# Wobbles in the Barriers: Arctic Oscillation (4)

By: Dr. Ricky Rood , 4:22 PM GMT on October 14, 2013

Wobbles in the Barriers: Arctic Oscillation (4)

This is a continuation of my series on the Arctic Oscillation / North Atlantic Oscillation. Links to background material and previous entries are at the end.

In the last entry I suggested that if you were on a bridge overlooking a swiftly flowing creek then you would notice that twigs floating in the water did not move across the current. They are carried downstream along the edge of the current. The purpose of that comparison was to demonstrate how fast-moving, concentrated flows have the effect of isolating one side of the creek from the other. This is true in the creek, and it is also true about jet streams in the atmosphere.

One way to understand the Arctic Oscillation is to think of it as the variation of an atmospheric jet stream. For the Arctic Oscillation the jet stream of interest is the southern edge of vortex of air that circulates around the North Pole (see previous entry). Air inside the vortex often has characteristics different from air outside it. Intuitively for the Arctic, there is colder air on the side toward the pole. If you look at trace gases, like ozone, they are different across the edge of the vortex. The takeaway idea is that the edge of the vortex is a barrier. It’s not a perfect barrier, but the air on one side is largely separated from the air on the other side. In this blog, I describe the difference between a strong and a weak vortex – which is the same as the difference between the positive and negative phases of the Arctic Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation.

Figure 1: This figure is from the point of view of someone looking down from above at the North Pole (NP). Compare this perspective to Figure 1 in previous blog. This represents a strong, circular vortex centered over the pole, which encloses cold air, represented as blue. The line surrounding the cold air is the jet stream or the edge of the vortex.

Figure 1 shows an idealized schematic of the North Pole as viewed from above. This is the strong vortex case, when there is exceptionally low pressure at the pole. Low pressure is associated with counterclockwise rotation in the Northern Hemisphere. This direction of rotation is called cyclonic. This strong vortex case is the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. During this phase, the vortex aligns strongly with the rotation of the Earth, and there are relatively few wobbles of the edge of the vortex – the jet stream. I drew on the figure two points, X and Y. In this case, the point X is hot and the point Y is cold. It is during this phase when it is relatively warm and moist over, for example, the eastern seaboard of the United States.

Figure 2 compares a strong vortex and a weak vortex. In both cases, the circulation around a central point is counterclockwise or cyclonic. However, in the weak vortex case, the vortex does not align as strongly with the rotation of the Earth and there are places where the edge of vortex extends southwards. The vortex appears displaced from the pole; it is not centered over the pole.

Figure 2: Examples of a strong, circular vortex and a weak, more wavy vortex. See text for a more complete description.

Whether the vortex is stronger or weaker is determined by the atmospheric pressure at the pole. In the winter, an important factor that determines the circulation is the cooling that occurs at polar latitudes during the polar night.

What determines the waviness or wobbles at the edge of this vortex? The structure at the edge of vortex is strongly influenced by several factors. These factors include the structure of the high-pressure centers that are over the oceans and continents to the south of jet stream. One could easily imagine a strong high-pressure center over, for example, Iceland, pushing northward at the edge of the vortex. This might push a lobe of air characteristic of the middle latitude Atlantic Ocean northward. Since the edge of the vortex is something of a barrier, this high-pressure system would distort the edge of the vortex and, perhaps, push the vortex off the pole. This would appear as a displacement of the vortex and its cold air over, for example, Russia. If the high grew and faded, then this would appear as wobbles of the vortex.

Other factors that influence the waviness at the edge of the vortex are the mountain ranges and the thermal contrast between the continents and the oceans. The impact of mountains is easy to understand. Returning to the creek comparison used above, the mountains are like a boulder in the stream. The water bulges around and over the boulder; the air in the atmosphere bulges around and over the mountain ranges. The Rocky Mountains in the western half of North America are perfect examples of where there are often wobbles in the atmospheric jet stream.

Figure 3: This figure is from the point of view of someone looking down from above at the North Pole (NP). This represents a weak, wavy, wobbly vortex displaced from the pole. The vortex encloses cold air, represented as blue. The line surrounding the cold air is the jet stream or the edge of the vortex. (definition of vortex)

Figure 3 shows an idealized schematic of the North Pole as viewed from above. This is the weak vortex case, when the low pressure at the pole is not as low as average and the pressure is much higher than the strong vortex case of Figure 1. This weak vortex case is the negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation. During this phase, the alignment of the vortex with the rotation of the Earth is less prominent, and there are wobbles of the edge of the vortex – the jet stream. In this case, the point X is cold and the point Y is hot. It is during this phase where it is relatively cool and dry (but potentially snowy) over, for example, the eastern part of the United States.

