Cold Weather in Denver: Climate Change and Arctic Oscillation (8)

By: Dr. Ricky Rood , 6:25 AM GMT on December 08, 2013

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Cold Weather in Denver: Climate Change and Arctic Oscillation (8)

I’ve been living with this cold weather in Colorado this week. If you look around at the Wunderground personal weather station sites, we’ve seen a lot of about -10 F at nights. It’s been causing a lot of grief for homeless people, animals and pipes. There have been a few record lows set. The whole Arctic air mass is starting to move east, which means it will get a lot more press. According to Jeff Master’s blog 80% of the country will be below average.

I thought I had finished my series of blogs on the Arctic Oscillation a couple of weeks ago, but this cold air out break takes me back. It that series I wrote about cold air in the Arctic that is isolated because of barriers caused by streams of rapidly moving air that flows around polar latitudes. I described wobbles in the streams that caused cold air to move south and warm air to move north. Here is one of the figures that I used.



Figure 1: This figure is from the point of view of someone looking down from above at the North Pole (NP). This represents a weak, wavy, wobbly vortex displaced from the pole. The vortex encloses cold air, represented as blue. The line surrounding the cold air is the jet stream or the edge of the vortex. (definition of vortex)

Figure 1 shows an idealized schematic of the North Pole as viewed from above. This is the weak vortex case, when there is a large wobble. In this case, the point X is cold and the point Y is warm. In a case of a stronger, more circular vortex, then the case would be reversed, with point X warm and point Y cold.

Here is a figure from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), that I have marked up a bit. The colors are the temperatures at the 850 hecto-Pascal surface, which is about 1.5 kilometers above the surface. The 850 hecto-Pascal temperatures are a good indicator of where it is hot and cold at the surface.


Figure 2: This figure is from the point of view of someone looking down from above at the North Pole (NP). The contour lines on the figure are the height of the 500 hecto-Pascal surface, which is between 5 and 6 kilometers above the surface of the Earth. The colors are the temperatures at the 850 hecto-Pascal surface, which is about 1.5 kilometers above the surface. The 850 hecto-Pascal temperatures are a good indicator of where it is hot and cold at the surface. Figure from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)

I drew a blue arrow showing that the cold air at the pole has wobbled off of the pole and it is pushed towards Colorado. To the west there is warm air, red arrow, pushing up towards Alaska. So while it has been cold in Colorado, it has been quite warm in much of Alaska. Though a less prominent signal, there has also been warm air moving up the East Coast of the U.S. The Alaska – Colorado contrast is a nice real-world example of what I showed in Figure 1. For completeness with my example, the big, black dashed line is the jet stream of air flowing around the pole.

There were several points in my series on the Arctic Oscillation. The first important point is that even in a world that is getting warmer, the polar latitudes become isolated as the Sun goes down for the winter and jet stream intensifies. In this isolation it gets cold, because there is no heating from the Sun and the polar latitudes have a barrier between themselves and the warmer lower latitudes. The second important point is this wobble, the pushing of air off of the pole in some direction. In this case the coldest air is over Greenland, Canada and the U.S. If there is sufficient wobble to push the air far to the south or if it gets pushed to some place it did not get pushed before, then it is even likely to have record cold. These points are all work together and are not correctly viewed as independent events. (I was recently annoyed by the parenthetical dismissal of global warming in this otherwise nice prediction of early strong lake effect snow in Michigan. The statement was essentially pockets of cold Arctic air should not exist.)

I will finish with the Arctic Oscillation. The Arctic Oscillation Index from the Climate Prediction Center is shown in Figure 3. The discussion in my Arctic Oscillation series focused on the positive and negative phases of the Arctic Oscillation Index. Much of the attention was on the eastern U.S. The negative phase was when it is likely to be very cold in the eastern U.S.



Figure 3: Arctic Oscillation Index for early August 2013 until December 7, 2013 from the Climate Prediction Center

In this measure of the Arctic Oscillation Index, the most recent times have been weakly positive, tending towards negative. (Perhaps suggesting movement of the cold air towards the U.S. east coast?) Perhaps more important Figures 2 and 3 together show that large undulations with warm air pushing far northward and cold air displaced off the pole can occur in other parts of the world when the index is weak. As pointed out many other times over the years of this blog, what goes on in the U.S. is not good instantaneous editorial content for climate change.

