# Wobbles in the Barriers: Arctic Oscillation (4)

By: Dr. Ricky Rood , 4:22 PM GMT on October 14, 2013

Wobbles in the Barriers: Arctic Oscillation (4)

This is a continuation of my series on the Arctic Oscillation / North Atlantic Oscillation. Links to background material and previous entries are at the end.

In the last entry I suggested that if you were on a bridge overlooking a swiftly flowing creek then you would notice that twigs floating in the water did not move across the current. They are carried downstream along the edge of the current. The purpose of that comparison was to demonstrate how fast-moving, concentrated flows have the effect of isolating one side of the creek from the other. This is true in the creek, and it is also true about jet streams in the atmosphere.

One way to understand the Arctic Oscillation is to think of it as the variation of an atmospheric jet stream. For the Arctic Oscillation the jet stream of interest is the southern edge of vortex of air that circulates around the North Pole (see previous entry). Air inside the vortex often has characteristics different from air outside it. Intuitively for the Arctic, there is colder air on the side toward the pole. If you look at trace gases, like ozone, they are different across the edge of the vortex. The takeaway idea is that the edge of the vortex is a barrier. It’s not a perfect barrier, but the air on one side is largely separated from the air on the other side. In this blog, I describe the difference between a strong and a weak vortex – which is the same as the difference between the positive and negative phases of the Arctic Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation.

Figure 1: This figure is from the point of view of someone looking down from above at the North Pole (NP). Compare this perspective to Figure 1 in previous blog. This represents a strong, circular vortex centered over the pole, which encloses cold air, represented as blue. The line surrounding the cold air is the jet stream or the edge of the vortex.

Figure 1 shows an idealized schematic of the North Pole as viewed from above. This is the strong vortex case, when there is exceptionally low pressure at the pole. Low pressure is associated with counterclockwise rotation in the Northern Hemisphere. This direction of rotation is called cyclonic. This strong vortex case is the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. During this phase, the vortex aligns strongly with the rotation of the Earth, and there are relatively few wobbles of the edge of the vortex – the jet stream. I drew on the figure two points, X and Y. In this case, the point X is hot and the point Y is cold. It is during this phase when it is relatively warm and moist over, for example, the eastern seaboard of the United States.

Figure 2 compares a strong vortex and a weak vortex. In both cases, the circulation around a central point is counterclockwise or cyclonic. However, in the weak vortex case, the vortex does not align as strongly with the rotation of the Earth and there are places where the edge of vortex extends southwards. The vortex appears displaced from the pole; it is not centered over the pole.

Figure 2: Examples of a strong, circular vortex and a weak, more wavy vortex. See text for a more complete description.

Whether the vortex is stronger or weaker is determined by the atmospheric pressure at the pole. In the winter, an important factor that determines the circulation is the cooling that occurs at polar latitudes during the polar night.

What determines the waviness or wobbles at the edge of this vortex? The structure at the edge of vortex is strongly influenced by several factors. These factors include the structure of the high-pressure centers that are over the oceans and continents to the south of jet stream. One could easily imagine a strong high-pressure center over, for example, Iceland, pushing northward at the edge of the vortex. This might push a lobe of air characteristic of the middle latitude Atlantic Ocean northward. Since the edge of the vortex is something of a barrier, this high-pressure system would distort the edge of the vortex and, perhaps, push the vortex off the pole. This would appear as a displacement of the vortex and its cold air over, for example, Russia. If the high grew and faded, then this would appear as wobbles of the vortex.

Other factors that influence the waviness at the edge of the vortex are the mountain ranges and the thermal contrast between the continents and the oceans. The impact of mountains is easy to understand. Returning to the creek comparison used above, the mountains are like a boulder in the stream. The water bulges around and over the boulder; the air in the atmosphere bulges around and over the mountain ranges. The Rocky Mountains in the western half of North America are perfect examples of where there are often wobbles in the atmospheric jet stream.