These figures help to explain the prominent signal of the Arctic Oscillation discussed in the earlier entries (specifically, this blog). That is, when the vortex is weak and wobbly, then there are excursions of colder air to the south and warmer air to the north. This appears as waviness and is an important pattern of variability - warm, cold, warm, cold.

The impact of the changes in the structure of edge of the vortex does not end with these persistent periods of regional warm and cold spells. The edge of the vortex or the jet stream is also important for steering storms. Minimally, therefore, these changes in the edge of the vortex are expected to change the characteristics of how storms move. Simply, if the edge of the vortex has large northward and southward extensions, then storms take a longer time to move, for example, across the United States from the Pacific to the Atlantic Oceans. In the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation they just whip across. In the negative phase, the storms wander around a bit. A more complete discussion of this aspect of the role of the Arctic Oscillation will be in the next entry. (Note use of dramatic tension and the cliffhanger strategy of the serial.)

r

Previous entries:

Barriers in the Atmosphere
Behavior
Definitions and Some Background

August Arctic Oscillation presentation

CPC Climate Glossary “The Arctic Oscillation is a pattern in which atmospheric pressure at polar and middle latitudes fluctuates between negative and positive phases.”

The views of the author are his/her own and do not necessarily represent the position of The Weather Company or its parent, IBM.

