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OCTOBER TROPICAL STORMS (1851-2011):

By: ncforecaster, 4:23 AM GMT on October 21, 2012

Hey everyone,

This particular blog entry is an updated version of a similar blog entry I wrote last year (to account for the 2011 season and various other HURDAT revisions). In it, we will continue our examination of the entire historical record (1851-present), with a focus on "October" Tropical Cyclone (TC) activity throughout the Atlantic basin. An "October" TC will be characterized as one that initially developed at some point during the month of October (i.e. October 1- October 31). Those TC's (shown by year) that achieved hurricane (H) and/or "major" hurricane (MH) intensity will be designated by bold case print in the following respective sections.

ALL TROPICAL STORMS:

Note: These totals include Subtropical Storms (STS), as well.

7 = 2005 (2 H/2 MH/1 STS).

6 = 1870 (5 H/1 MH), 1887 (3 H), and 1950 (2 H/2 MH).

5 = 1969 (1 STS, H Nov./2 H), 2001 (1 H/1 MH/1 MH Nov.), and 2010.

4 = 1878 (3 H/1 MH), 1899 (1 H), 1923 (1 H), 1932 (1 MH Nov.), 1933 (1 H/1 MH), 1953 (1 H), 1990 (3 H), 1995 (1 H/1 MH), and 2000 (1 STS/1 H).

3 = 1859 (1 H/1 MH), 1867 (1 H/1 MH), 1868 (2 H), 1879 (1 H), 1880 (2 H), 1886 (1 MH), 1891 (1 H), 1892 (2 H), 1894 (1 H/2 MH), 1895 (1 H), 1898, 1900, 1901 (1 H Nov.), 1903 (1 H), 1904 (1 H), 1906 (1 MH), 1916 (1 H/1 MH), 1934 (1 H), 1942, 1943 (1 H), 1947 (1 H/1 MH), 1967 (2 H), 1978 (1 H), 1991 (1 STS, H Nov./1 H), 1996 (1 MH), 1999 (2 H), and 2008 (1 MH).

2 = 1861, 1862 (1 H), 1869 (1 H), 1875, 1877, 1896, 1897 (1 H), 1905 (1 MH), 1908 (1 H), 1912, 1913, 1921 (1 MH), 1922 (1 H), 1924 (1 MH), 1926 (1 MH), 1927, 1929 (1 H), 1931, 1935 (1 H, 1 H Nov.), 1937 (1 H), 1938, 1939 (1 H/1 MH), 1940 (1 H), 1941 (1 MH), 1944 (1 MH), 1945, 1946 (1 MH), 1949 (1 H), 1951, 1952 (1 H/1 MH), 1955 (1 MH), 1959 (1 H), 1961 (1 MH), 1963 (1 H), 1970, 1973 (1 H), 1977 (1 H), 1985 (1 H), 1997, 1998 (1 H/1 MH), 2003, 2004 (1 STS), and 2009.

1 = 1851, 1852, 1853, 1854, 1858, 1860, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1871, 1872, 1874 (H Nov.), 1876 (MH), 1882 (MH), 1883, 1884, 1885, 1888, 1889, 1890, 1893, 1902, 1907, 1909 (MH), 1910 (MH), 1911, 1928, 1930, 1936, 1948 (MH), 1954 (MH), 1957, 1958, 1962 (MH), 1964 (MH), 1965, 1968, 1971, 1974 (STS), 1975, 1976, 1979 (STS), 1980, 1981, 1984, 1987, 1988 (MH), 1989, 1992, 2007 (H Nov.), and 2011 (MH).

0 = 1855, 1856, 1857, 1863, 1873, 1881, 1914, 1915, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920, 1925, 1956, 1960, 1966, 1972, 1982, 1983, 1986, 1993, 1994, 2002, and 2006.

In addition: Storm #8 of 1956 (MH Greta) was an October TC that didn't achieve TS intensity until the succeeding month of November.