Figure 3: This figure is from the point of view of someone looking down from above at the North Pole (NP). This represents a weak, wavy, wobbly vortex displaced from the pole. The vortex encloses cold air, represented as blue. The line surrounding the cold air is the jet stream or the edge of the vortex. (definition of vortex)

Figure 3 shows an idealized schematic of the North Pole as viewed from above. This is the weak vortex case, when the low pressure at the pole is not as low as average and the pressure is much higher than the strong vortex case of Figure 1. This weak vortex case is the negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation. During this phase, the alignment of the vortex with the rotation of the Earth is less prominent, and there are wobbles of the edge of the vortex – the jet stream. In this case, the point X is cold and the point Y is hot. It is during this phase where it is relatively cool and dry (but potentially snowy) over, for example, the eastern part of the United States.

These figures help to explain the prominent signal of the Arctic Oscillation discussed in the earlier entries (specifically, this blog). That is, when the vortex is weak and wobbly, then there are excursions of colder air to the south and warmer air to the north. This appears as waviness and is an important pattern of variability - warm, cold, warm, cold.

The impact of the changes in the structure of edge of the vortex does not end with these persistent periods of regional warm and cold spells. The edge of the vortex or the jet stream is also important for steering storms. Minimally, therefore, these changes in the edge of the vortex are expected to change the characteristics of how storms move. Simply, if the edge of the vortex has large northward and southward extensions, then storms take a longer time to move, for example, across the United States from the Pacific to the Atlantic Oceans. In the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation they just whip across. In the negative phase, the storms wander around a bit. A more complete discussion of this aspect of the role of the Arctic Oscillation will be in the next entry. (Note use of dramatic tension and the cliffhanger strategy of the serial.)

r

Previous entries:

Barriers in the Atmosphere
Behavior
Definitions and Some Background

August Arctic Oscillation presentation

CPC Climate Glossary “The Arctic Oscillation is a pattern in which atmospheric pressure at polar and middle latitudes fluctuates between negative and positive phases.”

