We're changing our WunderBlogs. Learn more about this important update on our FAQ page.

93L still disorganized; extreme heat wave hits the Middle East and Africa

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:05 PM GMT on June 24, 2010

The amount and intensity of heavy thunderstorm activity associated with the tropical wave (Invest 93L) located a few hundred miles south of Jamaica has increased over the past 24 hours, but the storm remains very disorganized and is not a threat to develop into a tropical depression today. The storm has not brought heavy rains to Haiti, fortunately, but heavy rains are expected today across Jamaica, where flash flood warnings have been posted. Satellite loops show a very disorganized system, with no low-level spiral bands and limited upper-level outflow. There are no signs of a surface circulation visible on satellite imagery. Pressures at the ground station nearest to the storm (Kingston) are beginning to fall, as are pressures at buoy 42057 a few hundred miles west of the storm, a sign that 93L is more organized than yesterday. Water vapor satellite loops show that moist air surrounds 93L, and there is less dry air to the storm's southwest than there was yesterday. There is an upper-level high pressure system a few hundred miles west of 93L, and the clockwise flow air around this high is bringing upper-level winds out of the northwest of about 10 knots over 93L, contributing to the 10 knots of wind shear observed in this morning's wind shear analysis from the University of Wisconsin's CIMSS group. Sea Surface Temperatures are plenty warm, a record 29 - 30°C. The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) currently favors upward motion over the Caribbean, which will act to increase the chances of tropical storm formation this week. The main negative for 93L continues to be the lack of spin. Last night's pass of the ASCAT satellite showed little in the way of a wind shift associated with 93L, though the pass did not completely capture the storm. The University of Wisconsin 850 mb relative vorticity analysis is showing that spin at 850 mb (roughly 5,000 feet in altitude) has increased over the past two days. The Hurricane Hunters are on call to investigate 93L Friday afternoon. Today's flight was canceled, due to 93L's lack of development.


Figure 1. Morning visible satellite image of the central Caribbean disturbance 93L.

Track forecast for 93L
I expect that by tomorrow, 93L should be closer to being directly underneath the upper level high pressure system to its west, which would act to lower wind shear and provide more favorable upper-level outflow. NHC is giving 93L a 40% chance of developing into a tropical depression by Saturday morning, which is a reasonable forecast. Given the storm's current lack of spin and relatively modest amount of heavy thunderstorms, the earliest I'd expect 93L to become a tropical depression would be Friday afternoon, with Friday night or Saturday morning more likely. Interaction with land will be a problem for 93L, as it will likely move over Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula or Western Cuba on Saturday. Expect 93L to bring flooding rains of 3 - 6 inches to Jamaica and eastern Cuba today through Friday. These rains will spread to the Cayman Islands, northern Honduras, and central Cuba Friday through Saturday, and western Cuba, Belize, and Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula on Saturday and Sunday. The current run of the SHIPS model has 93L slowing down late this week to a forward speed of just 7 knots (8 mph) from its current speed of about 10 mph, in response to a weakening in the steering currents. A trough of low pressure is expected to swing down over the Eastern U.S. on Monday. If this trough is strong enough and 93L develops significantly, the storm could get pulled northwards and make landfall along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast. This is the solution of the GFS, GFDL, and HWRF models. If 93L stays weak and/or the trough is not so strong, the storm would get pushed west-northwestwards across Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and towards the Texas or Mexican coast south of Texas. This is the solution of the NOGAPS, ECMWF, and Canadian models. A likely landfall location is impossible to speculate on reliably at this point, and the storm could hit virtually anywhere along the Gulf of Mexico coast given the current uncertainty in its development. A key factor will be how far north the center of 93L eventually consolidates at.

Intensity forecast for 93L
The amount of wind shear in the Gulf of Mexico next week is highly uncertain. There is currently a band of high shear near 30 knots over the Gulf. The GFS model predicts that this band of high shear will lift northwards, keeping low wind shear over the Gulf next week. However, the ECMWF model keeps high shear entrenched over the Gulf of Mexico. I give 93L a 50% chance of eventually becoming Tropical Storm Alex, but the odds of it eventually becoming a hurricane have lessened to 10%. None of the computer models is calling for 93L to become a hurricane.

Elsewhere in the tropics
None of the reliable computer models is calling for tropical cyclone formation in the Atlantic over the next seven days.


Figure 2. Dust storm over Iraq on June 23, 2010. Image credit: NASA.

