We're changing our WunderBlogs. Learn more about this important update on our FAQ page.

Texas air pollution study gets help from the Hurricane Hunters

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:52 PM GMT on May 19, 2006

Houston and Los Angeles rank as the two most polluted or cities in the U.S. To address the problem in Houston, a series of air pollution field studies have been run over the past decade in Texas to help understand the what is going on, and come up with the best emission control strategies needed to reduce ozone pollution levels. The TexAQS II Air Quality Field Study is that latest effort to do so. The field study, slated to run through September of this year, will take a broad number of surface based and airborne air pollution and meteorology measurements. A key tool in the study is one of NOAA's P-3 weather research aircraft, which will be specially outfitted as a state-of-the-art air pollution sampling platform. I flew on the NOAA P-3s in a number of such air pollution field studies during my stint with the hurricane hunters. My most memorable project came in 1989, when we flew over the Arctic Ice Cap to track "Arctic Haze". It was unbelievable to be flying over what should have been one of the cleanest places in the world, only to find visibility reduced to three miles in thick haze, due to pollution blown over the North Pole from industrial sources in Eastern Europe.

Figure 1. Areas of the U.S. in violation of the EPA standards for ozone pollution.

The data collected in the Texas study will be used to develop a variety of computer models needed to understand what is going on, and thereby recommend pollution control strategies. Ozone is not emitted directly, but is formed in a very complicated way from the "precursor" pollutants, Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). It turns out that this formation process is extremely non-linear--which means that in some cases, reducing emissions of one of the "precursor" pollutants will actually increase ozone. As a result, you really have to understand the problem thoroughly before going to the expense of implementing emission controls of NOx or VOC in an effort to reduce ozone pollution.

Computer modeling efforts to understand pollution are of limited help, because we don't have a very good idea about how much pollution is being emitted. Each year, businesses are required to submit estimates of how much pollution they are emitting. These emission estimates, however, are not very accurate. For example, according to a story published May 7 in the Houston Chronicle, a British Petroleum refinery in Texas City (just south of Houston) reported that it emitted three times more formaldehyde and ammonia in 2004 than in 2003. The increase in emissions at this one plant was so large, that it distorted the data for refineries nationwide, according to the EPA. The Texas City plant accounted for the bulk of a 15 percent increase in emissions in 2004 that drove refinery pollution to its worst level since 2000. The problem is that the company likely underestimated its 2003 emissions. The emission estimates are all theoretical, and are not based on actual measurements of pollutant gases coming out of the stacks.

The article quotes Matt Fraser, an associate professor in civil and environmental engineering at Rice University, who says: "It's incredible that they were that far off. That's a huge increase in formaldehyde. It just shows you how little attention is being paid to getting emissions numbers right. And since all of our air-quality control strategies are based on that data, it makes you wonder." Well, the planners of the TexAQS II Air Quality Field Study are also wondering, which is why there is the necessity of doing this field study. The only sure way to know what's really going up into the air is to go out and measure it, and this summer's study should help the scientists and regulators figure out what the right steps are to control air pollution in one of our most polluted cities.

Unfortunately, the participation of NOAA's P-3 in the Texas study means that only one P-3 will be available for hurricane hunting this hurricane season. This worries me, because the P-3s are the best tool we have for hurricane reconnaissance. The Air Force C-130s do not have the state-of-the-art radar systems like the P-3s carry, nor the new SFMR Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer instrument that can measure surface winds speeds anywhere in a storm. Will participation of the P-3 in this air pollution study save more lives and property than if the aircraft participated in hurricane hunting this Fall? I think that is probably the case, but it is definitely a gamble that I'm uncomfortable with.

Jeff Masters

The views of the author are his/her own and do not necessarily represent the position of The Weather Company or its parent, IBM.

Reader Comments

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 511 - 461

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11Blog Index

511. catfuraplenty
7:09 AM GMT on May 27, 2006
Living just outside of Houston I can say that while the air quality is poor, you can't beat the unique colors from the sun setting on a layer of molten pollution wavy gently in the stagnate horizon. As healthy mosquitoes play about in a symphony of buzzing. One has only to lay one's head on the over-heated concrete to imagine what trees might once have blocked this man-made view and ponder the glory that is industrialization at its zenith.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
509. ScienceCop
8:59 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
ScienceCop's Answer Permalink:

Posted By: MichaelSTL at 8:19 AM CDT on May 22, 2006.
ScienceCop - please stop making your gigantic posts or I will mark them. You only need one sentence to get your point across, not an essay.

