# Sea-Level Variability: A Primer

By: Dr. Ricky Rood , 10:49 PM GMT on July 09, 2014

Sea-Level Variability: A Primer

The comments in the last blog helped me realize the complexities of sea-level rise. In this entry I am going to explore sea-level rise more rigorously. I will continue using the East Coast of the U.S. as a case study.

One of the most certain consequences of the warming planet is that sea level will rise and land will be flooded. My mantra is that the temperature of Earth’s surface will rise, ice will melt, sea level will rise and the weather will change. It is easy to think of the ocean as a big cup and we are adding more water, from the melting ice, and, therefore, the seas will rise relative to the land. When we look at an individual place, like Norfolk, Virginia in the previous blog, the evaluation of sea level rise takes on many local details. In fact, it is much like talking about a single weather event in the context of a changing climate.

I’ll start with thinking about the factors that contribute to changes in sea level. I will refer to the ideas in the tutorials on modeling that I wrote in 2012, and specifically the entry, Balancing the Budget. In words there is an equation, which is

sea level tomorrow = sea level today + sea level gained – sea level lost

What contributes to sea level gains and loses? For those who want to know more, here is a link to an article by John Church and co-authors, Understanding and Projecting Sea Level Change. The article on sea level in Wikipedia is pretty good as well.

1. Sea level changes due to changing the density of water. This can come from either temperature changes or changes in the amount of salt in the water. These changes are known as “steric.”

2. Sea level changes due to adding water to the sea. Water is added when glaciers and ice sheets (e.g. Greenland and Antarctica) melt. Water is added by river runoff.

3. Sea level changes due to diverting water from the sea. For example, there are estimates that the building of dams offset about 30 millimeters of sea level rise in the last half of the twentieth century (Chao et al., Science, 2008).

4. Sea level changes because the land rises and falls. This could be due to plate tectonics, the large-scale motion of the surface of the Earth. There might also be sinking of the land when ground water is pumped out. And to make it more complicated, when the ice sheets melt, mass is removed from the crust of the Earth, and the land can rise or fall as it adjusts. These changes are often measured by mapping the Earth’s gravitational field; the gravitational force is not constant.

5. Sea level changes because of ocean dynamics. This will be the focus of this blog.

6. Sea level changes because of changes in the atmosphere. Atmospheric pressure and storm surges cause variability in sea level. The stress of wind on the ocean surface causes water to pile up in certain regions.

7. Sea level changes due to tidal forces.

Now I introduce a set of figures that focus on the East Coast of North America and the western Atlantic. These figures are from the nice collection at the web site Ocean Surface Currents hosted at the Rosenstiel School at the University of Miami.

Figure 1 shows the average position of the Gulf Stream, which is colored white in the figure. The colors in the ocean represent temperature, with yellows being warmer than greens that are warmer than blues. The Gulf Stream carries warm water northward, just off of the coast of the U.S. The Gulf Stream starts to leave the coast at North Carolina, more or less at Cape Hatteras. From here, the Gulf Stream flows eastward and then splits into several currents in the North Atlantic.

Figure 1: The Gulf Stream as represented by the Mariano Global Surface Velocity Analysis (MGSVA). The Gulf Stream is the western boundary current in the North Atlantic. The Gulf Stream transports warm water (heat) northwards. The averaging of velocity data from a meandering current produces a wide mean picture of the flow. The core of the Gulf Stream current is about 90 kilometers wide and has peak velocities of greater than 2 meters per second (5 knots). From Ocean Surface Currents hosted at the Rosenstiel School at the University of Miami.

What causes the Gulf Stream? The Gulf Stream is a surface current in the ocean, and it is largely caused by the stress of wind on the ocean surface. The trade winds flow from east to west across the Atlantic in the subtropics and tropics. In this figure, the trade winds are between 20 and 30 degrees north. Up at 40 degrees north, the average wind is from west to east. The wind, therefore, blows water towards North America in the southern part of the figure. Water is blown away from North America in the middle and northern part of the figure. The water being blown towards the coast in the south has to go somewhere. The Earth’s rotation and the presence of continent turn the water northward and it is guided along the coast.

