Sometimes I complain about the earthly weather, but mostly I like to post about astronomy and space events. Hope you enjoy the articles.
By: Susie77 , 9:02 PM GMT on October 31, 2013
Courtesy of NASA
Something Flare-y This Way Comes: The mini-Halloween Storms of 2013
Oct. 31, 2013: Some Halloweens are scarier than others.
Ten years ago, in late October 2003, space weather forecasters
experienced a frission of dread when two gigantic sunspots appeared.
Both had complex magnetic fields that harbored energy for strong
explosions. If the spots turned toward Earth and erupted....
Blood-red auroras over Maryland on Halloween 2003. Credit: George Varros More
That's exactly what happened. From Oct. 19th through Nov. 7th
2003, there were 17 major eruptions on the sun, including a
record-setting X28 flare. One after another, CMEs (coronal mass
ejections) slammed into Earth's magnetosphere, causing geomagnetic
storms and Northern lights seen as far south as Florida and Texas. On
Halloween itself, many trick or treaters witnessed blood-red
auroras--very spooky indeed.
At the peak of these "Halloween Storms," as solar physicists began
to call them, airlines had to re-route polar flights to lower
latitudes, the power went out in parts of Sweden, and more than half of
NASA's satellite fleet experienced problems ranging from temporary
shut-downs to permanent damage. The FAA's Wide Area Augmentation System
(a network of radio transmitters that improves GPS navigation for
aircraft) was offline for approximately 30 hours due to the storm, and
the Japanese ADEOS-2 satellite was severely damaged.
Fast forward 10 years to October 2013, and the sun is storming again.
A week before Halloween 2013, a new coven of big sunspots
appeared. To date (Oct. 31st), they have unleashed more than half a
dozen major flares including four X-class events. Earth is not
experiencing the same kind of effects as ten years ago, however, because
the eruptions have not been as energetic and, moreover, most of them
have missed our planet. This makes the Halloween Storms of 2013 less
scary than their 2003 predecessors.
An X2-class solar flare recorded by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory on Sept. 29, 2013.
"This spate of activity is inconsequential when compared to the
2003 events,” recalls Joe Kunches, a longtime forecaster working at
NOAA’s Space Weather Prediction Center in Boulder CO. He points out that
geomagnetic storm indices now are an order of magnitude smaller than
they were ten years ago.
Nevertheless, the current storms are remarkable because they are
the "flariest" thing to come along in a while. Solar activity waxes and
wanes in 11-year cycles. In 2003, the sun was ramping down from a
strong Solar Max. The potent Halloween storms of that year were, if not
actually predicted, at least not surprising. 2013 is different. The
current solar cycle is one of the weakest in a century. This makes the
mini-Halloween Storms of 2013 a bigger surprise even as they do less
Also mitigating the damage in 2013 is a decade of improvements in
space weather forecasting. Using data from NASA science spacecraft such
as the twin STEREO probes and the Solar Dynamics Observatory, NOAA
analysts are able to predict the arrival of solar storms with better
accuracy than ever. This gives satellite operators, NASA mission
controllers, and airline flight planners extra time to safeguard life
Ultimately, the ending of this spooky tale may require a
re-write. Why? Because it's not over yet. As Halloween 2013 comes and
goes the sun is still peppered with large and active sunspots. One of
them may yet send a powerful flare and CME directly toward us, sparking
storms akin to the ones from a decade ago.
When you knock on the door and shout “trick or treat”, you never
know what you might get when the door opens. The sun is much the same
Author: Dr. Tony Phillips | Production editor: Dr. Tony Phillips | Credit: Science@NASA
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