Any graphic picture takes 10 to 20 times the bytes to transmit as my text messages. If the truth hurts your eyes, that's your problem, not mine. MARK AWAY.

A false statement, or indeed a fraudulent graphic of phoney CO2 history, take as much time and space to correct as required by the falseness and by the volume of evidence required to illustrate it's essential untruth.

Science has retrieved air bubbles stored in ice cores going back 600,000 years. Beyond this point there are no bottles of air showing what the Earth's atmosphere was like at any earlier dates. People making claims of higher CO2 levels have to produce their bottles of air and tell in great detail where they obtained these samples of Earth's atmosphere from long ago. There is CRIME of FRAUD occurring and it is every single citizen's duty to suppress crime, not just the cops. There are life and death consequences which result from false and fraudulent information passed around from shady sources. You need to go on record that you believe fraud laws should be enforced and violations punished with stiff prison sentences. There are no exemptions for "left" or "right", no exemptions for "conservative" or "liberal", for "Capitalist" or "Socialist". THERE ARE NO EXEMPTIONS -- the laws must be enforced with as much harshness as required to suppress any temptations to violate the laws, no matter who the criminals are.

Entire cities are being destroyed because fraud is succeeding: Cancun, Cozumel, New Orleans, Port Arthur, parts of Miami. People need to understand the real danger and understand the imperative to take appropriate actions. This is not a drill, this is not a test, this is the real thing.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
507. turtlehurricane
8:36 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
i hav updated my blog
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
506. TampaSteve
4:42 PM GMT on May 22, 2006

Perhaps, but a little less politics and a little more science would be appreciated.

Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
504. Alec
4:13 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
Compare Gulf SST May 21 with Gulf SST May 22 you will see the loop current has shoved a bunch of warmer water just S/SE of the NO coast...
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
503. Mysticdog
4:05 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
"And again, you dedicate yourself to proving that oil companies are evil. It. Does. Not. Matter. This is America, and we have a free market economy whether you like it or not. Have you driven today?"

This is a foolish argument. Because we need something, the people that make money from it are above ethics, morality and accountability? Or is it simply that anything that makes money is inherently amoral?

It is precisely because things like energy are so critical to human society that they need to be held to a higher standard, not left to wallow in this unfettered corruption that prevents progress towards new energy sources.

Not buying energy is not an option. Regulating and controlling the industry so it behaves like a good citizen of the country and planet is the only option, and that is of course what people advocate.

"I agree with this to an extent. Just a pain in the tail to read when someone says in 30 sentences what can be said in 5."

He was challenged to prove something. He could not have proven this point in 5 sentences. All he could have done is repeated the assertions, which is what passes as informed discussion far too often these days. There's not a single throwaway sentence in those posts, they all advance and clarify the point.

And global warming and the human role in it seem perfectly in sync with a weather blog, especially one focusing on severe weather.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
502. StormJunkie
4:04 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
Ya'll check out my blog for some nice sst comparisons. Give me 5 minutes as I am getting ready to update the current sst map.

SJ Blog with SST maps

Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
501. Alec
3:53 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
Another thing to note, last yr's SS temps at this time were BELOW average in the Gulf(now they are above average in most of the Gulf in general) and Dennis came through with Cat4 winds!(big upwelling in July) That in itself wasn't enough to stop Katrina, Rita, and Wilma from causing major devastation....
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
500. Mysticdog
3:53 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
Great posts, ScienceCop.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
499. Alec
3:50 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
yes K8e1, we must ALL be prepared and I believe the Gulf of Mexico is in for major trouble if a storm doesn't prematurely cool it's waters(not to say it isnt in trouble just because there's a premature storm)....The loop current is getting more active and already has 300 ft deep of 79-82 degree water!
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
495. Alec
3:29 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
Hey K8e1, I am located in Tallahassee, FL..(see my "location" section on the right side of my blog)
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
493. RL3AO
3:18 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
I was expecting more around 15-18, a little surprising.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
492. Alec
3:18 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
Also notice that just off the Carolinas the SST's are around 73-74 degrees....so IF something formed it would most likely not form into anything more than a tropical storm, if that....
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
491. rxse7en
3:13 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
Cool! Thanks all. Looks like some close calls in Jacksonville this year...again.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
489. TampaSteve
3:10 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
Hey ScienceCop,

So, what you're basically saying is that in a free society, you're going to have a few bad apples, and when they get caught, they get punished. Also, it's good to be rich. Capitalism ROCKS! Tell me something I don't know.