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##### 107. Daisyworld
 Quoting 106. Cochise111:I hate to tell you this, but you're wasting your energy attempting to convey logic. These people are part of the liberal order, which, in my humble opinion, and that of learned psychiatrists, is a mental disorder. No matter how much evidence is presented, they continue to ignore it and follow their new religion. They won't even admit that global temperatures have not changed in over fifteen years. I don't believe that the average global temperature is calculable, but even with their biased, adjusted, corrupted, tweaked, and otherwise-false global temperatures, they still can't show global warming. The almost 100 models they use can't forecast past much less future temperatures, yet they want the world to believe they can predict climate differences decades into the future. It would be laughable if it weren't so depressing to the world economies.Like MrPerfect, you post lots of lies, but offer no actual scientific data to support your position. Why should anyone listen to you?
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##### 105. Daisyworld
 Quoting 104. MisterPerfect:[...] However, fundamental flaws in the research, such as establishing a deterministic causal relationship indicating high carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere indeed led to higher global temperatures, and not the other way around, was not done. And whereas one would not doubt the irrefutable evidence that global warming is indeed occurring with Arctic ice melt at record highs, determining a causal relationship by man-made evidence being more than a trivial factor has not been established.Other factors, for example, well known periodic sun activity, appear to be much more significant contributors and well documented in core sample data...
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##### 104. MisterPerfect
 My Turn: Hockey stick comparison – Al Gore vs. Ben BernankeBy Jeff Ridgel, Tahoe Daily Tribune - October 15, 2013Al Gore made himself a political name, and a personal fortune, by widely disseminating hyperbole on manmade global warming. His famous hockey stick chart depicting exponential growth of global temperatures, directly related to emissions of man-generated gases, has had major political and economic repercussions.As a firm believer in the scientific method, a former instructor of statistics, and one that has used statistical modeling extensively for military applications in radar design, I approached this topic with healthy skepticism. I went back to the original data samples and evaluated the original mathematical modeling.Unfortunately, different than the conclusions reached by the International Commission on Climate Change, and in alarming disagreement with the economic impact resulting from the political fallout from this statistical modeling, I believe that politics and money drove desired conclusions not founded in the data.Given the amount of public opinion that has been persuaded along the lines of global warming created by man’s actions, stating a contrary opinion is not done lightly.However, fundamental flaws in the research, such as establishing a deterministic causal relationship indicating high carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere indeed led to higher global temperatures, and not the other way around, was not done. And whereas one would not doubt the irrefutable evidence that global warming is indeed occurring with Arctic ice melt at record highs, determining a causal relationship by man-made evidence being more than a trivial factor has not been established.Other factors, for example, well known periodic sun activity, appear to be much more significant contributors and well documented in core sample data. And although I am a conservationist, and believe firmly in pursuing clean air and water for our environment and health, the economic impact brought on by EPA and State mandates are direct contributors to our debt issues today. Which brings up our second hockey stick, Ben Bernanke’s. As opposed to global warming, the national debt is not based on a politicized statistical model. It is real and increasing exponentially.The national debt slowly increased up through 2005. Starting in 2006, under Bernanke’s lead as Fed Chairman fulfilling the progressive spending surge of Barack Obama and creative “Quantitative Easing” stimulus plan, the national debt has indeed taken on the look of Al Gore’s hockey stick.As indicated above, there is a direct relationship between Al Gore’s hockey stick and Ben Bernanke’s hockey stick. I finally got what all the hoopla is about. Thanks Al.http://www.tahoedailytribune.com/northshore/85224 04-113/hockey-stick-global-bernanke
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##### 103. Xandra
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##### 101. indianrivguy
 Quoting 98. RevElvis:‘PetKoch’ piling up in ChicagoOne of the piles along the river is nearly five stories high. (Photo by Kari Lydersen / Midwest Energy News)Clean Coal is a Dirty Lie.. this "petcoke"is REALLY dirty.. when they put scrubbers on their smokestacks, they dump the poison the remove right into the petcoke piles where they bleed and leak into our waterways. Then it is sold "somewhere else" [out of sight out of mind] where they burn it putting all the poison into the air "somewhere" else where they have done a better job of buying elected official and custom "exceptions and protections" than they get here.. and WE are bad.. thank Cheney and the Halliburton laws. A never ending assault on our air, water, and ecosystems ALL in the name of "profit"
##### 100. JohnLonergan
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##### 99. RevElvis