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##### 1357. Birthmark
 Quoting 1354. tramp96:LolSee? I'll give you the last word on that.D'oh!
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5131
##### 1356. tramp96
 Quoting 1355. cyclonebuster:Earth needs health care...And your letting Obama take care of that?Good luck
Member Since: August 15, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 1363
##### 1355. cyclonebuster
 Earth needs health care...
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20219
##### 1354. tramp96
 Quoting 1352. Birthmark:You're right! LOLLol
Member Since: August 15, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 1363
##### 1353. Neapolitan
 It's funny that some will posts literally dozens of comments here and in Dr. Masters' forum insinuating that the two men are liars, that people who side with them are socialist idiots, that this website is some kind of commie plot, that a whole branch of science is brainwashing a lot of "sheeple". But when someone compares drive-by contrarian comments to things thrown by agitated chimps, suddenly there's a spate of righteously indignant pearl clutching, and calls for permabans. "Jeeves, my fainting couch! Quickly! Someone used a simian-based analogy, and now I do believe I'm feeling light-headed!"Okay, I reckon it's not so funny... :-)
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13256
##### 1352. Birthmark
 Quoting 1335. tramp96:Just pointing out the hypocrisy. I bet you won't let me have the last word either.You're right! LOL
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5131
##### 1351. luvtogolf
 Quoting 1349. Neapolitan:See comment #1342. Thanks!Spin it whatever way you want.
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##### 1350. schwankmoe
 OMG! nea called someone a 'troll'! referring to someone you disagree with as an ugly nasty creature that lives under a bridge? that's reprehensible! BAN HIM FOREVER!
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##### 1349. Neapolitan
 Quoting 1346. luvtogolf:Flagged, reported and should be permanently banned. Suggesting that someone does not agree with you is a monkey is a reprehensible offense.See comment #1342. Thanks!
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13256
##### 1348. schwankmoe
 Quoting 1346. luvtogolf:Flagged, reported and should be permanently banned. Suggesting that someone does not agree with you is a monkey is a reprehensible offense.LOL. i know you guys have had a fatwa down against nea for a long time, but this is hilarious. 'BAN HIM! FOREVER!!!'if that's what gets you permabanned none of us would be here.
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##### 1347. Neapolitan
 Quoting 1344. tramp96:The perfect example of why people like messing withradical left wingers.You mean to say, "The perfect example of why I enjoy trolling."Got it.
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13256
##### 1345. Neapolitan
 Quoting 1339. tramp96:Linkhttp://littleshop.physics.colostate.edu/activitie s/atmos1/WhyDoesWarmAirHoldMoreWater.pdfThanks. Not sure whether you know, but your link corroborates perfectly with what Scott wrote. That is, it's not exactly true that "warmer air holds more water vapor", though that is a perfectly serviceable and easily understood metaphor. More correctly, though, warmer temperatures in either the water or the environment or both cause more water to evaporate and drift about.
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13256
##### 1344. tramp96
 Quoting 1342. Neapolitan:The only way someone could possibly take offense to my monkey analogy statement in #1320 is if they're admitting that they are indeed a denialist--and if they're that, they've got problems much more profound than being likened to a different species of hominid.(And even then, I didn't say "denialists are monkeys"; I said, "denialists remind me of monkeys". The difference is as obvious as, well, as obvious as global warming.)The perfect example of why people like messing withradical left wingers.
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##### 1343. ScottLincoln
 Someone should do a trend analysis on trolling posts. My perception is that they are increasing.... especially in the last week or so.
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##### 1342. Neapolitan
 Quoting 1323. tramp96:And I got banned for my post. Pathetic hypocrites.The only way someone could possibly take offense to my monkey analogy statement in #1320 is if they're admitting that they are indeed a denialist--and if they're that, they've got problems much more profound than being likened to a different species of hominid.(And even then, I didn't say "denialists are monkeys"; I said, "denialists remind me of monkeys". The difference is as obvious as, well, as obvious as global warming.)
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13256
##### 1341. tramp96
 Quoting 1337. ILwthrfan:That's fine and all, but everyone here is just pointing out areas in your education that may need improvement is all. Basics in Geography, Climate, Weather, & especially Statistics would go miles for your ability to understand the subject.I'm learning. I just love arguing with y'all while I'm doing it.
Member Since: August 15, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 1363
##### 1339. tramp96
 Quoting 1315. ScottLincoln:More basic physics wrong. You'll hear it spoken (unfortunately rather widely) that "warmer air holds more moisture." It's perhaps easier to explain it that way, but it's not exactly true. Most meteorologists and physicists know that, even if they use the simple explanation for instructing early students and laypersons. The fact that this article took that saying as factual and used it in some attempt at logical reasoning... well that basically tells you all that you need to know about this "independent voices" piece.Oh, and for those that are confused or need refreshing, it isn't exactly correct to say that "warmer air holds more moisture." Water vapor has an equilibrium with liquid water droplets that is tied to temperature (see equilibrium vapor pressure). This is determined by the temperature that the vapor and water have, which just happens to be well-approximated by the air temperature. The specific humidity, or mass of water vapor in the air, would be the same at a given temperature even if there was no "air."Linkhttp://littleshop.physics.colostate.edu/activitie s/atmos1/WhyDoesWarmAirHoldMoreWater.pdf