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Previous entries:

Climate Change and the Arctic Oscillation 2

Climate Change and the Arctic Oscillation 1

Wobbles in the Barriers

Barriers in the Atmosphere

Behavior

Definitions and Some Background

August Arctic Oscillation presentation

CPC Climate Glossary “The Arctic Oscillation is a pattern in which atmospheric pressure at polar and middle latitudes fluctuates between negative and positive phases.”

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Quoting 277. yoboi:




yeah and we had warmer temps back then......

1. How do you know? There weren't any satellites. ;)

2. "we had warmer temps back then"...therefore, what?
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5469
Quoting 277. yoboi:




yeah and we had warmer temps back then......


Really? Do you know why?
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20470
Quoting 272. yoboi:



The point I am making is the Earth is billions of yrs old and with about 30 yrs worth of data you are implying or jut out-right saying we have a clue......

That's not the point you were making. The point you were making has been crushed by the data I posted.

Your new point is of no consequence, both vacuous and irrelevant. What the temperature was billions of years ago doesn't change the fact that we are responsible for the current warming. Your post is especially silly since there were no humans or civilizations to be harmed by warming, cooling, or even the boredom of stable climate.
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5469
Quoting 275. StormTrackerScott:


No really i didn't realize what the red meant considering I went to met school for how many years. LOL!


That's pretty obvious..
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20470
Quoting 273. StormTrackerScott:


Total moronic post as I was just replying back to Scott and it had nothing to do with GW. I just posting about the upcoming Arctic Blast. Wow some on here really need to take a chill pill.


You talking about the "Arctic Blast" in Alaska?
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20470
Quoting 271. cyclonebuster:


Yes it is abnormally hot in Alaska...


No really i didn't realize what the red meant considering I went to met school for how many years. LOL!
Member Since: February 28, 2013 Posts: 9 Comments: 4726
Quoting 272. yoboi:



The point I am making is the Earth is billions of yrs old and with about 30 yrs worth of data you are implying or jut out-right saying we have a clue......


You do know Man wasn't here billions of years ago.... Correct?
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20470
Quoting 264. Xulonn:
Are you completely incapable of understanding Dr. Rood's blog entries about the Arctic Oscillation and it's relationship to AGW/CC? Did you even read Dr. Rood's series of AO blog posts - and study them carefully?

Or is this simply about coming to the blog of a scientist - a blog that is based on the reality of AGW/CC - and flailing about desperately while displaying a complete unawareness of scientific reality??

Your posts imply that you "think" or "believe" that AO "lazy loops" are not related to global warming. Can you dispute the climate science that Dr. Rood and Dr. Masters have been writing about here over the past couple of years?


Total moronic post as I was just replying back to Scott and it had nothing to do with GW. I just posting about the upcoming Arctic Blast. Wow some on here really need to take a chill pill.
Member Since: February 28, 2013 Posts: 9 Comments: 4726
Quoting 268. StormTrackerScott:


Model is pretty straight forward.


Yes it is abnormally hot in Alaska...
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20470
Quoting 246. GTstormChaserCaleb:
Not good. To me Antarctica's ice melt is much more significant than the Arctic ice melt, but anyway you slice it, not looking good.

No, it's not looking good.

My understanding is that the Arctic melting is far more important to weather than Antarctic melting. But Antarctic land ice melting is the very much larger of two sources of sea level rise, Greenland being the other.
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5469
Quoting 241. yoboi:

Ah, the unfounded assertion that the land temperature record is corrupt...somehow...despite the fact that numerous groups and individuals (some who were "skeptical") have analyzed the data and all find virtually the same warming trend.

Then there's the appeal to the satellite data...which doesn't measure surface temperature (as you've been told numerous times)...and which have a problem with overdoing ENSO...and have other problems whose solution is not yet forthcoming.

