Organic Farming Blog. Filled with interesting facts, comparison articles and opinions on everything related to organic farming.
By: organicfarmingblog, 1:00 PM GMT on June 18, 2013
Nowadays, consumers all over the world are concerned about the quality of food and beverages that they buy. Most of them have the inclination to look for products of organic farming like food and beverages because organic food is likely to contain lower residues of agricultural chemicals than non-organic food.
Wines are made with grapes that are cultivated according to the principles of biodynamic agriculture, a type of organic farming. The wine-making process has several steps namely hand harvest, soft crushing, vinification, and alcoholic fermentation. It has become widely common among oenologists that commercial selected yeast starters, mainly strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae be used as starters to carry out the process. Nevertheless, this is a procedure that generally hinders both the development of non-Saccharomyces yeasts like Candida sorbosa owing to the fast production of ethanol, what favors the full exhaustion of sugars and the loss of genuineness, and the development of indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae that are forced to compete during the fermentation process with the commercial strains inoculated. The use of selected strains of S. cerevisiae has improved the fermentative processes and the quality of wines, but their continual use has led to a colonization and consequent elimination of the native microorganisms present in the wineries.
A study of over three years revealed that a large proportion of non-Saccharomyces strains were found after fermentation, representing 81% of all the yeasts isolated and only 19% of the isolations turned out to be Saccharomyces strains. Taking into consideration the fact that fermentation was used as an enriching medium in order to favor the growth of fermentative yeasts, such as S. cerevisiae, a high proportion of non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and one of these was Candida sorbosa. However the population was found to be minimal compared to Candida stellata. Also, C. sorbosa of the Shiraz variety was found to exist in a conventional farm and not in an organic farm in a study done in 2011 with three grape varieties namely Shiraz, Grenache and Barbera made as focal points.
There is a need to come up with different strategies to isolate, identify and characterize different strains of both Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast species from different vine-growing areas with typical traits so that wines of extraordinary characteristics will be produced. Furthermore, because the vineyard may be the main reservoir of native yeasts of oenological interest, it is necessary to preserve, and even encourage, the presence of fermentative species in it since they are better acclimatised to the environmental conditions and assure the maintenance of the typical sensory properties of the wines of a given region.
By: organicfarmingblog, 1:00 PM GMT on June 14, 2013
A developing country desires that its poverty be alleviated and food security be experienced by its citizens. Given in its setting are such seeming liabilities as indiscriminate population growth, land degradation and increasing food demand, difficulty in sustaining agriculture production through improved soil quality management. If to this scenario will enter an almost perfect system – an agricultural system that maintains and improves human health, benefits producers and consumers both economically and spiritually, protects the environment, and produces enough food for an increasing world population – then the whole stage appearance will be plausible.
How is this stage coming alive today?
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and cyanobacteria strains are seen as possible candidates for genetic enhancement so as to offer an environmentally sustainable approach to increase crop production and health. Furthermore, revelations about the mechanisms of PGPR action open new door to design strategies for improving the efficacy of biocontrol agents. There is an urgent need to conduct studies under field conditions.
Genetic manipulation of host crops for root-associated traits to enhance establishment and proliferation of beneficial microorganisms is being pursued. Health and safety testing are also required to address such issues as the non-target effects on other organisms including toxigenicity, allergenicity and pathogenicity, persistence in the environment and potential for horizontal gene transfer.
There is a need to have an environment that supports high populations of beneficial soil microbes and activities related to biological control. Because it has been observed that disease suppression in plant typically occurs as a result of the activation of the indigenous soil microbial com-munity, which has been much neglected in favor of intensive research on individual antagonistic microorganisms.
The encapsulation of microbial inoculants for agricultural purposes has a potential for succeeding. It has been shown to be advantageous over using liquid inoculants, peat, and clay. However, the inconvenience of bioencapsulation technology must not be ignored. To produce a large amount of inoculant, trials on large fields are required to use innovative bioencapsulation devices.
The use of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and Rhizobium increases the nitrogen and phosphorus uptake and in turn reduce the use of agrochemicals. The agrochemicals are very costly and had side effects on human health and environment. With the use of these symbionts farmers can save the capital and can achieve sustainable agriculture.
Suffice it to say that genetic engineering, when accomplished by mystic scientists, can impact more benefits to organic farming and all consumers in general.