Extreme heat wave sets all-time high temperature records in Africa and Middle East
A withering heat wave of unprecedented intensity and areal covered has smashed all-time high temperatures in five nations in the Middle East and Africa over the past week. Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Chad, Kuwait, and Niger all set new records for their hottest temperatures of all time, and two other Middle East nations came within a degree of their hottest temperatures ever. The heat was the most intense in Kuwait, which recorded its hottest temperature in history on June 15 in Abdaly, according to information I received from the Kuwait Met office. The mercury hit 52.6°C (126.7°F). Kuwait's previous all-time hottest temperature was 51.9°C (125.4°F), on July 27,2007, at Abdaly. Temperatures reached 51°C (123.8°F) in the capital of Kuwait City on June 15, 2010.

Iraq had its hottest day in history on June 14, 2010, when the mercury hit 52.0°C (125.6°F) in Basra. Iraq's previous record was 51.7°C (125.1°F) set August 8, 1937, in Ash Shu'aybah.

It was also incredibly hot in Saudi Arabia, which had its hottest temperature ever on Tuesday (June 22): 52.0°C (125.6°F), measured in Jeddah, the second largest city in Saudi Arabia. The previous record was 51.7°C (125.1°F), at Abqaiq, date unknown. The record heat was accompanied by a sandstorm, which caused eight power plants to go offline, resulting in blackouts to several Saudi cities.

In Africa, Chad had its hottest day in history on Tuesday (June 22), when the temperature reached 47.6°C (117.7°F) at Faya. The previous record was 47.4°C (117.3°F) at Faya on June 3 and June 9, 1961.

Niger tied its record for hottest day in history on Tuesday (June 22), when the temperature reached 47.1°C (116.8°F) at Bilma. That record stood for just one day, as Bilma broke the record again on Wednesday (June 23), when the mercury topped out at 48.2°C (118.8°F). The previous record was 47.1°C on May 24, 1998, also at Bilma.

Two other countries came within a degree of their all time hottest temperature on record during the heat wave. Bahrain had its hottest June temperature ever, 46.9°C, on June 20, missing the all-time record of 47.5°C (117.5°F), set July 14, 2000. Temperatures in Quatar reached 48.8°C (119.8°F) on June 20. Quatar's all-time record hottest temperature was 49.6°C (121.3°F) set on July 9, 2000.

According to Essa Ramadan, a Kuwaiti meteorologist from Civil Aviation, Matrabah, Kuwait smashed this record and had Asia's hottest temperature in history on June 15 this year, when the mercury hit 54.0°C (129.2°F). However, data from this station is notoriously bad, and each year bogus record highs have to be corrected, according to an email I received from weather record researcher Maximiliano Herrera. Asia's hottest temperature in history will very likely remain the 53.5°C (128.3°F) recorded at MohenjuDaro, Pakistan on May 26 this year.

Commentary
We've now had seven countries in Asia and Africa that have beaten their all-time hottest temperature record during the past two months. As I discussed in my blog about Pakistan's May 26 record, Southeast Asia also had its all-time hottest temperature in May, when the mercury hit 47°C (116.6°F) in Myinmu, Myanmar on May 12. All of these records are unofficial, and will need to be certified by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). According to Chris Burt, author of Extreme Weather, setting five national heat records in one month is not unprecedented--in August 2003, six countries (the UK, France, Portugal, Germany, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein) all broke their all-time heat records during that year's notorious summer heat wave. Fortunately, the residents of the countries affected by this week's heat wave are more adapted to extreme high temperatures, and we are not seeing the kind of death tolls experienced during the 2003 European heat wave (30,000 killed.) This week's heat wave in Africa and the Middle East is partially a consequence of the fact that Earth has now seen three straight months with its warmest temperatures on record, according to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center. It will be interesting to see if the demise of El Niño in May will keep June from becoming the globe's fourth straight warmest month on record.


Figure 3. Approximate oil spill location on June 23, 2010, and estimated by NOAA using visible satellite imagery from NASA's MODIS instrument, and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery from polar-orbiting satellites. Image credit: NOAA Satellite Services Division.

Wind and ocean current forecast for the BP oil disaster
East to southeast winds of 5 - 15 knots will blow in the northern Gulf of Mexico today through Monday, according to the latest marine forecast from NOAA. The resulting weak ocean currents should push the oil to the west and northwest onto portions of the Louisiana and Alabama coasts, according to the latest trajectory forecasts from NOAA and the State of Louisiana. I would expect Mississippi to have its most serious threat of oil yet early next week as these winds continue. The longer range outlook is uncertain, and will depend upon what 93L does.