Also, Storm #8 of 1859 (H), storm #11 of 1870 (H), storm #7 of 1874 (H), storm #4 of 1890 (TS), storm #6 of 1896 (H), storm #11 of 1898 (TS), storm #12 of 1901 (H), storm #5 of 1904 (TS), storm #7 of 1927 (TS), storm #14 of 1932 (MH), storm #18 of 1933 (TS), storm #7 of 1935 (H), storm #6 of 1939 (H), storm #6 of 1946 (TS), storm #9 of 1961 (TS Hattie), storm #8 of 1967 (H Heidi), storm #17 of 1969 (H), storm #12 of 1978 (TS Kendra), storm #10 of 1981 (TS Jose), storm #10 of 1985 (TS Juan), storm #8 of 1991 (H), storm #19 of 1995 (H Tanya), storm #13 of 1998 (TS Mitch), storm #13 of 2001 (MH Michelle), storm #14 of 2007 (H Noel), and storm #19 of 2010 (H Tomas) were each an "October" TC of at least STS or TS intensity that at least retained that intensity into the succeeding month of November. Each storms respective "November" maximum intensity is listed in parenthesis.



This is a visible satellite image of the most intense "October" TC to have ever been observed anywhere within the Atlantic basin. At the time of this satellite image (around 1028 am EDT on October 19, 2005), Hurricane "Wilma" was near its peak intensity-with a maximum sustained wind (MSW) of 185 mph and a lowest barometric pressure (BP) of 882 mb. Its remarkably low barometric pressure also made H Wilma the most intense hurricane ever observed anywhere within the Atlantic basin-for all months of a calendar year! Image courtesy of "NOAA".

ALL U.S. TROPICAL STORM LANDFALLS:

Note: These totals include all U.S. land falling TCs of at least Subtropical or Tropical Storm intensity.

3 = 1879, 1893 (2 MH), and 1923 (1 H).

2 = 1859 (1 H), 1870, 1877 (1 MH), 1878 (1 H), 1880 (1 H), 1885, 1887 (1 H), 1895, 1897, 1898 (1 MH), 1899 (1 H), 1916 (1 H), 1941 (1 H), 1947 (1 H), 1950 (1 MH), 1953, 1959, 1964 (1 H/1 MH), 1985 (1 H), 2002 (1 H), and 2005 (1 MH).

1 = 1851, 1852, 1853, 1860, 1861, 1865, 1867, 1868, 1869, 1871, 1872, 1873 (MH), 1876, 1882, 1886 (MH), 1888, 1889, 1891, 1892, 1894 (MH), 1896, 1900, 1902, 1904, 1905, 1906 (MH), 1909 (MH), 1910, 1912, 1913, 1921 (MH), 1924, 1926, 1927, 1933, 1934, 1937, 1938, 1942, 1944 (MH), 1946, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1954 (MH), 1963, 1966, 1968, 1969, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1995 (MH), 1996, 1999, and 2004.

0 = 1854, 1855, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1866, 1874, 1875, 1881, 1883, 1884, 1890, 1901, 1903, 1907, 1908, 1911, 1914, 1915, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920, 1922, 1925, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1935, 1936, 1939, 1940, 1943, 1945, 1952, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1965, 1967, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1997, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011.

In addition: Storm #18 of 1933 brought TS-force conditions to the Fl. Keys/extreme S. Fl. as it brushed these areas as a powerful MH.

Also, Storm #8 of 1963 (H Ginny) brought TS-force conditions to the U.S. coastline.

Note: Storm #2 of 1929 (H) made landfall on September 30 at 11 pm CST, which equates to 0400 UTC on October 1. As a result, it is listed as a "September" landfall for the U.S. and not accounted for in the "October" totals.

ALL U.S. HURRICANE LANDFALLS:

2 = 1870, 1893 (2 MH), and 1964 (1 MH).

1 = 1852, 1853, 1859, 1860, 1865, 1867, 1869, 1873 (MH), 1876, 1877 (MH), 1878, 1880, 1882, 1886 (MH), 1887, 1888, 1894 (MH), 1898 (MH), 1899, 1904, 1906 (MH), 1909 (MH), 1910, 1912, 1913, 1916, 1921 (MH), 1923, 1924, 1926, 1941, 1944 (MH), 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950 (MH), 1954 (MH), 1966, 1968, 1985, 1987, 1989, 1995 (MH), 1999, 2002, and 2005 (MH).