Member Since: August 15, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 1363
##### 1338. cyclonebuster
 Quoting 1315. ScottLincoln:More basic physics wrong. You'll hear it spoken (unfortunately rather widely) that "warmer air holds more moisture." It's perhaps easier to explain it that way, but it's not exactly true. Most meteorologists and physicists know that, even if they use the simple explanation for instructing early students and laypersons. The fact that this article took that saying as factual and used it in some attempt at logical reasoning... well that basically tells you all that you need to know about this "independent voices" piece.Oh, and for those that are confused or need refreshing, it isn't exactly correct to say that "warmer air holds more moisture." Water vapor has an equilibrium with liquid water droplets that is tied to temperature (see equilibrium vapor pressure). This is determined by the temperature that the vapor and water have, which just happens to be well-approximated by the air temperature. The specific humidity, or mass of water vapor in the air, would be the same at a given temperature even if there was no "air."97dogs:3 fleas
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20219
##### 1337. ILwthrfan
 Quoting 1335. tramp96:Just pointing out the hypocrisy. I bet you won't let me have the last word either.That's fine and all, but everyone here is just pointing out areas in your education that may need improvement is all. Basics in Geography, Climate, Weather, & especially Statistics would go miles for your ability to understand the subject.
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##### 1336. tramp96
 1332His Majasty has spoken
Member Since: August 15, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 1363
##### 1335. tramp96
 Quoting 1328. Birthmark:If you perceive a problem and don't want to fix it then the problem will continue in all likelihood. You also can't complain further about the problem since it is at least partially your own doing.Just pointing out the hypocrisy. I bet you won't let me have the last word either.
Member Since: August 15, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 1363
##### 1334. JohnLonergan
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 2741
##### 1333. GTstormChaserCaleb
 Warming temperatures contribute to sea level rise by: expanding ocean water; melting mountain glaciers and ice caps; and causing portions of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to melt or flow into the ocean. [7]Meltwater flowing from the Greenland Ice Sheets.Since 1870, global sea level has risen by about 8 inches. [5] Estimates of future sea level rise vary for different regions, but global sea level for the next century is expected to rise at a greater rate than during the past 50 years. [8]The contribution of thermal expansion, ice caps, and small glaciers to sea level rise is relatively well-studied, but the impacts of climate change on ice sheets are less understood and represent an active area of research. Thus it is more difficult to predict how much changes in ice sheets will contribute to sea level rise. [7]Line graph that shows sea level change from 1950 to 2100. Data from 1950 to 2000 shows moderate sea level rise from approximately negative four inches to approximately two inches. For the 21st century, sea level change is projected by four scenarios: AR4, B1, A2, and A1F1. Under the AR4 scenario, sea level change would increase by approximately sixteen inches by the end of the century. Under the B1 scenario the projected rise is approximately 40 inches; under the A2 scenario, approximately 48 inches; and under A1F1, approximately 56 inches by 2100. Sea level change is projected to increase under all the scenarios. View enlarged imageProjection of sea level rise from 1990 to 2100, based on three different emissions scenarios. Also shown: observations of annual global sea level rise over the past half century (red line), relative to 1990.Source: NRC 2010Ice loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets could contribute an additional 1 foot of sea level rise, depending on how the ice sheets respond. [7]Regional and local factors will influence future relative sea level rise for specific coastlines around the world. For example, relative sea level rise depends on land elevation changes that occur as a result of subsidence (sinking) or uplift (rising). Assuming that these historical geological forces continue, a 2-foot rise in global sea level by 2100 would result in the following relative sea level rise: [1]2.3 feet at New York City2.9 feet at Hampton Roads, Virginia3.5 feet at Galveston, Texas1 foot at Neah Bay in Washington stateRelative sea level rise also depends on local changes in currents, winds, salinity, and water temperatures, as well as proximity to thinning ice sheets.Line graph that shows sea level change from 1950 to 2100. Data from 1950 to 2000 shows moderate sea level rise from approximately negative four inches to approximately two inches. For the 21st century, sea level change is projected by four scenarios: AR4, B1, A2, and A1F1. Under the AR4 scenario, sea level change would increase by approximately sixteen inches by the end of the century. Under the B1 scenario the projected rise is approximately 40 inches; under the A2 scenario, approximately 48 inches; and under A1F1, approximately 56 inches by 2100. Sea level change is projected to increase under all the scenarios.Link