Resources for the BP oil disaster
Map of oil spill location from the NOAA Satellite Services Division
My post, What a hurricane would do the Deepwater Horizon oil spill
My post on the Southwest Florida "Forbidden Zone" where surface oil will rarely go
My post on what oil might do to a hurricane
NOAA's interactive mapping tool to overlay wind and ocean current forecasts, oil locations, etc.
Gulf Oil Blog from the UGA Department of Marine Sciences
Oil Spill Academic Task Force
University of South Florida Ocean Circulation Group oil spill forecasts
ROFFS Deepwater Horizon page
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery from the University of Miami

Jeff Masters


The views of the author are his/her own and do not necessarily represent the position of The Weather Company or its parent, IBM.

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

Log In or Join

You be able to leave comments on this blog.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 2753 - 2703

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75 | 76 | 77 | 78 | 79 | 80 | 81 | 82 | 83 | 84 | 85 | 86 | 87Blog Index

Levi32: your Hopeian climatological observations are correct!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Jeff9641:


Yup the longer it sits the further east he goes. That trough is coming in a few days and should be strong enough to kick it N then NE.


pushes it towrds FL and rides up the east coast.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2750. Levi32
Quoting Drakoen:


Absolutely incorect, the activity to the east did not result in subsidence. The upper level confluent flow which promoted upper level convergence result in subsidence, which in fact the NWS Jackson out of Mississippi noted in one of their discussions. Since the upper level confluence has relax that has result in a better outflow aloft allowing for the heat to actually reach 93L lower level circulation.


The band of strong westerlies is just to the north of 93L but this was not a big, amplified, synoptic-scale feature causing upper confluence. Look at this image below and you tell me where the upper high is. The center of upper anticyclonic flow is just south of Hispaniola. Why is it there? It's a heat bubble due to all the convection. Such a massive buildup of energy is going to result in a confluent flow on the outskirts of the system and resulting subsidence, dry air, and lack of convection. All that activity has been shifting west today, and is now bringing 93L's surface center into the area of upward motion.

24 hours ago:

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
All in the timing, but I'm not sure if we need to worry about the southern most trough or the one up near the us/canadian boarder, as regards to tugging on 93
Link is to goes east nortwest. Clearly show both fronts. IR
Link
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2748. Patrap











BP's chief operating officer, Doug Suttles, spent an hour answering questions about the oil spill from reporters and editors at the Times-Picayune in New Orleans June 24, 2010. Here are excerpts from the interview.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
Draconian: Did you see the spin of the higher cloud top organization on infrared?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2746. srada
Good Evening everyone!

still no consistentency with the models runs which means the model tracking still dont mean squat until the "disturbance" actually develops into a TD and a center can be initialized on..as I have been saying a wait and see situation
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2745. Patrap
26C Depth Isotherm

Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
2744. Patrap
Quoting JBirdFireMedic:


Thanks Patrap. Bookmarked!


Anytime..
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
2743. Seastep
This looks like it is farther SE to me:

Link
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
NEW PAST TRACK PLOTS

AL, 93, 2010062018, , BEST, 0, 12.0N 64.3W 15, 1011, WV,
AL, 93, 2010062100, , BEST, 0, 12.7N 65.4W 20, 1011, WV,
AL, 93, 2010062106, , BEST, 0, 13.4N 66.5W 20, 1011, WV,
AL, 93, 2010062112, , BEST, 0, 14.0N 67.6W 20, 1011, WV,
AL, 93, 2010062118, , BEST, 0, 14.5N 68.8W 25, 1010, WV,
AL, 93, 2010062200, , BEST, 0, 14.9N 70.0W 25, 1010, WV,
AL, 93, 2010062206, , BEST, 0, 15.1N 71.5W 25, 1010, WV,
AL, 93, 2010062212, , BEST, 0, 15.3N 72.9W 25, 1010, WV,
AL, 93, 2010062218, , BEST, 0, 15.4N 74.0W 25, 1010, WV,
AL, 93, 2010062300, , BEST, 0, 15.6N 75.2W 25, 1010, WV,
AL, 93, 2010062306, , BEST, 0, 15.7N 76.3W 25, 1010, WV,
AL, 93, 2010062312, , BEST, 0, 15.9N 76.8W 25, 1010, WV,
AL, 93, 2010062318, , BEST, 0, 16.1N 77.7W 25, 1010, WV,
AL, 93, 2010062400, , BEST, 0, 16.2N 78.2W 25, 1009, WV,
AL, 93, 2010062406, , BEST, 0, 16.4N 79.3W 25, 1009, WV,
AL, 93, 2010062412, , BEST, 0, 16.3N 80.3W 25, 1008, WV,
AL, 93, 2010062418, , BEST, 0, 16.2N 81.0W 25, 1008, WV,
AL, 93, 2010062500, , BEST, 0, 16.0N 81.6W 25, 1006, LO,
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2741. USSINS
Quoting emguy:
Battleground for consolidation will be closer to Jamaica. Actually, good idea that Jaimaica itself is within the red development zone. It should happen close to there...maybe a little to the west or sw of there, but not by much.



