, an organ squid rely on for orientation while swimming. (Photo by Tom Kleindinst, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058
1425. pcola57


National Geographic Image of the day


Backcountry Blue - January 22, 2014



Photograph by Paul Nicklen, National Geographic

Canada's Yukon backcountry hides sublime surprises, such as Azure Lake in the rugged Ogilvie Mountains. Glacial meltwater laden with fine sediment lends the lake its namesake color.
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058
1424. pcola57


Astronomy Picture of the Day


The Upper Michigan Blizzard of 1938
2014 January 22




Explanation: Yes, but can your blizzard do this? In Upper Michigan's Storm of the Century in 1938, some snow drifts reached the level of utility poles. Nearly a meter of new and unexpected snow fell over two days in a storm that started 76 years ago tomorrow. As snow fell and gale-force winds piled snow to surreal heights; many roads became not only impassable but unplowable; people became stranded; cars, school buses and a train became mired; and even a dangerous fire raged. Fortunately only two people were killed, although some students were forced to spend several consecutive days at school. The above image was taken by a local resident soon after the storm. Although all of this snow eventually melted, repeated snow storms like this help build lasting glaciers in snowy regions of our planet Earth.
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058
1423. pcola57


Earth Science Image of the day

Sea Ice and Sun Glitter Path - January 22, 2014



Photographer: H. Joachim Schlichting;
Summary Authors: H. Joachim Schlichting; Jim Foster

Part of my nonstop flight from Frankfurt, Germany to Fairbanks, Alaska this past summer took place above a dense blanket of clouds. By the time the cloud deck finally broke apart we had already reached the zone of the Arctic sea ice shown above. A golden glitter patch stretching across the sea revealed water covered by ripples (waves) that otherwise couldn't be seen from our altitude of about 6 mi (10 km). Although reflection from the glitter path dominates this scene, note how the bright snow-covered ice cakes can be detected through the thin cloud layer. Observed from a high-flying commercial jet, with the Sun well above the horizon, the glitter patch takes on an elliptical shape. It's centered on the point where the Sun's reflected image would be expected if the sea was still. Photo taken on August 1, 2013.

Photo details: Camera Maker: FUJIFILM; Camera Model: X10; Focal Length: 7.1mm; Aperture: f/7.1; Exposure Time: 0.0008 s (1/1200); ISO equiv: 100; Software: Digital Camera X10 Ver1.02.
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058
1422. pcola57


Snowland Sky



The sky gets suddenly clear in this January evening, after a snowstorm in Alborz Mountains some kilometers north of Tehran. The summer stars sets in the west (left) while the winter stars with the prominent constellation Orion rise above the east (right). The arc of the Milky Way is also visible in this late twilight panorama. Note a meter streak, belongs to the Quadrantid Meteor Shower, which is captured near the upper edge of the image. Oshin Zakarian/Dreamview.net

Photographer Bio..
Oshin D. Zakarian
From: Iran




Photographer Oshin Zakarian was born in Tehran in 1977 and began his career in photography in 1992. He is completely devoted to photography of all kinds including nature, architecture, industry and products, people and portraiture. But Zakarian's main interest is in capturing nature and historical landmarks at night during astronomical events. He feels that a strong emotional connection with nature helps a photographer produce greater impact in his photographs. His passion for photographing monuments of different cultures under the same starry sky has led him on many adventures. He particularly enjoys the deep blue light of twilight and the first and last light of the day among nature. Zakarian shuns today's common digital equipment in favor of traditional medium format film cameras. His photographs have appeared in many publications and on calendars as well as in America's best-known astronomy magazines. His work has been exhibited in Iran and in several European countries.

Zakarian particularly enjoys capturing images of lonely trees standing amidst the trails of stars circling above them. He imagines the tree branches as the hands of a person stretching upward to touch the stars, while the tree's trunk connects Heaven and Earth. When photographing a historical monument with the stars above he can feel the passage of time -- the time that has passed since the monument was built. When the weather is good for photography, Zakarian will rarely be spotted in the city.
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058
1420. pcola57


Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Image of the day

There and Back Again - January 21, 2014




R/V Knorr is a common sight in Woods Hole, but its departure still draws a crowd, especially when it leaves for far-flung places. Here, the ship pulls away from the WHOI dock on a relatively short cruise, but one with big implications. The November 2013 trip took Knorr just 100 miles south of Cape Cod to the edge of the continental shelf, where scientists and technicians deployed the first moored instrumentsthat form the backbone of the Pioneer Array, a part of the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI). Additional cruises in 2014 and beyond will expand the capabilities of the observatory in the Atlantic and elsewhere. (Photo by Tom Kleindinst, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058
1419. pcola57