This blog is about sea level. The winds from east to west in the subtropics are persistent and pile up water. This increases sea level. Since pressure in the ocean is related to amount of water above a point in the ocean, as the wind moves water around at the surface the pressure in the ocean changes. These changes in pressure cause the motion that becomes the Gulf Stream. The pressure in the ocean is directly related to sea level, the amount of water above a particular point.

Geography is important to climate. In Figure 2 the blue colors in the ocean are the depth of the ocean. The light blue near the edge of the continent is shallower than the deep blue. The light blue is the continental shelf, and the edge of the shelf is steep. Comparing Figure 2 to Figure 1, the Gulf Stream follows the shelf. This reveals the importance of the oceanic edge of the continent in shaping the Gulf Stream. I have marked the Grand Banks in the northern part of the figure. The Grand Banks guide the Gulf Stream, and as the stream of water moves beyond the Grand Banks, the Gulf Stream splits into several splinters. Important to sea level, there is bulge in the water off of the East Coast of North America caused by the wind stress and the continental shelf. The bulge of water associated with the Gulf Stream is about a meter in height. One meter is about the amount of rise in sea level expected from warming and ice melting in the next 100 years.

Figure 2: Topography/bathymetry of eastern North American and the western Atlantic. Topography is the height of the features on land. Bathymetry is the depth of the ocean. The units are not provided on the original web site, but are consistent with feet. From Ocean Surface Currents hosted at the Rosenstiel School at the University of Miami.

Let’s start to bring this information together to explore sea level rise and variability on the East Coast. Globally, the sea-level rise observed in the previous century is attributed to change in temperature (steric, Item 1 in the list above) and to adding water from melting glaciers and ice sheets (Item 2).

In the last blog and more completely in the comments, it was pointed out that Norfolk experiences subsidence, that is, the elevation of the land is declining. Up to half of the change in sea level at Norfolk is attributed to subsidence (Item 4). The U.S. Atlantic Coast, including Norfolk, has often been called a “hot spot” in sea level rise (also, press release from U.S. Geological Survey). It is easy to look at the subsidence of the land and attribute this hot spot to subsidence – not climate change. However, examination of the rate of sea-level rise reveals that the rate and changes of the rate of increase are faster than associated subsidence. What is the explanation of this regional change?

The most likely explanation lies in ocean dynamics. These changes can be viewed as centered on the Gulf Stream, and more broadly, the role of the Gulf Stream in the global circulation. Above, I wrote about how the wind stress and the continental boundary pile up water in the western Atlantic. The bulge of water is not at the coast, but off the coast a bit. This bulge is nearer the coast in the Southeast of the U.S. It is straightforward to hypothesize that changes in the Gulf Stream might have significant effects on the U.S. Coast. This is the subject of Oceanic control of sea level rise patterns along the East Coast of the United States by Jianjun Yin and Paul B. Goddard. Yin and Goddard make a convincing argument that “In response to the 21st century climatic forcing, the rise (fall) of the dynamic sea level north (south) of Cape Hatteras is mainly induced by the significant decline of ocean density contrast across the Gulf Stream.” The density change is largely related to the temperature, hence, a regional impact of the steric effect. Interestingly, there is also a potential impact from the fresh water inflow from the melting ice sheets in Greenland. Fresh water is lower density than salt water.

Figure 3 helps to place this Gulf Stream effect into a more regional and global context. This figure shows the Labrador Current, which is a cold-water current from the north that strongly influences the sea surface temperature of the U.S. North East and the Canadian Maritime Provinces. I have also placed arrows on Figure 2 showing the positions of the Gulf Stream and the Labrador Current. The Labrador Current directly receives the fresh water from the melting ice. Hence, as the Gulf Stream and Labrador Currents (cool and warm water, fresh and salt water) interact, there are many mechanisms that define the regional behavior of sea level. In the near term, decades, these regional factors can dominate the global rise, due to adding more water to the ocean. They can also act on faster times than are typical of the land rising and falling.