Can't disagree.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2740. Drakoen
Quoting Levi32:


Dry air due to subsidence caused by all the activity to the east. The system being non-stacked was not a result of it being sheared, but rather the overall pattern in the Caribbean is what set this up the way it did.

The CIMSS wind shear map can be deceiving with the position of the high and the resulting "shear". Look at the actual upper winds....nothing south of 20N in the central Caribbean was being sheared 24 hours ago. Very nice anticyclonic flow aloft, in fact.

IMG src="http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/tropic2/real-time/atlantic/winds/wg8wvirZ-
8.GIF">


Absolutely incorect, the activity to the east did not result in subsidence in the west. The upper level confluent flow which promoted upper level convergence result in subsidence, which in fact the NWS Jackson out of Mississippi noted in one of their discussions. Since the upper level confluence has relax that has result in a better outflow aloft allowing for the heat to actually reach 93L lower level circulation.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
Quoting Patrap:
Aircraft Recon Info is on the Left side of the NHC Home Page.

Maybe one to bookmark for the next 5 mths


Thanks Patrap. Bookmarked!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2738. Levi32
Quoting Drakoen:


93L did not jump anywhere. The system has been going along with the wave axis and formed a low pressure center along the wave axis. And low pressures where observed through most of the Caribbean. In addition, 93L's low was weak it insignificant at the time. It is surprising such strong convection could not lead to the formation of a surface low.


I don't mean "jumped" as in reformed. It didn't do that, but it raced to the western Caribbean and stopped, because that's where it wanted to be. Everything else lagged behind, and couldn't form a new low due to strong competition from 93L's real center which was sitting in the western Caribbean well ahead of the rest of the mid-level energy as well as the other tropical wave behind it.

The western Caribbean has been favored for pressure falls, and any competition from the east had a good chance of failing until making it west of 75W.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2737. xcool
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting btwntx08:

i believe so


Hi btwntx....
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2735. Patrap
TCHP

Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
Be back in a bit.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
well the spin at 74w 16-17n has my interest. i will watch that.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
Chapters have been written on 93l and it is still an invest. Definitely invested in by this illustrious board. Did anyone notice the max spin on the high cloud tops in the latest Noaa infrared? By far the fastest in the last few days. It's ready to go to depression status. Repeat: all systems are go.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2730. Ossqss
Just my take, but what follows is my concern :)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2728. xcool
93L
becoming better organized
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2727. Drakoen
Quoting Levi32:


All the convergence and focus of energy has been off to the east of 93L this entire time. 93L's surface low automatically jumped to the western Caribbean because the pattern favors lowering pressures there. The mid-upper energy to the east has been sluggish in comparison, and has taken its sweet time coming west. Surface pressures did not appreciably lower east of 93L but the convergence was there with all the thunderstorms and the piling up of energy. They couldn't form a surface circulation because it was competing with what was in the western Caribbean, which already had the advantage of lower pressures in an area that was favored for that this week.


93L did not jump anywhere. The system has been going along with the wave axis and formed a low pressure center along the wave axis. And low pressures where observed through most of the Caribbean. In addition, 93L's low was weak it insignificant at the time. It is surprising such strong convection could not lead to the formation of a surface low.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
Quoting Chicklit:

That was this morning.
Still a fight within 93L for energy.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
Quoting StormW:
Based on the steering layers forecast, I prefer the northern 2 models on the statistical package:



and the very middle of the dynamic package:



Then, I guess I need to keep an eye out then...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
Which is exactly what we are seeing now. Several vorticies competing for energy and just making a big mess.