National Geographic Image of the day


A Visit to Zavareh - January 21, 2014




Photograph by Bahareh Mohamadian, National Geographic Your Shot

An ancient castle in the old town of Zavareh, Iran

There is a cinematic quality to this photograph—and to others in Bahareh’s gallery—which lends a sense of drama and timelessness that I find very appealing. —Alexa Keefe, Photo of the Day editor
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058
1418. pcola57


Astronomy Picture of the Day

Micro Moon over Super Moon - 2014 January 21




Explanation: Did you see the big, bright, beautiful Full Moon last Wednesday night? That was actually a Micro Moon! On that night, the smallest Full Moon of 2014 reached its full phase only a few hours from lunar apogee, the time of its the most distant point from Earth in the Moon's elliptical orbit. Of course, last year on the night of June 22, a Full Super Moon was near perigee, the closest point in its orbit. The relative apparent size of January 15's Micro Moon is compared to the June 22 Super Moon in the above composite image digitally superimposing telescopic images from Perugia, Italy. The difference in apparent size represents a difference in distance of just under 50,000 kilometers between apogee and perigee, given the Moon's average distance of about 385,000 kilometers. How long do you have to wait to see another Full Micro Moon? Until March 5, 2015, when the lunar full phase will again occur within a few hours of lunar apogee.
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058
1417. pcola57


Earth Image of the day


The London Array - January 21, 2014








Twenty kilometers (12 miles) from England’s Kent and Essex coasts, the world’s largest offshore wind farm has started harvesting the breezes over the sea. Located in the Thames Estuary, where the River Thames meets the North Sea, the London Array has a maximum generating power of 630 megawatts (MW), enough to supply as many as 500,000 homes.

The wind farm became fully operational on April 8, 2013. Twenty days later, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on the Landsat 8 satellite captured this image of the area. The second image is a closeup of the area marked by the white box in the top image. White points in the second image are the wind turbines; a few boat wakes are also visible. The sea is discolored by light tan sediment—spring runoff washed out by the Thames.

To date, the London Array includes 175 wind turbines aligned to the prevailing southwest wind and spread out across 100 square kilometers (40 square miles). Each turbine stands 650 to 1,200 meters apart (2,100 to 3,900 feet) and 147 meters (482 feet) tall. Each is connected by cables buried in the seafloor, and power is transmitted to two substations offshore and to an onshore station at Cleve Hill.

With construction operations working out of Ramsgate, the Array is eventually supposed to grow to 245 square kilometers (95 square miles). The wind farm sits on two natural sandbanks, with water as deep as 25 meters (80 feet). The site was chosen because of its proximity to onshore electric power infrastructure and because it stays out of the main shipping lanes through the area.

Promoters of the London Array project assert that it will reduce annual carbon dioxide emissions by 900,000 tons, equal to the emissions of 300,000 automobiles. Critics of the project and its second phase are concerned that the wind farm will decimate the population of red-throated divers and other bird species.
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058
1416. pcola57


Earth Science Image of the day

Aletsch Glacier - January 21, 2014



Photographer: Renata Hari
Summary Authors: Renata Hari; Jim Foster

Aletsch Glacier, shown above carving through the Bernese Alps of Switzerland, is nearly 14 mi (23 km) in length making it the longest glacier in the entire Alps mountain system. It%u2019s currently in retreat as are nearly all glaciers in the Alps. The dark narrow bands within the glacial ice are medial moraines, formed when individual valley glaciers merged. These moraines extend many miles downstream. The wavy features at bottom are possibly ogives -- spacing between the wave crests related to the ice flow over a given season. To give scale to the immensity of this glacier note the hikers at bottom center. Photo taken in late summer of 2013.