BTW, this is a tropical weather blog, not a bash "big oil" blog. There are plenty of political websites better suited to your type of posts.

Tell me something, ScienceCop...do you support building more nuclear power plants?
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
487. franck
3:07 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
The first counterclockwise water vapor rotation in the Gulf I've observed since a little cutoff low back in February.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
486. Alec
3:07 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
man, this blog is freezing my computer! It's soooooo long I cant load it properly...LOL
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
485. HurricaneMyles
3:05 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
I just checked the weatherunderground model maps and it showed a storm coming up through the bahamas into S. Carolina. It's obviously something to lookout for.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
484. IKE
3:05 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
Here's a link on the GFS....

Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
482. rxse7en
3:02 PM GMT on May 22, 2006

That link says it's the 300hr GFS that's predicting a tropical system--does anyone have a link to the 300hr GFS animation? Everything I checked doesn't show a storm forming.

Thanks all!

Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
481. Alec
3:01 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
Cool article....the one thing to remember(which is stated in the article) is that for every 10 mph increase in wind there's about 10 times more damage which shows wind speed increase is not linear but exponential....So a 180 mph hurricane is MUCH worse than a 170 mph hurricane..

Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
480. rxse7en
2:55 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
Cat 6


Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
478. WSI
2:33 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
"Dunno..I guess I kinda like lengthy blogs if they are informed and keep the point moving. I prefer them to the one liners that rarely have true intellectual value."

I agree with this to an extent. Just a pain in the tail to read when someone says in 30 sentences what can be said in 5.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
476. sayhuh
2:28 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
Dunno..I guess I kinda like lengthy blogs if they are informed and keep the point moving. I prefer them to the one liners that rarely have true intellectual value.

That being said, I still do not like short or long blog responses that are off topic.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
475. newt3d
2:27 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
Yeah, that Yucatan blob looks frontal ... but check out that East Pacific blob below it. 7N,92W
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
474. WSI
1:56 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
"it rarely takes me more then a few seconds to load even the 1000+ post blogs."

Dial-up is a different story. Brevity is a friend around here.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
473. HurricaneMyles
1:54 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
Well, they dont bother me. In fact, I read both of ScienceCops long posts and had no problem with them. And I cant comment about slowing down the blogs, it rarely takes me more then a few seconds to load even the 1000+ post blogs.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
471. CFLweather
1:43 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
The blob in the Yucatan is a surface trough, development is not expected, but with 2004 and 2005 in the back of my mind anything is possible.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
470. HurricaneMyles
1:42 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
I'm not defending science cop, but what are you going to mark his posts as MichaelSTL? Obscenely long? If you dont want to read something that long, dont read it.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
469. CFLweather
1:38 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
Jeff Masters continually asks to try to keep this weather related. Everybody just turns it into a chat room.

Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
467. IKE
12:30 PM GMT on May 22, 2006
Some people on here have WAY too much time on their hands...

Same old arguing that went on last year and it isn't even hurricane season yet.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
465. ForecasterColby
11:29 AM GMT on May 22, 2006
Oh, and not that anyone cares, but that's a low-level center. Looking at the SSD wind overlays, you can see a distinct and closed rotation in the low to mid levels and nothing at the upper.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
464. ForecasterColby
11:28 AM GMT on May 22, 2006
And again, you dedicate yourself to proving that oil companies are evil. It. Does. Not. Matter. This is America, and we have a free market economy whether you like it or not. Have you driven today? Never mind that, you're using your computer, which means you're using power, which probably came from oil in some way. If you want to take down the oil companies, stop buying their product - it is not the government's place to restrict private industry! I agree that they should be held to regulations, and I'm suprised that they've violated them so often. What do you want to government to do, exactly?
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
463. Cavin Rawlins
11:22 AM GMT on May 22, 2006

Look at the yucatan peninsula
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
462. ScienceCop
10:53 AM GMT on May 22, 2006
Posted By: ForecasterColby at 4:57 AM GMT on May 21, 2006.
Oh boy ScienceCop, you've just given me quite a treat. Not a whole lot of people give such heavily researched and yet wrong posts ;)

Posted By: ScienceCop at 3:13 AM GMT on May 21, 2006.
A due diligent search for CO2 levels going back 600,000 years is unable to find any global levels higher than today. The historical record is still being searched further back in time, and science is not finished yet. Nothing in 600,000 years supports any claim that CO2 was higher and that life was peachy with higher CO2.