ALL U.S. MAJOR HURRICANE LANDFALLS:

2 = 1893.

1 = 1873, 1877, 1886, 1894, 1898, 1906, 1909, 1921, 1944, 1950, 1954, 1964, 1995, and 2005.



This is a visible satellite image of the most intense TC (in terms of lowest central pressure) to make a U.S. landfall during the month of October-since the satellite era began in 1960. At the time that this particular satellite image was taken, H "Opal" was steadily weakening from its peak intensity of a 150 mph/916 mb strong category four hurricane-that had occurred just 4 hours earlier. It still retained a MSW of 135 mph and a lowest B.P. of 933 mb at the time this image was taken. By the time H Opal ultimately came ashore-around 5 pm CDT on October 4, 1995-she still had a MSW of 115 mph and a lowest barometric pressure of 942 mb. Image courtesy of "NOAA".

INTERESTING FACTS:

1) All Atlantic Basin Tropical Storms:

a) Total number of Atlantic basin tropical storms: There were a total of 299 "October" TS or STS systems that developed in the Atlantic basin during the 161 year period of 1851-2011. These figures include 5 "September" tropical cyclones that achieved TS intensity (for the first time) during the month of October-two of which went on to achieve H intensity during the month of October. In all, this equates to one October TS or STS every 0.54 years, on average. It also equates to an average of 1.86 October TS's or STS's per year.

Also, there were 65 "September" TC's-of either TS or H intensity-that at least retained TS intensity into the month of October, as well.

Furthermore, 8 of the aforementioned 294 "October" STS or TS systems went on to achieve hurricane intensity in the succeeding month of November. Of those eight, 2 became "major" hurricanes shortly thereafter.

There was also 1 additional "October" TC (MH Greta of 1956) that didn't achieve TS intensity until the succeeding month of November. It would go on to achieve MH intensity during the month of November.

b) Total number of Atlantic basin hurricanes: There were a total of 164 TC's that achieved hurricane intensity during the month of October. These figures include two "September" TC's that reached H intensity during the month of October-as listed above.

The total also includes 13 "September" tropical storms that achieved H intensity (for the first time) during the month of October. These figures equate to a statistical mean of 1.02 October H's per year, on average.

c) Total number of Atlantic basin "major" hurricanes: There were a total of 52 October TC's that achieved "major" hurricane (MH) intensity during the month of October.

This total includes 12 "September" tropical storms (those that had already achieved TS intensity during that particular month) that went on to become "major" hurricanes in October. This equates to one October MH every 3.1 years, on average.

d) The most intense October hurricane: Hurricane Wilma holds the record as the most intense October hurricane for anywhere in the Atlantic basin. It was a category five hurricane with a maximum sustained wind (MSW) of 185 mph and a lowest barometric pressure (B.P.) of 882 mb on October 19, 2005 at 8 am EST. As a result of the 882 mb minimum central pressure, H Wilma became the most intense Hurricane ever observed anywhere within the entire Atlantic basin.

e) The most recent October tropical storm: MH Rina of October 2011 is the most recent "October" TC (of at least TS intensity) to develop anywhere within the Atlantic basin. It became a TS-with a MSW of 40 mph-very late on October 23, 2011, after TC development in the SW Caribbean. Shortly thereafter, Rina underwent rapid intensification into a 115 mph category three MH by the early afternoon hours of October 25. Within 24 hours, increasing southeasterly and southerly wind shear induced precipitous weakening, as Rina moved towards an eventual landfall on the NE coastline of the Yucatan peninsula as a 60 mph tropical storm, around 10 pm EST on October 27.

f) The most recent "October" hurricane: H Rina is also the most recent TC of hurricane intensity to develop in the Atlantic basin, as well. It achieved hurricane intensity around 2 pm EST on October 24, 2011. At the time, Rina was moving in a general WNW trajectory towards the Yucatan Peninsula.

g) The most recent October "major" hurricane: Hurricane Rina of 2011 is also the most recent October MH to develop within the North Atlantic basin. It achieved major hurricane intensity (115 mph/971 mb) during the early afternoon hours of October 25, 2011.