Photo details: Camera Model: Canon PowerShot S90; Focal Length: 22.5mm; Aperture: f/8.0; Exposure Time: 0.0016 s (1/640); ISO equiv: 80.
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058
1414. pcola57


Astronomy Picture of the Day

Spitzer's Orion - 2014 January 15




Explanation: Few cosmic vistas excite the imagination like the Orion Nebula, an immense stellar nursery some 1,500 light-years away. This stunning false-color view spans about 40 light-years across the region, constructed using infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope. Compared to its visual wavelength appearance, the brightest portion of the nebula is likewise centered on Orion's young, massive, hot stars, known as the Trapezium Cluster. But the infrared image also detects the nebula's many protostars, still in the process of formation, seen here in red hues. In fact, red spots along the dark dusty filament to the left of the bright cluster include the protostar cataloged as HOPS 68, recently found to have crystals of the silicate mineral olivine within its protostellar envelope.
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058
1413. pcola57


Earth Image of the day

Frozen Lake Erie - January 15, 2014







The intense cold snap that gripped much of central Canada and the United States in early January 2014 brought thick and widespread ice to the Great Lakes. Though parts of the lakes freeze every winter, several news media and meteorologist accounts suggested that January ice cover was thicker and more widespread than it has been in nearly two decades. The ice cover was hampering ship traffic in the region, according to news reports.

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite acquired these images in the early afternoon of January 9, 2014. The top view shows Lake Erie in natural color, while the second image shows a blend of shortwave infrared, near infrared, and red (MODIS bands 7-2-1) that helps distinguish ice from snow and water. Ice is pale blue (thicker ice is brighter), open water is navy, and snow is blue-green.

On January 9, Lake Erie was reported to be 90 percent ice covered, and nearly a quarter of the surface area of the five Great Lakes was covered. (Download the large images for a regional view.) Ironically, the ice cap on top of the lakes stifled the persistent “lake effect” snowstorms that had buried Buffalo, New York, and other towns during the deep freeze of early January. Cold arctic winds blowing across the frozen lake could no longer pick up moisture.

Since January 9, Lake Erie and much of the surrounding area has been blanketed by persistent, spotty cloud cover whenever Aqua passed over. However, it does appear that the ice has pulled back a bit as temperatures have returned to normal and even above normal in some areas. The NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab reported 88 percent ice cover around noon on January 12 and 62 percent at noon on January 14.
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058
1412. pcola57


Earth Science Image of the day

Dike and Hoodoos Along the Upper Missouri River in Montana - January 15, 2014



Photographer: Kathleen Kiefer
Summary Author: Kathleen Kiefer

The photo above was snapped while paddling the Wild and Scenic Upper Missouri River in west-central Montana. At center is a remnant of an igneous dike -- a cooled and hardened lava flow. Note that this ancient flow made a path to the draw below. Hot magma was flowing here, forced upwards from deep within the Earth, some 55 million years ago, at a time when this area was covered by thousands of feet of overlaying rock layers. Eroded sandstone pedestals on the left side of the large, rectangular rock formation, at right center, are known as hoodoos. Yucca plants are in the foreground. Photo taken on September 27, 2013.

Photo details: Camera Model: Canon EOS 5D Mark III; Lens: EF24-105mm f/4L IS USM; Focal Length: 28mm; Focus Distance: 3.39m; Aperture: f/10.0; Exposure Time: 0.0050 s (1/200); ISO equiv: 100; Software: Adobe Photoshop CS5.1 Windows.
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058
1411. pcola57
Quoting 1410. DaveFive:
Hello Pcola57,
I'm Dave from San Jose, CA. Your blog photos are very interesting. I have visited Florida during the summer of 2003 and 2006 hoping to experience a hurricane. Unfortunately, during those two years, the hurricane season was very light. The areas I visited were Winter Park, Daytona Beach, Christmas, Tampa and the Wekiva and Saint Johns River trips.


Hello and welcome Dave..
Wow..
You just missed 2004's Ivan and 2005's Katrina..
We are due for some strong one's now though..
Truth is they will come..
No matter what some may think..
You will get to experience one..
Try for September and October..
Thank you very much on the compliment on my blog..
Although somewhat neglected as of late..
I've never been to California..
Lots to experience there from what I hear..
Tell me some about San Jose sometime when you drop in..
Thanks again for dropping in Dave..
GB and Peace.. :)

Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058
Hello Pcola57,
I'm Dave from San Jose, CA. Your blog photos are very interesting. I have visited Florida during the summer of 2003 and 2006 hoping to experience a hurricane. Unfortunately, during those two years, the hurricane season was very light. The areas I visited were Winter Park, Daytona Beach, Christmas, Tampa and the Wekiva and Saint Johns River trips.
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HAPPY NEW YEAR MARVIN
A year of peace and prosperity to you!


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1408. pcola57




Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058
1407. pcola57


NASA 2013 Year in Review..Click HERE
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 7058

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About pcola57

I have survived all hurricaines in this area from hurricaine Fredrick in 1979 to the present.I live with an elderly parent and weather is critical.

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