Final question: How does climate change affect sea level? The usual suspects are listed as changing the temperature of the ocean and adding water to the oceans from melting ice. These are important and act globally. Climate change and climate variability are also realized in changes to ocean currents. Since these currents are often close to the coasts, there are potential large, rapid and localized changes to sea level. The changes in surface currents in the ocean are related to changes in the stress of winds on the surfaces; hence, there are changes related to atmosphere pressure patterns. There is local variability due to storms and storm surges. And as the ice melts, the land might rise, might fall, also an effect due to climate change. These sources of variability will be important to planning in the next decades, but on the time of a century or longer, adding water to the ocean from melting ice will dominate; there’s really nothing working against it.

Figure 3: Labrador current as represented by the Mariano Global Surface Velocity Analysis (MGSVA). The Labrador Current is southward flowing and transports cold waters (blue) into the warmer Gulf Stream region (green). From Ocean Surface Currents hosted at the Rosenstiel School at the University of Miami.

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##### 134. JohnLonergan
9:26 PM GMT on July 13, 2014
 Quoting 131. FLwolverine:One of the WTFUWT geniuses commented that two of the papers are about ... gasp ... clouds! .... but failed to grasp that the clouds under investigation were the www kind.But of course this means that climate science is a hoax!!!!Not. The crew at WTFUWT are about as sharp as beach balls, here's the 2 cloud papers, courtesy of Sou:Chen C-Y, Chang C-J and Lin C-H (2012) On dynamic access control in web 2.0 and cloud interactive information hub: technologies Journal of Vibration and Control Epub ahead of print 12 December 2012. doi: 10.1177/1077546312464992Chen C-Y, Chang C-J and Lin C-H (2014) On dynamic access control in web 2.0 and cloud interactive information hub: trends and theories Journal of Vibration and Control 20 (4): 548-560. Epub ahead of print 5 November 2012. doi: 10.1177/1077546312463762I guess they don't know clouds.
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 4285
6:49 PM GMT on July 13, 2014
 RickyRood has created a new entry.
##### 132. whitewabit (Mod)
5:52 PM GMT on July 13, 2014
 Quoting 128. ronnm: Well to my rational ice does expand waters volume a bit. It is a mote point as mentioned thermal expansion of water in the oceans and contributory water now held in glaciers above water when melted will far exceed the reduction that could occur due to sea ice melting. And even a large volume of sea ice that appears as sea ice has its origination on land mass, such as in Antarctica. The glaciers flow it into the ocean where it appears as sea ice. And the land mass itself in places has seemingly depressed due to the weight of the glacial ice mass. making present sea ice with rebound as mass is removed, due to melting, land derived ice for volume calculated purposes. Think about it; if water changing to ice did not expand volume a bit why do we all have broken pipes when ice forms in our water lines? But as mentioned it really does not matter as the volumes of ice held above sea level in places such as Greenland far exceed this slight volume reduction which occurs when sea ice melts. whether it is in the form of water liquid or in the form of ice both weigh the same !!
Member Since: August 17, 2005 Posts: 374 Comments: 35077
##### 131. FLwolverine
5:48 PM GMT on July 13, 2014
 Quoting 130. Naga5000: Oh you mean like the climate "skeptic" journal that got busted earlier this year? Link Yes there are frauds in every field. In the field of climate science, you have aligned yourself with the frauds. There is no evidence to show there is any fraudulent action by publishing climate scientists. More tin foil hat conspiracy is all you have, Yoboi.Funny how the people who try and cheat the system always get caught. He's talking about a new scandal, which WTFUWT is pushing and Sou wrote about Here."The alleged scam was led by a scientist in Taiwan (sadly for deniers, he didn't reside in the USA, he didn't work for the EPA or NASA or the University of Virginia or Penn State or even the University of Winnipeg in Canada). The person named was Peter Chen, formerly of National Pingtung University of Education, Taiwan (NPUE).This researcher (or researchers) allegedly faked a whole bunch of email addresses and also faked reviews of their own papers. How such a scam could have worked is anyone's guess. I'd have thought most journal editors would select at least one or two reviewers known to the editor. Anyway, work it did, for a while. Until one editor of the journal became a mite suspicious. He launched an investigation that lasted for more than a year. As a result of his detective work, the journal retracted 60 papers, stretching back to 2010."One of the WTFUWT geniuses commented that two of the papers are about ... gasp ... clouds! .... but failed to grasp that the clouds under investigation were the www kind.But of course this means that climate science is a hoax!!!!Not.