Then there's the claim that the satellite data show no warming. That's true only because of cherry-picking your starting date to coincide with the warmest El Nino in the satellite record. The cherry-pick is especially obvious in the UAH data where the trend from 1998 is 0.060±0.228C/decade. If we use 1997 as the starting date in the UAH we find the trend is larger, 0.094±.210C/decade. If we choose 1999 as the start date, the UAH trend is a much larger 0.147±0.217C/decade. Those figures demonstrate beyond all doubt that the lower trend is due to cherry picking the starting date.

The RSS 1997 and 1999 trends are also higher than the 1998 trend. Again, a sure sign of cherry-picking.

So, once again you have posted substance-free propaganda. And once again it has been exposed.
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5469
Quoting 266. cyclonebuster:


You must think that's a cold snap over Alaska.....


Model is pretty straight forward.
Member Since: February 28, 2013 Posts: 9 Comments: 4726
Quoting 266. cyclonebuster:


You must think that's a cold snap over Alaska.....



??? You mean heat wave.
Member Since: February 28, 2013 Posts: 9 Comments: 4726
Quoting 259. StormTrackerScott:
Euro has -28 in Iowa at 300hrs.




You must think that's a cold snap over Alaska.....
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20470
Quoting 263. yoboi:



Wow looks like Santa is going to bring some of that record ice gain down south with him.....Brrrrrr...


Well Santa sure isn't going to get it from here:




Or here:




Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20470
Quoting 259. StormTrackerScott:
... multiple "weather" forecast maps showing cold weather in a small percentage of the globe...
Are you completely incapable of understanding Dr. Rood's blog entries about the Arctic Oscillation and it's relationship to AGW/CC? Did you even read Dr. Rood's series of AO blog posts - and study them carefully?

Or is this simply about coming to the blog of a scientist - a blog that is based on the reality of AGW/CC - and flailing about desperately while displaying a complete unawareness of scientific reality??

Your posts imply that you "think" or "believe" that AO "lazy loops" are not related to global warming. Can you dispute the climate science that Dr. Rood and Dr. Masters have been writing about here over the past couple of years?
Member Since: June 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 1541
The Villages r located just south of Ocala
Member Since: February 28, 2013 Posts: 9 Comments: 4726
Quoting 254. Patrap:
y,awn'
You should move to The Villages as it is a nice Senior Citizen community which offers numerous night time activities for the old people.
Member Since: February 28, 2013 Posts: 9 Comments: 4726
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 3668
Euro has -28 in Iowa at 300hrs.


Member Since: February 28, 2013 Posts: 9 Comments: 4726
Quoting 225. yoboi:



We did get the earliest snow fall on record this year.......


You may have. Denver is way under "normal" snowfall.

This is why we talk about "Anthropogenic Global Warming" and not "Anthropogenic Constant Minute-by-Minute Increase in Temperature Wherever Yoboi Happens To Be."
Member Since: Posts: Comments:


What's new in 2013?

There were fewer snow and ice extremes than in 2012. Many regions and components of the Arctic environment were closer to their long-term averages, but the effects of a persistent warming trend that began over 30 years ago remain clearly evident.
The impacts of the warming climate on the physical environment during those 30 years are influencing Arctic ecosystems on the land and in the sea.

More
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 3668
Quoting 233. ScottLincoln:

Even when I lived in Iowa, -30F temperatures were very rare. They still are.


Gonna get close to -30 across northern Iowa.

Member Since: February 28, 2013 Posts: 9 Comments: 4726
y,awn'
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 428 Comments: 129844
Quoting 248. Some1Has2BtheRookie:
#243

Dr. Roy Spencer's skepticism is based on clouds in combination with the PDO. Did Dr. Roy Spencer run a climate model using only clouds and the PDO to explain the observations being made? Did you miss this part of the question? - "Have there been any attempts by "skeptics" to model the climate, but in a way consistent with their skepticism?"

Also, keep in mind this part of the question - "How well do they reproduce the instrumental temperature record?" - In other words, if he did use his own climate model and only used clouds and the PDO in his model, did his climate model outperform other climate models that the climatologist use for the IPCC reports in the terms of better matching the observational data? Did he remove CO2 from the equation?

Should he have done so, I am not able to find the information on this. Do you have the information on this?