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##### 1332. Birthmark
 "For Immediate ReleaseNovember 01, 2013Executive Order -- Preparing the United States for the Impacts of Climate ChangeEXECUTIVE ORDER- - - - - - -PREPARING THE UNITED STATES FOR THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGEBy the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to prepare the Nation for the impacts of climate change by undertaking actions to enhance climate preparedness and resilience, it is hereby ordered as follows:Section 1. Policy. The impacts of climate change -- including an increase in prolonged periods of excessively high temperatures, more heavy downpours, an increase in wildfires, more severe droughts, permafrost thawing, ocean acidification, and sea-level rise -- are already affecting communities, natural resources, ecosystems, economies, and public health across the Nation. These impacts are often most significant for communities that already face economic or health-related challenges, and for species and habitats that are already facing other pressures. Managing these risks requires deliberate preparation, close cooperation, and coordinated planning by the Federal Government, as well as by stakeholders, to facilitate Federal, State, local, tribal, private-sector, and nonprofit-sector efforts to improve climate preparedness and resilience; help safeguard our economy, infrastructure, environment, and natural resources; and provide for the continuity of executive department and agency (agency) operations, services, and programs. "Source: WhiteHouse.govIt's quite lengthy and I haven't read it all. Just posting it for now.
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5131
##### 1331. Birthmark
 Quoting 1326. tramp96:Apparently you doNope. I've commented, but never once complained. I'm pretty easy to get along with and have a hide like a monitor lizard.
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5131
##### 1330. tramp96
 Quoting 1327. FLwolverine:hmmm ... 1320 & 1323 - does this mean tramp and Cochise are the same person? Where are the sock puppet experts when we need them?!Negative GW rider
Member Since: August 15, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 1363
##### 1329. GTstormChaserCaleb
 Quoting 1255. Daisyworld:I'm sorry if you were offended, but I'm not the one being rude. You're the one who is perpetuating the false notion that there's a scientific debate about whether or not global warming is caused by humans burning fossil fuels. That debate is long over, and it's been proven that humans are responsible for the rise in CO2 over the past 150 years, doubling the amount since the end of the last ice age.I'm also sorry if you took umbrage because I'm not totally convinced that you took PHYS 142 (like you said it is just my opinion), but I said that because I know the course developer for that class, and I'm aware of what material is taught in the course. The course explains many times the difference between fossil fuels and biomass-based fuels, and that would have answered your original question (something about donkey carts being part of the transportation system?). As it stands, you apparently do not understand that concept, so either you did not absorb the information during that portion of the course, or you simply did not take the course. I chose the latter opinion because I did not think it proper nor polite to call into question your study habits.Keep in mind that forming an opinion-based conclusion about a scientific topic without having sufficient background to evaluate that topic is within everyones' personal liberties. However, perpetuating that opinion by passing it off as fact is intellectually dishonest. A simple "it is my opinion that..." as a precondition to stating your conclusion would have softened any criticism here. However, walking into a forum and acting as if you know more than the experts on the subject is rude, and fosters the perception of arrogance. Congruent to that, walking into a forum and stating that you are here to voice "both sides" of a factually one-sided topic will be perceived as trolling, and you will likely be treated as such.First off, I don't know what your problem is, I never once claimed I know more than the experts, so that statement is false, and I seriously hope everyone who sees that comment sees that including Dr. Rood himself. You should be banned from here for calling people troll and I did not take environmental science at Embry-Riddle I took it back home at a local community college, so quit trying to assume you know me because you don't and that is the cold hard truth. And no you do not know the course developer of that environmental science class. I'm so glad you do not know me personally and I know for sure you would not being saying the things you said to my face.
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##### 1328. Birthmark
 Quoting 1325. tramp96:I don't squealIf you perceive a problem and don't want to fix it then the problem will continue in all likelihood. You also can't complain further about the problem since it is at least partially your own doing.
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5131
##### 1327. FLwolverine
 hmmm ... 1320 & 1323 - does this mean tramp and Cochise are the same person? Where are the sock puppet experts when we need them?!
Member Since: January 6, 2013 Posts: 3 Comments: 1884
##### 1326. tramp96
 Quoting 1324. Birthmark:You can go here to complain.Apparently you do
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##### 1325. tramp96
 Quoting 1324. Birthmark:You can go here to complain.I don't squeal
Member Since: August 15, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 1363
##### 1324. Birthmark
 Quoting 1323. tramp96:And I got banned for my post. Pathetic hypocrites.You can go here to complain.