ForecasterColby: See the graph already posted above.

ScienceCop: The graph is bogus. The website it is on is bogus. The names on the website registration left no footprints in the real world. They are assumed bogus until they can be verified by some means. Science is not decided by dueling "gif graphics" with no basis in factual research.

ScienceCop: ... Water is an essential of life too, but the chief loss of life from hurricanes is not wind damage but excess water flooding. Anything in excess is deadly -- would you prefer to be crushed to death by ten tons of lead or ten tons of feathers, or does it make any difference which ten tons crushes you to death? Feathers are not light when there are ten tons of them.

ForecasterColby: This is true. However, I will also call your attention to the fact that nature in general regulates itself. If CO2 levels rise, plants can grow more efficiently, and they change CO2 back to O2. Negative feedback is key to our biosphere. I think that our forest destruction is of much more concern than CO2 emissions - leave her alone, and Nature can repair almost anything we do to it in time.

ScienceCop: My attention does not require your calling it. The natural sinks of CO2 are clogged, which is the cause of increasing CO2. Simply stated, nature cannot dispose of your garbage as fast as you spew it out. The evidence is 35% increase of CO2 since the industrial revolution began. Plants cannot increase their sopping up CO2 beyond their present maximum rate. Still the CO2 increases. Deforestration insures that plants will sop up even less CO2 in the future. Heat stress and drought stress will further diminish CO2 sopping by plants. Stressed and dying plants create an ever greater fire hazard, leading to more wildfires and even more CO2 released into the atmosphere.

ScienceCop: The organization which produced this television advertisement is known to be involved in felony fraud deceptions of the body politic. Every single one of the chief perpetrators is known to be associated with multiple criminal fraud activities. In some cases the funders come from organized crime families stretching back two, three and four generations.

ForecasterColby: Known by whom? Enviornmentalists determined to label oil companies as evil? Sources are a good thing.

Court records are a good source of evidence for criminal behaviors which has passed through due process of law already. In the late 1990s 46 states Atorney Generals, the top lawmen from each state, charged the tobacco companies with a history of frauds. They proved their case in court and the tobacco companies settled for $280,000,000,000.oo in payouts. The jusdge ordered all 40,000,000 pages of documents posted online for ten years so the public could see for themselves this body of evidence. From these court documents I can trace the criminal behaviors of a number of Competitive Enterprise Institute science hoaxers and felony frauds that CEI itself participated in with the tobacco companies. Multiple addtional court cases exist, and I have done independent research published on the internet which adds to the complete picture.

TASSC, (The A.S.S. Coalition, or The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition) has many documents in the tobacco archives.
http:TobaccoArchives.org is the best source for actual documents.
http://snipurl.com/qsj4 Google Results about 698 for TASSC Tobacco.

This is not environmentalists, but elected states Attorney Generals and a Federal Court's evidence.

TASSC was created for public fraud in a series of meetings and all the notes were introduced into evidence in the tobacco frauds trials. Since this story is well known publically, and the involved parties are known to CEI, who also was involved in multiple frauds with the tobacco felons, no presumption of innocence is warranted.

Science has no jails or prisons. There is one punishment only, and that is reserved for worst cases of deliberate, intentional, premeditated, willful and knwing falsification of science.The punishment is expulsion from science for life, as in the case of the Korean Stem Cell fraudster. No reputable organization will hire, publish, or associate with such a scoundral.