Member Since: January 6, 2013 Posts: 3 Comments: 2649
##### 130. Naga5000
5:27 PM GMT on July 13, 2014
 Quoting 129. yoboi: peer review.....Peer Review.....PEER REVIEW.....You’ve heard of prostitution rings, gambling rings and extortion rings. Now there’s a “peer review ring.”Link Oh you mean like the climate "skeptic" journal that got busted earlier this year? Link Yes there are frauds in every field. In the field of climate science, you have aligned yourself with the frauds. There is no evidence to show there is any fraudulent action by publishing climate scientists. More tin foil hat conspiracy is all you have, Yoboi.Funny how the people who try and cheat the system always get caught.
Member Since: June 1, 2010 Posts: 4 Comments: 5284
##### 128. ronnm
4:52 PM GMT on July 13, 2014
 Well to my rational ice does expand waters volume a bit. It is a mote point as mentioned thermal expansion of water in the oceans and contributory water now held in glaciers above water when melted will far exceed the reduction that could occur due to sea ice melting. And even a large volume of sea ice that appears as sea ice has its origination on land mass, such as in Antarctica. The glaciers flow it into the ocean where it appears as sea ice. And the land mass itself in places has seemingly depressed due to the weight of the glacial ice mass. making present sea ice with rebound as mass is removed, due to melting, land derived ice for volume calculated purposes. Think about it; if water changing to ice did not expand volume a bit why do we all have broken pipes when ice forms in our water lines? But as mentioned it really does not matter as the volumes of ice held above sea level in places such as Greenland far exceed this slight volume reduction which occurs when sea ice melts.
Member Since: May 31, 2014 Posts: 3 Comments: 71
##### 127. ScottLincoln
4:26 PM GMT on July 13, 2014
 Technically, there is a tiny bit of contribution to sea level rise due to sea ice:http://www.skepticalscience.com/Sea-level-rise-du e-to-floating-ice.htmlBut the contribution is almost trivial compared to thermal expansion and melting land ice.
Member Since: September 28, 2002 Posts: 5 Comments: 3477
##### 126. JohnLonergan
4:24 PM GMT on July 13, 2014
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 4285
##### 125. riverat544
5:49 AM GMT on July 13, 2014
 Quoting 114. Oakden: Take a glass. Fill it half full with ice, then fill it to the brim with water. Let the ice melt. Did the water level rise or fall? That's right. It fell. Take a glass, fill it with any combination of ice and water. Next place a couple of toothpicks across the rim of the glass and place an ice cube on the toothpicks. Does the glass overflow? That's the analogous situation to the ice sitting on Antarctica, Greenland and the rest of the glaciers.Modified to add: If you take a glass not absolutely full and with free floating ice in it (that is more like the situation with sea ice) the volume will not change as the ice melts because the ice displaces as much water as it will eventually melt in to.
Member Since: March 29, 2014 Posts: 0 Comments: 245
##### 124. Xyrus2000
2:36 AM GMT on July 13, 2014
 Quoting 114. Oakden: Take a glass. Fill it half full with ice, then fill it to the brim with water. Let the ice melt. Did the water level rise or fall? That's right. It fell. First post fail. 1. Ice displaces it's own volume in water, so melting ice in water does nothing.2. Sea level is rising because melting ice that is ON LAND is flowing into the ocean.Troll Score: 0/10
Member Since: October 31, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 2007
##### 123. Xyrus2000
2:28 AM GMT on July 13, 2014
 Quoting 106. CuriousAboutClimate: but i'm used to internet explorer! it's what i've always had.anyway, thanks, i suppose i'll use chrome in the future if i want to show such things. Internet Explorer is the Rosemary's baby of the internet. I can't tell you how many times I've had issues (as both user and developer) with that misbegotten spawn. Get Chrome or FireFox, then install AdBlock Plus and Ghostery.