Arthur Smith has some information on Spencer's "model"
here:


Roy Spencer's six trillion degree warming
In some followup discussion with Barry Bickmore (by email) and Kevin C (at Skeptical Science) it became clear we were missing something in the analysis of Roy Spencer's climate model. Specifically, Bickmore's Figure 10:




iffered significantly from Spencer's 20th century fit even though he was ostensibly using the same parameters. If you look at the year 1900 in particular, Bickmore's Figure 10 has a temperature anomaly slightly above zero, while Spencer's is pegged at -0.6 C. Bickmore did use a slightly different PDO index than Spencer for his 1000-year graph (figure 10) - but more importantly, he took Spencer's -0.6 C temperature as the starting point in the year 993 AD, rather than as a constraint on temperature in the year 1900, as it actually was in Spencer's analysis. It turns out that to actually match Spencer's 20th century temperature fit the starting temperature in 993 AD needs to be extraordinarily, far beyond impossibly, low. We'll get to the details shortly. ...

I asked Dr. Bickmore to re-do his Figure 10 calculation to see how low a temperature was needed in his starting year 993 to match Spencer's 20th century temperature graph, with a value of -0.6 C in 1900. He sent me the following:

Figure 7: The black curve is observed temperatures since 1850; red curves are temperatures from Bickmore's matlab implementation of Spencer's model with initial temperature anomalies of -1 to -6 trillion degrees C in the year 993 AD.

It turns out you need to set the starting temperature to negative six trillion degrees in 993, in order to match Spencer's model for the 20th century. 6 trillion degrees. Wow. Now that's global warming!


See also Roy Spencer%u2019s Great Blunder by Barry Bickmore
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 3668
Quoting 246. GTstormChaserCaleb:
Not good. To me Antarctica's ice melt is much more significant than the Arctic ice melt, but anyway you slice it, not looking good.

September 25, 2004: Study Finds That Antarctica May Warm Rapidly over Next 50 Years

The prestigious Geophysical Research Letters publishes a paper summarizing the results of a study that suggests that Antarctica may warm rapidly during the next 50 years. Researchers Drew Shindell and Gavin Schmidt of NASA’s Goddard Institute of Space Studies used computer modeling to predict the effect of increased ozone levels over Antarctica. Ozone levels are expected to increase over the next few years due to international treaties that have banned ozone-depleting chemicals. The computer modeling suggested that, while Antarctica has mostly cooled over the last 30 years, this trend may quickly reverse because higher ozone levels will likely lead to the disruption of the westerly winds that currently provide a buffer against the warmer temperatures of lower latitudes. The higher temperatures in turn could result in the loss of the continent’s ice shelves. [SHINDELL AND SCHMIDT, 2004; NASA, 10/6/2004]
Entity Tags: Drew Shindell, Gavin Schmidt
Category Tags: Studies-academic


Correct most of that ice is on land...
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20470
This imo is a great chart, combines weather patterns, climate patterns, solar activity, volcanic activity into one. I would speculate in a warming planet that El-Nino events will become more likely. It's interesting though, that we haven't seen one in 4 years and counting. Almost as if we are overdue.

Member Since: June 30, 2013 Posts: 12 Comments: 8774
#243

Dr. Roy Spencer's skepticism is based on clouds in combination with the PDO. Did Dr. Roy Spencer run a climate model using only clouds and the PDO to explain the observations being made? Did you miss this part of the question? - "Have there been any attempts by "skeptics" to model the climate, but in a way consistent with their skepticism?"

Also, keep in mind this part of the question - "How well do they reproduce the instrumental temperature record?" - In other words, if he did use his own climate model and only used clouds and the PDO in his model, did his climate model outperform other climate models that the climatologist use for the IPCC reports in the terms of better matching the observational data? Did he remove CO2 from the equation?

Should he have done so, I am not able to find the information on this. Do you have the information on this?
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4772
Antarctic ice sheet thinning continues to increase

The West Antarctic ice sheet appears to be shedding far more ice than a few years ago, according to climate research unveiled Wednesday.

Previous research, conducted between 2005 and 2010, estimated that the ice sheet contributed 0.28 millimetres (0.1 inches) per year to the rise in global sea levels.