h) The longest period without an "October" tropical storm: There have only been five periods of consecutive years without a TC developing anywhere in the Atlantic basin, during the month of October. They were 1855-1858, 1914-1916, 1917-1921, 1982-1984, and 1993-1995. In addition, only 25 of the 161 hurricane seasons (15.5%) in the historical record, didn't have a TS form during the entire month of October.

i) The most tropical storms to develop in one season: The 2005 Atlantic Basin hurricane season is shown to have been the most prolific for "October" TC formations-with 7.

j) The most hurricanes to develop in one season: The 1870 Atlantic basin hurricane seasons holds the record for spawning the most TC's of hurricane intensity-with 6.

k) The most "major" hurricanes to develop in one season: The 1894, 1950, and 2005 seasons each spawned 2 MH's during their respective seasons.

2) All U.S. Tropical Storm Landfalls:

a) Total number of U.S. tropical storm strikes: There were a total of 108 October TS or STS systems that made a U.S. landfall (or strike) during the aforementioned 161 year period. This equates to one October TS landfall every 1.49 years. Moreover, a full 36.1% of all "October" Atlantic Basin storms made landfall in the U.S.

b) Total number of U.S. hurricane strikes: There were 53 hurricanes that made a direct strike on the U.S. coastline during the month of October. This equates to one land falling October hurricane every 3.04 years. Furthermore, 32.3% of all "October" Atlantic basin hurricanes struck the U.S. coastline.

c) Total number of U.S. major" hurricane strikes: There were 16 "major" hurricanes that made landfall in the U.S. during the month of October. 3 of these made landfall at category four intensity or greater. They are the category four 1893 "Chenier Caminanda" hurricane, category four 1898 "Georgia" hurricane, and hurricane "Hazel" of 1954.

These statistics equate to a "major" U.S. land falling hurricane-in October-once every 10.1 years, on average. It also equates to a category four U.S. land falling hurricane-in October-once every 53.7 years.

d) The most intense U.S. TC landfall: The 1898 "Georgia" Hurricane and H "Hazel" of 1954 are currently tied for the most intense TC to make a U.S. landfall during the month of October. The 1898 roared ashore as a 135 mph/938 mb category four hurricane at Cumberland Island, Ga., around 12 pm EST on October 2, 1898. Hurricane "Hazel" barreled ashore as 135 mph/938 mb category four hurricane at Calabash, N.C. (near the SC/NC border) around 1030 am EST on October 15, 1954.

e) The most recent U.S. hurricane strike: Hurricane Wilma is the most recent hurricane to have made landfall on the U.S. shoreline during the month of October. It came ashore near Cape Romano , Fl. at 630 am EST on October 24, 2005. At landfall, it was a very large category three hurricane with a MSW of 120 mph and a BP of 950 mb.

f) The most recent U.S. tropical storm strike: Hurricane Wilma of October 2005 was also the most recent TC of either TS or H intensity to make a U.S. landfall-during the month of October.

g) The longest period without an "October" U.S. tropical storm strike: The three longest periods of consecutive years without a land falling U.S. TS (in October) are 1854-1859, 1970-1985, and 2006-2012.

h) The most tropical storms to make a U.S. landfall in one season: The 1879, 1893, and 1923 had the most land falling Tropical storms-for the month of October-with 3.

i) The most hurricanes to make a U.S. landfall in one season: The 1870, 1893, and 1964 Atlantic Basin hurricane seasons lead the way for U.S. hurricane landfalls-during the month of October-with 2 each.

j) The most "major" hurricanes to make a U.S. landfall in one season: The 1893 season saw 2 U.S. land falling hurricanes that came ashore at MH intensity.

FUTURE BLOG ENTRIES:

As I mentioned previously, I fully intend to post additional blog entries (similar to this one) for the other respective months of a calendar year. Thus, my next blog entry will likely be on "November" TC activity for the period of 1851-2011.

As always, thank you so much for taking the time to read and/or post in my blogs. I hope each one of you have a great rest of the day!:)

Most sincerely,
Tony

Hurricane History

Updated: 7:27 AM GMT on February 06, 2013

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