Patrick J. Michaels, who is a collaborator with S. Fred Singer, both of the University of Virginia, was "Science Advisor" to TASSC. Singer, another TASSC "Science Advisor" himself is shown to be involved in four seperate major felony fraud operations for tobacco employers. Singer's partner in SEPP, and co-director on the board has been Frederick Seitz, another notorious tobacco fraudster. Seitz also was "Science Advisor" for TASSC. Steven Milloy was also an Executive Director of TASSC. These four names have permanently lost credibility in science for criminal conduct exposed by court evidence.

Michaels and Milloy are both connected to Competitive Enterprise Institute through the multiple front organs spawned by CEI. This was a common tactic learned by the tobacco fraudsters, to make up many organizations composed of basically the same people to appear larger than the group of activists actually was. It also allows donations from corporate sponsors to be distributed over many groups so that tracing corporate propaganda is made more difficult. Dedicated volunteers have searched through IRS "990" forms that every "charity" is required to file every year, and searched through corporate donations records to construct the database of scoundrals engaged in felony criminal fraud on the body politic.

FACTSHEET: Competitive Enterprise Institute, CEI
FACTSHEET: Consumer Alert, CA

FACTSHEET: Cooler Heads Coalition, CHC

There are at least four front operations controlled by CEI and staffed by CEI, even located in CEI's offices at times.
Michaels is connected to "Consumer Alert", which is controlled by CEI and has the CEI president's wife as Executive Director of CA. Steve Milloy is directly hired by CEI. There are multiple overlapping directors in CEI, Consumer Alert and Cooler Heads Coalition.

The tobacco archives are rich with documents on Roger Bate, who has an office at CEI, and operates a number of front organs for corporate clients, including Halliburton. This is another man permanently cast out from science for life because of criminal fraud science hoaxings. The evidence is online from Federal Court records.

ScienceCop: ... Koch Oil has been one of the pollutingest corporations in America, and that goes back a generation to father Fred Koch who co-founded the John Birch Society. It's not hard to find out the story of the Koch Industries: just ask google:

Results 1 - 100 of about 41,600 for Koch Industries Fined.
Results 1 - 100 of about 97,400 for Koch Industries Organized Crime.

ForecasterColby: You get google results for it...I get google results for " is the Antichrist". Something showing up on a google search just means some Joe with a few minutes bothered to write it up, nothing more.

You didn't look too hard and skipped over a lot to find your lame "Joe". What shows up, if you look, is $20,000,000 fine, $30,000,000 fine, $5,000,000 fine. It doesn't come from "Joe" but from the Department of Justice and court rulings after due process of law.

Here's what Koch Industries OWN WEBSITE says:
Koch will also pay a $30 million civil fine to resolve spills occurring over nearly 10 years of pipeline operations with the U.S. Department of Justice and the Texas Attorney General's office.

Dept of Justice Website:

The Koch Petroleum Group, the oil refining unit of Koch Industries, was fined $20 million yesterday after pleading guilty to covering up pollution at its oil refinery in Corpus Christi, Tex., the Justice Department said. In the case, a whistle-blower revealed that the refinery had released about 91 metric tons of benzene, a volatile solvent and a known carcinogen, in its liquid waste streams in 1995, about 15 times the refinery's limit, according to the Justice Department. In the agreement, filed in United States District Court in Corpus Christi, Koch admitted it had vented benzene vapors into the atmosphere. Koch will pay $10 million in criminal fines and $10 million to improve the environment, the Justice Department said.

* Competitive Enterprise Institute
Competitive Enterprise Institute has received $1,735,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998.
Koch Oil Grants to CEI = $666,420. http://www.mediatransparency.org/kochaggregate.php
Scaife Oil Fortune Grants to CEI = $1,800,000. http://www.mediatransparency.org/scaifeaggregate.php

ForecasterColby: So what? They have every right to do so, whether you agree or not, just as Gore and the rest of the far Left have the right to spread alarm, false though it may be. Is the globe warming? I'd say yes. Have we caused it? Possibly. Have we helped it along? Probably. But with the absurd alarms raised every time some quack does a study, I find it impossible to support most enviornmental groups. If they would go out and tell the TRUTH, I could support their adgenda. They are not. They exaggerate and alarm and manipulate people's fears to push their own adgenda. Maybe their adgenda is a good one, but I will not support, and will adamantly resist, any organization that uses such tactics.