But three years of observations by Europe’s ice-monitoring satellite, CryoSat, suggests that the contribution is now 15 percent greater.

The ice sheet is losing over 150 cubic kilometres (36 cubic miles) of ice per year, the European Space Agency (ESA) said in a press release.

The phenomenon is linked to a thinning of ice flows at three big glaciers — Pine Island, Thwaites and Smith, said polar scientist Malcolm McMillan, at Britain’s University of Leeds.

“We find that ice thinning continues to be most pronounced along fast-flowing ice streams of this sector and their tributaries, with thinning rates of between four to eight metres (13 to 26 feet) per year near to the grounding lines — where the ice streams lift up off the land and begin to float out over the ocean,” he said.

Climate scientists are casting a worried eye at the mighty ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica.

RawStory.com
Member Since: September 18, 2005 Posts: 25 Comments: 962
Not good. To me Antarctica's ice melt is much more significant than the Arctic ice melt, but anyway you slice it, not looking good.

September 25, 2004: Study Finds That Antarctica May Warm Rapidly over Next 50 Years

The prestigious Geophysical Research Letters publishes a paper summarizing the results of a study that suggests that Antarctica may warm rapidly during the next 50 years. Researchers Drew Shindell and Gavin Schmidt of NASA’s Goddard Institute of Space Studies used computer modeling to predict the effect of increased ozone levels over Antarctica. Ozone levels are expected to increase over the next few years due to international treaties that have banned ozone-depleting chemicals. The computer modeling suggested that, while Antarctica has mostly cooled over the last 30 years, this trend may quickly reverse because higher ozone levels will likely lead to the disruption of the westerly winds that currently provide a buffer against the warmer temperatures of lower latitudes. The higher temperatures in turn could result in the loss of the continent’s ice shelves. [SHINDELL AND SCHMIDT, 2004; NASA, 10/6/2004]
Entity Tags: Drew Shindell, Gavin Schmidt
Category Tags: Studies-academic
Member Since: June 30, 2013 Posts: 12 Comments: 8774
It's a little old, but something that has definitely been on my mind, especially since after the Epic 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season.

Hurricanes and Global Warming--Potential Linkages and Consequences.

Link
Member Since: June 30, 2013 Posts: 12 Comments: 8774
Hello, everyone.

I was recently on Yahoo's website and ran across a question that was asked in the Q&A section on global warming. Actually, the question is a very valid question and I believe that it is worth repeating here. The question is, "Are there any "skeptic" climate models?

"Have there been any attempts by "skeptics" to model the climate, but in a way consistent with their skepticism?

If yes, how do the models differ from those produced by climate scientists ?

How well do they reproduce the instrumental temperature record?

What predictions do they make?

Or, if there are none, why not?

Finally, what assumptions would you expect to see in a "skeptic" climate model?
"

I believe that this is an excellent question to ask of the "skeptics" that are here. What do you think?

You know me. I simply had to respond to this question myself. While it was fun to do, it was also quite a realistic response:

The skeptics have not yet been able to program in their "known" data into a climate model. What is their "known" data, you may ask?

1. It's a hoax
2. Al Gore bought beach front property (or anything Al Gore)
3. Socialism
4. One World Order
5. Liberalism
6. Socialism again
7. A communist plot
8. Wealth distribution
9. Mitigation efforts destroy economies
10. CO2 is plant food
11. Weather=Climate
12. Here is a 15 year period where the rate of warming has slowed a bit. Let's put that in
13. Man is too puny to alter the climate
14. Hey!, the climate has changed before man even came along!
15. Anthony Watt's reasoning capabilities

The reason that the skeptics have not produced their own climate models that are based on the "knowns" within their skepticism is because Senator Inhofe cannot get any more spending past Paul Ryan and Ted Cruz. ... In Ted Cruz's defense, he said he would consider it once Inhofe is capable of showing his work with the math. Now there is an endless loop! Inhofe cannot show his work and Cruz wouldn't know if it was correct if he did!

Well, what do you think? Did I nail it?
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4772
Quoting 236. yoboi:

Once again you post baseless propaganda.
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5469
Quoting 234. yoboi:

Ah, mathturbation. Now make the elephant wiggle its trunk!