Member Since: October 31, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 2007
##### 122. Astrometeor
1:37 AM GMT on July 13, 2014
 @XulonnThis one has a date on it.8/20/2007As does this one, three days later filled with a whole bunch of denialists, including the Stephen Schwartz person you mentioned. LinkBut, you're right. Old stuff and long since discredited. Oh well.
Member Since: July 2, 2012 Posts: 108 Comments: 11165
##### 121. Xulonn
1:24 AM GMT on July 13, 2014
Member Since: June 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 1763
##### 120. JohnLonergan
12:21 AM GMT on July 13, 2014
 Quoting 115. Naga5000: Facepalm.And to actually address your inane statement, the water level does not change, ice in water displaces its own volume. Unless you have magic ice.What a lousy first post, enjoy your time here. I think the poster has hit upon one of the magical properties of Ice 9
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 4285
11:54 PM GMT on July 12, 2014
 The next week will feed this -Hazy Calgary skyline caused by raging B.C., Alta., forest firesSlave Lake, Rocky Mountain House fires listed as out of controlLink
Member Since: August 13, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4903
11:45 PM GMT on July 12, 2014
 Hazy Calgary skyline caused by raging B.C., Alta., forest firesSlave Lake, Rocky Mountain House fires listed as out of controlLink
Member Since: August 13, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4903
11:02 PM GMT on July 12, 2014
 Quoting 114. Oakden: Take a glass. Fill it half full with ice, then fill it to the brim with water. Let the ice melt. Did the water level rise or fall? That's right. It fell. Now look at the heat to melt that ice, when it's gone, the water in your glass goes to room temperature .like a rocket . Your mistake is confuse volume with heat , and the phase changes of water , go back to the 8th grade. This time, pay attention.
Member Since: August 13, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4903
##### 115. Naga5000
10:49 PM GMT on July 12, 2014
 Quoting 114. Oakden: Take a glass. Fill it half full with ice, then fill it to the brim with water. Let the ice melt. Did the water level rise or fall? That's right. It fell. Facepalm."2. Sea level changes due to adding water to the sea. Water is added when glaciers and ice sheets (e.g. Greenland and Antarctica) melt"How about you take your glass of ice water and fill it to the brim. Got it? Now start adding more ice to the glass. Did your water overflow and do you now have to clean water off your counter/floor?And to actually address your inane statement, the water level does not change, ice in water displaces its own volume. Unless you have magic ice.What a lousy first post, enjoy your time here.
Member Since: June 1, 2010 Posts: 4 Comments: 5284
10:32 PM GMT on July 12, 2014
 The bilateral confab didn’t rattle the world’s cages. But at least the United States and China said that they have set upon a course to try and resolve their seemingly intractable differences, namely over climate change.The two countries, which just wrapped up the sixth so-called U.S-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue, underscored their commitment to work together to improve their respective economies while doing minimal damage to the environment. To that end, they re-emphasized the “overwhelming scientific consensus on climate change” from the burning of fossil fuels.As for China, it has said that coal will comprise 65 percent of its electric generation mix through 2017. And, it still consumes 47 percent of the world’s coal, which is far more than other nations. The United States, by comparison, has reduced its coal use as percentage of the electric generation portfolio from about 50 percent in 2007 to 40 percent today.Link
Member Since: August 13, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4903
10:11 PM GMT on July 12, 2014
 Quoting 109. lpaocean: I recommend looking at the USGS report on subsidence in Virginia for a good review of local SLR.processes.http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1392/Recent papers by Tal Ezer (i'm a co-author on some) and others are trying to unravel the reason for the apparent acceleration in the mid-Atlantic. I'm trying to keep a running blog on them at HERELarry Atkinson How about this -Another consequence of rising sea levels is the elevated risk of liquefaction. Groundwater in coastal zones is directly linked to the height of the sea nearby. When sea levels rise, the groundwater table rises as well. The granular, sandy soil that is typically found in coastal areas can then become saturated, causing it to be vulnerable to liquefaction in the event of an earthquake.