 US Court: Transcanada's Keystone XL Profits More Important than EnvironmentIn a major ruling that's flown under the radar, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit - based in Denver, Colorado - decided not to grant the Sierra Club and Clean Energy Future Oklahoma a temporary injunction on the construction of the southern half of Transcanada's Keystone XL tar sands export pipeline. The Court's decision hinged on an "injury" balancing test: Would Transcanada be hurt more financially from receiving an injunction? Had it lost, it would be stuck with one until Sierra Club, et al receive a U.S. District Court decision on the legality of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' decision to grant Transcanada a Nationwide Permit 12 (NWP 12) for construction of what's now called the Gulf Coast Pipeline in February 2012. Or would ecosystems suffer even greater and potentially incalculable damage from the 485-mile, 700,000 barrels per day pipeline crossing 2,227 streams?In a 2-1 decision, the Court sided with Transcanada, and by extension, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The Court ruled, "the threatened environmental injuries were outweighed by the financial harm that the injunction would cause Transcanada."desmogblog.com
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##### 98. RevElvis
 ‘PetKoch’ piling up in ChicagoOne of the piles along the river is nearly five stories high. (Photo by Kari Lydersen / Midwest Energy News)
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##### 97. bappit
 .
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##### 95. RevElvis
 Chipmunk's Plan For Future Better Crafted Than That Of 8 Out Of 10 Americans"During our 15 months of observation, we found that this chipmunk was better able to formulate plans, execute them, and ultimately enjoy a more balanced and stable life than a full four-fifths of the U.S. population," said lead researcher Caroline Meehan, noting that the 3-ounce creature possessed sounder judgment and greater self-control than an estimated 250 million Americans."Indeed, this chipmunk was able to accurately anticipate its wants and needs as far as weeks, months, or even a year ahead of time, whereas 80 percent of our human subjects were entirely incapable of looking beyond their next meal or that night's television programming."TheOnion.com (Satire)
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##### 93. RevElvis
 By Clay Bennett
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##### 92. FLwolverine
 Quoting 90. yoboi:Global warming as it relates to wildland fire budgeting is real. In a previous post I noted how scientists are trying to link future forest fire activity to the effects of “man caused atmospheric changes“.As long as the government’s EPA and appointed meteorologists keep pushing this folly the Forest Service and other government entities with wildland firefighting forces like the Park Service, BIA and Indian Affairs will receive more funding.LinkYou really had to look and for that one, didn't you? A former firefighter who blogs about fires has one post saying AGW is a hoax (without even a link to one of your usual sources) and you cite his opinion as proving .... what? That there's someone out there who agrees with you? Your time would be better used studying the science.
##### 91. RevElvis
 Climate Change Will Not Spare an Inch of Global Ocean, Study FindsChanges in marine temperature, acidity, dissolved oxygen, and productivity will affect ecosystems across the entire expanse of the world's oceans.Every corner of the world's oceans — from pole to pole and sea surface to seafloor — will undergo chemical changes associated with global climate change by 2100, jeopardizing the livelihoods of billions of people who subsist on marine ecosystems, according to a new study.Previous studies addressing the effects of climate change on future ocean health have tended to focus on the effects of increased temperature and acidity on marine ecosystems. However, other oceanic conditions — including dissolved oxygen and productivity, or the abundance of tiny plant-like organisms that form the base of the marine food web — also play an important role in overall ocean health. As is the case on land, marine animals need oxygen and plant-life to survive. [Video: Humans Hit the Oceans Hard]A team of 29 international scientists based at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, have now developed more comprehensive projections of future ocean health, which take into account temperature, acidity, dissolved oxygen and productivity. To develop these projections, the researchers compiled more than 80,000 existing modeled maps of oceanic change, many of which informed the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report.The team found that mangrove and coral reef ecosystems near the tropics will likely experience the smallest cumulative change by 2100, whereas cetaceans (the group of mammals that includes whales, dolphins and porpoises), as well as pinnipeds (such as seals and walruses) will face the largest amount of change."We already knew that coral reefs are very susceptible to temperature change, and our models show that they are going to be impacted the least," study co-author Camilo Mora, a researcher at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, told LiveScience. "So you can imagine what it's going to be like for other ecosystems."LiveScience.com
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##### 89. Patrap
 Antarctic Researchers To Congress: Don't Stop The Science!Posted: 10/15/2013 6:57 pm EDT | Updated: 10/15/2013 7:13 pm EDTWASHINGTON -- A contractor working at the United States Antarctic Program has started an online petition asking Congress to shield the program's McMurdo Station from the effects of the government shutdown.Richard Jeong, a senior systems administrator at United States Antarctic Program, started the Change.org petition last week, and more than 3,000 people—including a number of scientists -- have since signed it.Jeong wants the government to continue funding the station's work, which is part of a National Science Foundation program. The shutdown came just as scientists there were preparing for the summer research season, and the closure has forced the station to go into a holding pattern while it awaits a new appropriation."Unlike shutting down a court or a government office in a city, removing Antarctic participants from the ice means losing a long-term investment in infrastructure and a higher cost to re-start the projects," wrote Jeong. "I’m seeing the devastating consequences of this decision firsthand as I’ve been working as a contractor at McMurdo Station in Antarctica all winter. Congress must pass a shutdown exemption, similar to US Military Pay and US Defense Contractors, for the USAP program or end the shutdown."..more