That was this morning.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2723. Levi32
Quoting Drakoen:


You can see at that time the convection was east of the upper level high which did not promote the advection. Convection was under 10-30 knots of shear. And also at that time dry air limited convective activity.


Dry air due to subsidence caused by all the activity to the east. The system being non-stacked was not a result of it being sheared, but rather the overall pattern in the Caribbean is what set this up the way it did.

The CIMSS wind shear map can be deceiving with the position of the high and the resulting "shear". Look at the actual upper winds....nothing south of 20N in the central Caribbean was being sheared 24 hours ago. Very nice anticyclonic flow aloft, in fact.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Levi32: Good observations. The pudding is in the details or however it goes.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2720. Patrap
God hears all prayers and Invest Posts.

She just dont answer yes to all of them
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
2719. drj27
its not coming to the panhandle hope not anyway
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2718. 7544
who lit the torch in the carb. is anything going to form out of all this fire ?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting StormW:


What does this tell ya?



Whew! You mean i can actually TRUST the NHC? Who knew?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting GeoffreyWPB:


Tells me it is going inland.
If the current dominating area of low pressure moves inland I wouldn't be surprised to see a new low level area develop in the concentration of heat and moisture further north.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
2715. Gorty
Quoting GeoffreyWPB:


Tells me it is going inland.


No body listens. Just give up, lol. It will make landfall in central america.

I have been saying this 93l WILL NOT be Alex. Maybe the first TD.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Just did a blog on 93L.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2713. Drakoen
Quoting Levi32:


I disagree. Your upper high was over 93L's center 24 hours ago and even farther back than that.

This was a complex situation and was not solely one entity trying to develop, but rather multiple features contributing energy. It was a big mess that needed time to consolidate and it is finally trying to do that as it has moved into the area of the Caribbean where pressures are naturally lowering due to the overall pattern. When 93L was farther east, all it was doing was fighting with itself. If everything gets west of 80W, this should stack up and develop if given enough time before running into the Yucatan.

24 hours ago:



Current:




You can see at that time the convection was east of the upper level high which did not promote the advection. Convection was under 10-30 knots of shear. And also at that time dry air limited convective activity.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
2712. emguy
Battleground for consolidation will be closer to Jamaica. Actually, good idea that Jaimaica itself is within the red development zone. It should happen close to there...maybe a little to the west or sw of there, but not by much.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
00z graphics update:

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2710. Levi32
Also, I don't think a post of 2 sentences in length is over-analyzed lol.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Levi32: As Mr. John Hope would say: Touche! The Western Caribbean is open for business as usual. See ya eastern remnants.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Hurricance Dudus left Jamaica today and is now enjoying some good ole Uncle Sam hospitality,
Good riddance! I hope you keep him for 10 to 20 years.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting StormW:


What does this tell ya?



Tells me it is going inland.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:


Buoy 42057 (1650'2" N 8130'2" W)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting extreme236:
Being a low is a decent upgrade from a wave.

AL, 93, 2010062500, , BEST, 0, 160N, 816W, 25, 1006, LO
Certainly. But it still remains broad to my eye. Let's hope for a good scatterometer pass to verify whether or not we have a broad or consolidated closed low.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
2704. Ossqss
Quoting aspectre:
" CELIA IS NOW A CATEGORY FOUR HURRICANE...
2:00 PM PDT Thu Jun 24
Location: 12.8°N 114.7°W
Max sustained: 135 mph
Moving: W at 12 mph
Min pressure: 948 mb "

2640 Patrap "I got a reserved seat for me and the Family...
...The Ships Leave Dec 20th 2012...and well the 21st is gonna be a bad day
"...

...with LIVE video coverage by CycloneOz direct from the epicenter of the Mayan End of Times.



Ummmm, Dude?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2703. Patrap
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:

Viewing: 2753 - 2703

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75 | 76 | 77 | 78 | 79 | 80 | 81 | 82 | 83 | 84 | 85 | 86 | 87Blog Index

Top of Page
Ad Blocker Enabled

Category 6™

About

Cat 6 lead authors: WU cofounder Dr. Jeff Masters (right), who flew w/NOAA Hurricane Hunters 1986-1990, & WU meteorologist Bob Henson, @bhensonweather

JeffMasters's Recent Photos

Mountain wave clouds over Labrador
Mountain wave clouds over Labrador
Mountain wave clouds over Labrador
Labrador ice