Member Since: August 13, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4903
9:25 PM GMT on July 12, 2014
 The outstanding photojournalist Kadir van Lohuizen of Noorimages has some instructive photos: ‘Rising Sea Levels’. Worth a look.From dtlange / July 12, 2014
Member Since: August 13, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4903
##### 110. JohnLonergan
9:03 PM GMT on July 12, 2014
 Quoting 109. lpaocean: I recommend looking at the USGS report on subsidence in Virginia for a good review of local SLR.processes.http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1392/Recent papers by Tal Ezer (i'm a co-author on some) and others are trying to unravel the reason for the apparent acceleration in the mid-Atlantic. I'm trying to keep a running blog on them at HERELarry Atkinson I just took a look at your blog, I really appreciate the papers and links all in one place, thanks. Now I have a lot of reading matter.
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 4285
##### 109. lpaocean
8:29 PM GMT on July 12, 2014
 I recommend looking at the USGS report on subsidence in Virginia for a good review of local SLR.processes.http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1392/Recent papers by Tal Ezer (i'm a co-author on some) and others are trying to unravel the reason for the apparent acceleration in the mid-Atlantic. I'm trying to keep a running blog on them at HERELarry Atkinson
Member Since: March 28, 2005 Posts: 0 Comments: 6
7:20 PM GMT on July 12, 2014
 Rising tide: long-term ramifications of global warming on the country’s coastlineSPECIAL TO THE JAPAN TIMESJUL 12, 2014It’s a scenario we’re all familiar with: Unequivocal climate change warms our oceans, which in turn causes ice sheets at either pole to melt and sea levels worldwide to increase. Citizens of low-lying nations such as Tuvalu, much of which is less than 1 meter above sea level, are forced to relocate as the land they live upon becomes uninhabitable.It’s a scenario that has massive ramifications for Japan, a country with a coastline that is almost 30,000 km long.In a 1996 research paper titled “Responses of Coastal Topography to Rising Sea Levels,” climate scholars Nobuo Mimura and Eiichi Kawaguchi forecast that a 1-meter rise in sea levels would cause 90.3 percent of the country’s sand beaches to erode.Link
Member Since: August 13, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4903
##### 107. Naga5000
4:15 PM GMT on July 12, 2014
 Quoting 106. CuriousAboutClimate: but i'm used to internet explorer! it's what i've always had.anyway, thanks, i suppose i'll use chrome in the future if i want to show such things. I believe (and I can't be 100% sure as I don't dare open internet explorer) but you should be able to right click -> properties (or image properties) and copy paste the url from there.
Member Since: June 1, 2010 Posts: 4 Comments: 5284
4:07 PM GMT on July 12, 2014
 but i'm used to internet explorer! it's what i've always had.anyway, thanks, i suppose i'll use chrome in the future if i want to show such things.
Member Since: January 28, 2014 Posts: 0 Comments: 289
##### 105. JohnLonergan
3:37 PM GMT on July 12, 2014
 OT, but significant to many of us:RIP Tommy Ramone: your band captured the sound in our headsAnd that's it; they're all gone. Joey, Johnny, Dee Dee and now Tommy. .
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 4285
##### 104. JohnLonergan
2:43 PM GMT on July 12, 2014
 Works in chrome, too.
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 4285
##### 103. Naga5000
2:09 PM GMT on July 12, 2014
 Quoting 102. CuriousAboutClimate: how do you attach those woodfortrees plots as embedded images? the add image feature seems to want the site address to end in .jpg or other image file extensions. In firefox, you can right click -> view image and it takes you to the full url. That url 98% of the time will have a readable extension (i.e. .jpg, .gif)
Member Since: June 1, 2010 Posts: 4 Comments: 5284
1:52 PM GMT on July 12, 2014
 how do you attach those woodfortrees plots as embedded images? the add image feature seems to want the site address to end in .jpg or other image file extensions.
Member Since: January 28, 2014 Posts: 0 Comments: 289
##### 101. barbamz
1:20 PM GMT on July 12, 2014