It is a crime, not just bad manners, to yell "fire" in a crowded theater when there is no fire. People panic and get hurt. It is a worse offense to yell "no fire" when there really is one. 1,500 people died in New Orleans because the alarm was set too low. The correct level of alarm was what we saw -- but that message never got delivered because criminals are falsifying the actual state of the science and setting the alarm level too low. Paul Revere rode and raised the alarm that "the British are coming", and in fact the British were coming. The patriotic thing to do was raise the alarm and the treasonous thing was to set the alarm too low with the false message that "the British are nt coming, go back to bed." FRAUD is a serious CRIME when it leads to mass negligent homicides. IT is not optional behavior for one particular political view of the world.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
461. ScienceCop
8:41 AM GMT on May 22, 2006

Posted By: Califonia at 4:08 AM GMT on May 21, 2006.
Posted By: ScienceCop at 3:08 AM GMT on May 21, 2006.
Posted By: ForecasterColby at 10:16 PM GMT on May 19, 2006.
ForecasterColby: CO2 has been many times higher at previous points in earth's history. Guess what? The planet is still here. Life adapted. And it will again. If you want to talk climate change, we're actually in almost the COOLEST time in Earth's history.

ScienceCop: A due diligent search for CO2 levels going back 600,000 years is unable to find any global levels higher than today...


Califonia: I'm sure some of you guessed this might be coming, in response to the referenced post - heheheheh.

The rightside bar, in your unreferenced chart, is olive color and covers 65,000,000 years. 600,000 years recorded in Ice Cores is 1/100th of that bar, a sliver of one pixel wide. For this one pixel-wide segment of time we have actual samples of air frozen in deep ice which has been carefully drilled out of the Antarctic Ice Pack. I am unaware of sealed stored atmosphereic samples which go back further. Anybody can draw a chart and put lines on it. Who knows who drew this chart and what they used to plot their lines?

Perhaps you can explain how this data came to be on the chart?

65,000,000 years ago a large object smacked near Yucatan, now called the Alveraz Asteroid. It extinguished the dinosaurs and 90% of all living beings on lands. More than 50% of all species went down because of that day. All of the forests in North America were completely incinerated and sterilized, Forests burned on every continent. The amounts of CO2 produced exceed anything possible in natural events since that day. It was not at all peaches and cream for the survivers.

There are likely additional asteroid strike events which caused prior mass extinctions, but no specific impact craters have yet been identified for others. Certainly there were no eyewitnesses or instruments further back in time who could confirm any higher CO2 episodes. The further back one goes the more arguments there are between camps of experts.

It would take me a matter of minutes to create a bogus chart showing lower CO2 over the same time periods. Why should I not doubt that this is a bogus chart of absolutely no value? No link to source is provided to authenticate who made this chart. There are known science hoaxers, far worse than the Korean Stem Cell Fraudster, known to be producing false data and inserting it into Global Warming discussions, which is why the current standard for citizen behavior is to always attribute your sources so they can be checked.

The website this picture resides on is: http://net33.com/
The directory at http://net33.com/ where the image is stored is: http://net33.com/images/
The website is registered to:
http://net33.com = [ ]
Michael Ellis
Registered through: GoDaddy.com Inc. http://www.godaddy.com
Domain Name: NET33.COM
http://snipurl.com/qshm Your search - "Michael Ellis" NET33.COM - did not match any documents. = [ net33.com ]
OrgName: Netsonic
Address: PO Box 28283
City: Green Bay
StateProv: WI
PostalCode: 54304
Country: US
NetRange: -
RTechName: Simpson Adam L
http://snipurl.com/qshp Your search - "Adam L. Simpson" NET33.COM - did not match any documents.

This is hardly credible sources for scientific information. It has a distinctly fishy odor about it.

Regardless of the ultimate conclusion of CO2 present in the atmosphere in prior ages, the continents were not then where they are now. Pangea was still intact, which is why fossils of dinosaur relatives are found in China, Britain, US and South America. It was a very different world, optimized for giant lizards and giant insects. I doubt very much that you would have enjoyed living in that world.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:

Viewing: 511 - 461

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11Blog Index

Top of Page

Category 6™


Cat 6 lead authors: WU cofounder Dr. Jeff Masters (right), who flew w/NOAA Hurricane Hunters 1986-1990, & WU meteorologist Bob Henson, @bhensonweather

Ad Blocker Enabled