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##### 88. georgevandenberghe
 Quoting 75. RevElvis:FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: SANTA CLAUS ENDS "COAL IN STOCKING" TRADITIONNORTH POLE - Kris Kringle announced today that he has dropped the centuries-old tradition of stuffing coal into the stockings of naughty boys and girls. The decision comes at a time when record warm temperatures and thinning sea ice are threatening the very existence of Kringle's North Pole toy-making and distribution center."In light of the prominent role of coal burning in global warming, Santa has decided that he can no longer in any way endorse the extraction of coal," explained Ilbereth, Kringle's spokes-elf. Poor behavior will not go unpunished, however. "Silicate rocks and organic mulch will be replacing coal in stockings, with the occasional mercury-free rotting sardine and DVD of An Inconvenient Truth for those extraordinarily naughty individuals."The final straw which impelled Santa to change the coal tradition this year, in particular, was the receipt by Kringle of several letters from prominent coal and energy lobbyists and top-ranking U.S. government officials. The letters were thanking Santa for depositing coal in their stockings last Christmas. LINKAnd meanwhile I'd like to start the "swimming Santa" pool where the first day that the entire circle north of 89N is clear of ice, is specified. I suspect it will be within 20 years.
##### 86. JohnLonergan
 Quoting 76. Xandra:How Roy Spencer and John Christy trick Anthony Watts and his deniers once againI saw Hotwhopper, too, I liked this comment where cRR Kampen invokes the converse of Hanlon's razor:cRR KampenOctober 16, 2013 at 1:33 AMDon't attribute to stupidity what you can attribute to malice." Ph.D. Atmospheric Science, University of Illinois (1987).M.S., Atmospheric Science, University of Illinois, (1984)."According to http://www.desmogblog.com/john-christy .You may safely assume the guy knows better and is a paid merchant of ignorance. Not steering clear of Heartland clinches the verdict.
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##### 85. RevElvis
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##### 84. indianrivguy
 Post #74 Patrap; Meanwhile, the Canadian government has joined in a global commitment to hold concentrations of greenhouse gases to levels that would avoid allowing global average temperatures to rise by 2 C. from the folks that bring you Athabasca and the Keystone Pipeline... who is spending millions to convince America to allow a pipeline they don't want.
##### 81. Patrap
 Steve Goddard ?Mystery Man of the Web.Da,da, da dahhhhhhh'He was not, and a I repeat, not a Mercury 7 Astronaut.Next please?
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##### 79. ScottLincoln
 Quoting 76. Xandra:How Roy Spencer and John Christy trick Anthony Watts and his deniers once againI figured that there were some issues with that chart, considering (again) how much it different from those produced elsewhere. I just didn't have the time to look into it. I looked at the models used in the AR4 and computed pentadal averages. My rough work suggested that there may have been a divergence from the model mean in the last 5 years or so. Not sure why, but there are numerous possible reasons. And that wasnt the current set of model results.
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##### 78. RevElvis
 77 - Here's your "Lightening Round"Thunderstorms = TornadoesDrought = fewer Thunderstorms & Fewer T__n_d__sFill in the BlanksYou can do it!no lifelines & no help from the audience!
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##### 76. Xandra
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
##### 75. RevElvis
 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: SANTA CLAUS ENDS "COAL IN STOCKING" TRADITIONNORTH POLE - Kris Kringle announced today that he has dropped the centuries-old tradition of stuffing coal into the stockings of naughty boys and girls. The decision comes at a time when record warm temperatures and thinning sea ice are threatening the very existence of Kringle's North Pole toy-making and distribution center."In light of the prominent role of coal burning in global warming, Santa has decided that he can no longer in any way endorse the extraction of coal," explained Ilbereth, Kringle's spokes-elf. Poor behavior will not go unpunished, however. "Silicate rocks and organic mulch will be replacing coal in stockings, with the occasional mercury-free rotting sardine and DVD of An Inconvenient Truth for those extraordinarily naughty individuals."The final straw which impelled Santa to change the coal tradition this year, in particular, was the receipt by Kringle of several letters from prominent coal and energy lobbyists and top-ranking U.S. government officials. The letters were thanking Santa for depositing coal in their stockings last Christmas. LINK
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##### 74. Patrap
 ..from # 72CO2 levels are monitored daily at Mauna Loa Observatory on the island of Hawaii. When the monitoring station was set up in 1958, CO2 levels were at 317ppm. The rise to 400 ppm was not expected so soon. Meanwhile, the Canadian government has joined in a global commitment to hold concentrations of greenhouse gases to levels that would avoid allowing global average temperatures to rise by 2 C. Scientists have marked that wide red hazard line in a band between 425-450 ppm.Avoiding 2 C is critical because it represents a danger zone. Some refer to it as a point of no return -- or a "tipping point" to self-accelerating global warming, the so-called "runaway greenhouse effect." The actual tipping point might be 2.5 C, or it could be 1.5 C. Two degrees represents a consensus of scientists, but no scientist I know is sanguine about two degrees. It is certainly not a safe zone.The most recent International Energy Agency (IEA) World Energy Outlook includes some number crunching. If all the world's known reserves of fossil fuels were to be used, the climate would move the world to a non-habitable state.
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##### 72. Patrap