 Circular economy: Just a load of rubbish?Deutsche Welle English, July 9, 2014Scarce resources, high emissions, widespread pollution - the EU wants to boost recycling to make the economy more circular. The aim: New jobs, lower costs and less impact on environment and climate. The European Commission is asking member states to recycle 70 percent of municipal waste and 80 percent of packaging waste by 2030. The proposals also call for a ban on burying recyclable waste in landfills as of 2025, and set targets for reducing marine litter and food waste."The message is that while you are protecting the environment you can boost your economic development and provide new growth and new jobs", said Environment Commissioner Janez Potocnik.In advance of the announcement, the EU made the circular economy the focus of its annual environment gathering at the Green Week in Brussels last month. ...Whole article see link above.Cleaning up the clothing supply chainDeutsche Welle English, July 11, 2014The is year's Berlin Fashion Week is focusing on green and ethical fashion. It's a sign the industry may be paying more attention to the environmental and social concerns associated with clothing production. ...
Member Since: October 25, 2008 Posts: 72 Comments: 7904
##### 100. JohnLonergan
12:10 PM GMT on July 12, 2014
 Breaking: Triumph For Citizens in Florida As Hughes Oil Company Drops Fracking ProjectOn Friday morning, Dan A. Hughes Oil Company and the Collier Resources Company agreed to terminate their lease agreement, with the exception of the Collier Hogan 20-3H well, next to the Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary in Naples, Florida. Hughes Oil dropped its plans to drill an exploratory well adjacent to the Golden Gates Estates development.More ...
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 4285
##### 99. JohnLonergan
12:06 PM GMT on July 12, 2014
 A little Saturday snark for your enjoyment from Ingenious Pursuits:Revealed - the leaked memo from the BBC's Head Of CrackpotsTO: Head of BBC NewsFrom: BBC Head Of CrackpotsSubject: Crackpots providing balance to BBC news storiesSir or MadamI write in reply to your request for information on sources of information that could be used to balance news stories on scientific matters. Any mention of the Longitude Prize should require someone from the Flat Earth Society to be present to give the counter-balancing argument that although there is a consensus about the shape of the Earth, the science is not settled and I feel the BBC should recognise this fact.More ...
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 4285
##### 98. pcola57
7:24 AM GMT on July 12, 2014
 Another pending disaster if allowed to come to fruition..From EcoWatch:"Company Seeks Barge Dock Permit for Shipping Fracking Wastewater"
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 6935
##### 97. Naga5000
4:19 AM GMT on July 12, 2014
 Quoting 96. Ossqss: http://www.woodfortrees.org/plot/wti/from:1997/to: 2 014 Lookie that, a positive trend. Although anyone worth his salt knows that 30 year periods are used for climate, so let's not cherry pick 1997 the year before a huge El Nino event, okay?I'll be waiting for your next drive by troll attempt.
Member Since: June 1, 2010 Posts: 4 Comments: 5284
##### 96. Ossqss
3:39 AM GMT on July 12, 2014
 http://www.woodfortrees.org/plot/wti/from:1997/to:2 014
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8192
##### 95. bappit
3:36 AM GMT on July 12, 2014
 If the link is bad then do not repost it. Also, flag the offending post.
Member Since: May 18, 2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 6185
##### 94. FLwolverine
2:54 AM GMT on July 12, 2014
 Quoting 87. tramp96: Do they still have a football team? Sometimes
Member Since: January 6, 2013 Posts: 3 Comments: 2649
##### 93. FLwolverine
2:51 AM GMT on July 12, 2014
 Quoting 91. Xulonn: WARNING - AVAST ANTI-VIRUS DETECTS A THREAT AT THE PAGE THIS LINK GOES TO!!! Funny - it seems to have circumvented the WU protection system ("you are now leaving....")Not nice, Cochise!
Member Since: January 6, 2013 Posts: 3 Comments: 2649
##### 92. Naga5000
12:23 AM GMT on July 12, 2014
 Quoting 90. Cochise111: Why does the AMS justify publishing half-truths?Link Why do you feel the need to dig up tin foil hat websites and post them here like they have any meaning in the world of facts and evidence?
Member Since: June 1, 2010 Posts: 4 Comments: 5284
##### 91. Xulonn
12:20 AM GMT on July 12, 2014
 Quoting 90. Cochise111:Why does the AMS justify publishing half-truths?LinkWARNING - AVAST ANTI-VIRUS DETECTS A THREAT AT THE PAGE THIS LINK GOES TO!!!
Member Since: June 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 1763
##### 89. goosegirl1
12:02 AM GMT on July 12, 2014
 Quoting 87. tramp96: Do they still have a football team? Obviously you are not from Ohio :)))))
Member Since: December 17, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 1276
##### 88. goosegirl1
11:50 PM GMT on July 11, 2014