You guys. LOL
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5469
New Report Finds Climate Change Caused By 7 Billion Key Individuals - The Onion

WASHINGTON—In a landmark report experts say fundamentally reshapes our understanding of the global warming crisis, new data published this week by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has found that the phenomenon is caused primarily by the actions of 7 billion key individuals.

These several billion individuals, who IPCC officials confirmed are currently operating in 195 countries worldwide, are together responsible for what experts called the “lion’s share” of the devastating consequences of global warming affecting the entire planet.

“Our research has proved conclusively that, year after year, the acceleration of the rate of global warming and the damage caused by this man-made acceleration can be clearly linked to 7 billion main culprits,” explained lead author Dr. John Bartlett, noting that many of these individuals have links to climate change going back nearly a century. “Worse, the significant majority of damage was done within the past two decades, when the consequences of climate change were widely known and yet these specific individuals did nothing to curb or amend their practices.”

“Now that we’ve done the hard work of identifying the key players responsible for this crisis, we can move forward with holding them accountable,” Bartlett added. “And it is my opinion that we need to regulate these individuals swiftly and decisively before they do any more damage.”
Member Since: September 18, 2005 Posts: 25 Comments: 962
The Harper government has dismantled one of the world’s top aquatic and fishery libraries as part of its agenda to reduce government as well as limit the role of environmental science in policy decision-making.
-
Last week the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, which is closing five of its seven libraries, allowed scientists, consultants and members of the public to scavenge through what remained of Eric Marshall Library belonging to the Freshwater Institute at the University of Manitoba.

“It was a world class library with some of the finest environmental science and freshwater book collections in the world. It was certainly the best in Canada, but it’s no more,” said Burt Ayles, a 68-year-old retired research scientist and former regional director general for freshwaters in central Canada and the Arctic.

Established in 1973, when foreign governments hailed Canada as a world leader in freshwater science and protection, the library housed tens of thousands of reports, maps, charts and books, including material dating back to the 1880s.

The library contained fishery reports on the decline of sturgeon fishing in Lake Winnipeg from the 1890s, said Ayles, and served as invaluable intellectual capital for public researchers at the Freshwater Institute and world famous Experimental Lakes Area.

ClimateCrocks.com
Member Since: September 18, 2005 Posts: 25 Comments: 962
This Antarctic Ice Shelf Will Be the Next to Collapse


Antarctica's crumbling Larsen B Ice Shelf is poised to finally finish its collapse, a researcher said Tuesday (Dec. 10) here at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union.

The Scar Inlet Ice Shelf will likely fall apart during the next warm summer, said Ted Scambos, a glaciologist at the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colo. Scar Inlet's ice is the largest remnant of the vast Larsen B shelf still attached to the Antarctic Peninsula. (Another small fragment, the Seal Nunataks, clings on as well.) In the Southern Hemisphere's summer of 2002, about 1,250 square miles (3,250 square kilometers) of the enormous Larsen B Ice Shelf splintered into hundreds of icebergs. Scar Inlet is about two-thirds the size of the ice lost from Larsen B.

"It's becoming more and more like a floating independent island of ice than a plate bound to the coastline," Scambos said.

Scambos predicts that a warm summer — which causes widespread surface melting atop the ice shelf — will doom Scar Inlet. But the shelf's ice is so thin and fractured that it might collapse on its own, even without melting, Scambos said.



LiveScience.com
Member Since: September 18, 2005 Posts: 25 Comments: 962
Quoting 232. StormTrackerScott:


I though you were in Iowa for whatever reason. Sorry!

Even when I lived in Iowa, -30F temperatures were very rare. They still are.
Member Since: September 28, 2002 Posts: 5 Comments: 3325
Quoting 218. ScottLincoln:

We don't get -30F temperatures in Louisiana.


I though you were in Iowa for whatever reason. Sorry!
Member Since: February 28, 2013 Posts: 9 Comments: 4726

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About RickyRood

I'm a professor at U Michigan and lead a course on climate change problem solving. These articles often come from and contribute to the course.

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