 There is a tipping point to a runaway effect in the long run if we continue down the path were on.Crossing the 400 ppm line: Concentration of carbon dioxide reaches tipping pointBY ELIZABETH MAY | MAY 28, 2013We have now crossed a dangerous line in the global build up of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gas concentrations have moved from the pre-Industrial Revolution level that never exceeded 280 parts per million (ppm) to a new daily average of 400 ppm, reached last week.Over a period of the last million years, CO2 never exceeded 280 ppm (based on actual readings of atmospheric chemistry from Antarctic ice-core data). The last time greenhouse gases reached 400 ppm was three million years ago. Put simply, humanity has now changed the chemistry of our atmosphere to replicate pre-historic levels -- a time when no humans existed.One can write any personal entry on whatever here at wundrground.com, as it's a good thing to have, the freedom to write ones own opines and thoughts for the archive as well.I encourage all bloggers to use that right for free here.
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##### 70. bappit
 Quoting 64. Neapolitan:Companies like to put on the "smlley face" to protect their public image. That's nice and business as usual. The funding that goes to organizations engaged in a large scale, long term disinformation campaign is unusual--unless you look at it in context as Naomi Oreskes does in Merchants of Doubt.
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##### 69. RevElvis
 NASA fuel cell tech will power Al Gore’s London headquartersFuel cell technology used to power Nasa’s space shuttle will provide light and heat for Al Gore’s new London headquarters. The fuel cell, which converts gas into heat and electricity without producing carbon emissions, has been installed in a major crown estate development in Regent Street in the capital.The cell was developed by U.S. company FuelCell Energy. It will emit 38% less carbon dioxide than using electricity from the grid and heat from gas-fired boilers, according to the crown estate, which says 350 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions will be saved per year. Unlike fossil-fuel-burning power plants, the fuel cell produces power with virtually no nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SOx) or particulate matter (PM) pollution.RawStory.com
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##### 68. RevElvis
 38 - Brian - apologies - hit the - & ! (both mistakes) - must be time for that eye exam !
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##### 67. RevElvis
 Supreme Court To Review Greenhouse Gases CaseWASHINGTON (AP) %u2014 The Supreme Court has agreed to consider whether the Environmental Protection Agency overstepped its authority in developing rules aimed at cutting emissions of six heat-trapping gases from factories and power plants.The justices said Tuesday they will review a unanimous federal appeals court ruling that upheld the government's unprecedented regulations aimed at reducing the gases blamed for global warming.The question in the case is whether the EPA's authority to regulate automobile emissions of greenhouses gases as air pollutants, which stemmed from a 2007 Supreme Court ruling, also applies to power plants and factories.The case will be argued in early 2014.HuffingtonPost.com* addedWhy The Supreme Court Taking On Greenhouse Gases Isn't As Bad As It Looks (Op-Ed) TalkingPointsMemo.com
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##### 66. JohnLonergan
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##### 65. ScottLincoln
 Quoting 55. Neapolitan:So if Hockey Shtick and Goddard's site and Watts' sites went down permanently, you'd have absolutely nothing to do, would you?Anyway:--The MWP wasn't global.--A "paper" from the fossil fuel-funded SPPI and CO2 Science isn't a paper as in "peer-reviewed" or "refereed" or "credible"; it's a one-sided opinion piece. And putting one's faith into anything that "paper" has to say is akin to reading a "paper" from the local biker gang that details how healthy smoking crystal meth is, then picking up the pipe...Sorry, Koch-ise; you've been fooled yet again. Doesn't that ever get old?And even if it were global, it wouldn't necessarily mean anything (Edit: except for implications for the climate sensitivity, as mentioned).Climate changes when the energy balance of the planet changes. The increase in forcing during the MWP could have been from non-GHG sources. Of course, that's all under the assumption that the MWP was simultaneously global, which research suggests isn't likely.
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##### 64. Neapolitan
 Quoting 58. Cochise111:"Big Oil" funds most of the environmental groups in existence. But wait, you can't address that. It would destroy your entire fantasy. Environmental groups get billions more funding than any real science group, but even with that funding, they can't fool the public.Sure, I'll address it: so what? No one here repeatedly links to "papers" put out by those organizations; no one here endless cites those organizations as authorities and experts.See the difference?
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##### 63. JohnLonergan
 Quoting 62. Birthmark:There's nothing to explain. As usual, your "inconvenient fact" isn't a fact of any sort.That sounds inconvenient for you. lolInconvenient fact for The Denialati Ignoranti, if they're correct and the MWP was much warmer than today, climate sensitivity would be about 4-6 degrees/doubling.Of course the Denialati are nothing if not logically inconsistent.
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##### 60. Patrap
 Look, if ya gonna use the "Schtick" after Hockey,..here, I'm expecting Royalties quarterly..
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##### 57. georgevandenberghe
 Just chatting with a fellow gardener who hailed from Western Montana. He asserts things have changed significantly for the warmer in the past ten years and whereas before no one grew vine ripened tomatoes in his region, in the past ten years it has become possible. Just one datapoint.

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### Dr. Ricky Rood's Climate Change Blog

I'm a professor at U Michigan and lead a course on climate change problem solving. These articles often come from and contribute to the course.