 Quoting 5. Astrometeor: I'm hoping that you're sarcastic, because I've never heard of the term "redneck" being derogatory. Actually, it depends on where you are when you say it. In WV, it's a fightin' word... but ironically, we made it famous.Link It's also known as The Redneck War, due to one side wearing red bandanas around their necks to identify each other. The term pre-dates the battle by quite a bit:LinkSo all considered, you should likely not visit a small town in southern WV and make free use of "redneck", but you will get by with it in most places.My family breeds and shows jersey wooly rabbits, and I once helped a friend with a color breeding project. I happened to have the right genes there in my herd, so I bred the parents and got lucky- a pretty fawn buck was born. I sent him home to Pennsylvania with my friend, and she named him "Redneck"... thanks a lot! :)) Lucky for her, I am hard to offend.
Member Since: December 17, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 1276
##### 86. FLwolverine
11:00 PM GMT on July 11, 2014
 Quoting 84. JohnLonergan: STUDY CHARTS PATH TO LOW CARBON IN MAJOR EMITTING COUNTRIESFirst Global Cooperative Effort Aims to Support UN Climate TalksA report for the United Nations released today shows how the major emitting countries can cut their carbon emissions by mid-century in order to prevent dangerous climate change. The report, produced cooperatively by leading research institutes in 15 countries, is the first global cooperative program to identify practical pathways to a low-carbon economy by 2050. The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP) interim report will be presented in a briefing today to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon, and tomorrow/the day after to the French government, as host of the 2015 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) climate conference. The interim report supports the UN Climate Summit on September 23, 2014. The full DDPP report will be presented in the spring of 2015.“The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project report is an effort to demonstrate how countries can contribute to achieving the globally agreed target of limiting global temperature rise to below 2 degrees,” said Secretary-General Ban. “Ambitious national action is critical to averting dangerous climate change. This report shows what is possible.”Read more at SkS ... Willis Eschenbach decided to mock this report over at WTFUWT. Sou writes about it Here. What makes this worth mentioning is the comments on the page Sou has archived. Some commenters explain why Willis is wrong, and the Wattsians' refusal to grasp the explanation is stunning. Also, I learned about the Kaya Identity.
Member Since: January 6, 2013 Posts: 3 Comments: 2649
##### 85. FLwolverine
10:50 PM GMT on July 11, 2014
 Quoting 81. cyclonebuster: It's not even a sea.. Well, a venerable (1878) college song from U Mich does refer to the University as "Goddess of the Inland Seas".........
Member Since: January 6, 2013 Posts: 3 Comments: 2649
##### 84. JohnLonergan
10:34 PM GMT on July 11, 2014
 STUDY CHARTS PATH TO LOW CARBON IN MAJOR EMITTING COUNTRIESFirst Global Cooperative Effort Aims to Support UN Climate TalksA report for the United Nations released today shows how the major emitting countries can cut their carbon emissions by mid-century in order to prevent dangerous climate change. The report, produced cooperatively by leading research institutes in 15 countries, is the first global cooperative program to identify practical pathways to a low-carbon economy by 2050. The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP) interim report will be presented in a briefing today to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon, and tomorrow/the day after to the French government, as host of the 2015 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) climate conference. The interim report supports the UN Climate Summit on September 23, 2014. The full DDPP report will be presented in the spring of 2015.“The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project report is an effort to demonstrate how countries can contribute to achieving the globally agreed target of limiting global temperature rise to below 2 degrees,” said Secretary-General Ban. “Ambitious national action is critical to averting dangerous climate change. This report shows what is possible.”Read more at SkS ...
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 4285

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I'm a professor at U Michigan and lead a course on climate change problem solving. These articles often come from and contribute to the course.

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