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5131
##### 1323. tramp96
 Quoting 1320. Neapolitan:So you post a link in Dr. Rood's forum to a paper co-authored by Dr. Rood, a paper that shows that extreme heat events have been increasing over the past four decades. And you believe this somehow supports your anti-science POV?Sure thing...You know, sometimes denialists remind me a little of monkeys at the zoo sitting angrily and agitatedly in the corner of their cage and flinging their feces at passersby.And I got banned for my post. Pathetic hypocrites.
Member Since: August 15, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 1363
##### 1321. Birthmark
 Quoting 1318. Cochise111:Extreme heat events in the US have decreased since the 1930s. Hmmm, doesn't bode well for the warmists:LinkFrom your link: "The results indicated the trends for different EHE characteristics were coherent (e.g. temporally correlated, similar spatial pattern of trends). Maps indicated negative trends in the interior of the CONUS and positive trends in coastal and southern areas. Continental scale increases between 1970 and 2010 were mostly offset by the decreases between 1930 and 1970. Several daily maximum (minimum) EHEs near the 1930’s (2000’s) led to 1930-2010 trends of daily maximum (minimum) EHEs decreasing (increasing). Lastly, the results suggest linear trends depend on which daily temperature extreme is required to exceed the threshold."As usual, it doesn't say what you think it says. Additionally, the study is confined to CONUS. (Hint: The "G" in "AGW" doesn't stand for "CONUS".)
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5131
##### 1319. tramp96
 Quoting 1317. Neapolitan:Not the right forum for that, but in a nutshell: "right wing" is run-of-the-mill conservativism, while the "radical right wing" is groups like the thankfully-on-the-fade tea party. That is, a faction so illogically anti-government, anti-science, anti-minority, anti-tax, anti-education, and anti-intellectual that turning the country over to their control would be tantamount to national suicide...Your right this isn't the right forum. But I will leave you with this, perception is very interesting.
Member Since: August 15, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 1363
##### 1318. Cochise111
 Extreme heat events in the US have decreased since the 1930s. Hmmm, doesn't bode well for the warmists:Link
Member Since: February 9, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 263
##### 1317. Neapolitan
 Quoting 1316. tramp96:One question for you. What is the difference between right wing and radical right wing. I'm guessing you would answer" nothing".Not the right forum for that, but in a nutshell: "right wing" is run-of-the-mill conservativism, while the "radical right wing" is groups like the thankfully-on-the-fade tea party. That is, a faction so illogically anti-government, anti-science, anti-minority, anti-tax, anti-education, and anti-intellectual that turning the country over to their control would be tantamount to national suicide...
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13256
##### 1316. tramp96
 Quoting 1314. tramp96:Well at least you didn't burn my posts.One question for you. What is the difference between right wing and radical right wing. I'm guessing you would answer" nothing".
Member Since: August 15, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 1363
##### 1315. ScottLincoln
 Quoting 1307. tramp96:Flea wags the dogLinkMore basic physics wrong. You'll hear it spoken (unfortunately rather widely) that "warmer air holds more moisture." It's perhaps easier to explain it that way, but it's not exactly true. Most meteorologists and physicists know that, even if they use the simple explanation for instructing early students and laypersons. The fact that this article took that saying as factual and used it in some attempt at logical reasoning... well that basically tells you all that you need to know about this "independent voices" piece.Oh, and for those that are confused or need refreshing, it isn't exactly correct to say that "warmer air holds more moisture." Water vapor has an equilibrium with liquid water droplets that is tied to temperature (see equilibrium vapor pressure). This is determined by the temperature that the vapor and water have, which just happens to be well-approximated by the air temperature. The specific humidity, or mass of water vapor in the air, would be the same at a given temperature even if there was no "air."
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##### 1314. tramp96
 Quoting 1310. Neapolitan:Radical Right-wing opinion pages and anti-science book spam don't belong within a mile of this place. Scientific sources only, please. Thanks!Well at least you didn't burn my posts.
Member Since: August 15, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 1363
##### 1313. ScottLincoln
 Quoting 1278. MisterPerfect:This blog is for AGW believers only. If you do not believe, you are not welcome here.Here we go, confusing science and "believing in" something again. Not being able to see the difference between those two very different philosophical concepts makes it hard to have the types of conversations you say that this forum lacks.
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##### 1312. ScottLincoln
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##### 1311. cyclonebuster
 Quoting 1288. Patrap:Its the Scientists vs the heretic's.Science 24 Heretic's 0More like 97:3
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20219
##### 1310. Neapolitan
 Quoting 1305. tramp96:[snip]Quoting 1307. tramp96:[snip]Radical Right-wing opinion pages and anti-science book spam don't belong within a mile of this place. Scientific sources only, please. Thanks!
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13256
##### 1309. Neapolitan
 Quoting 1304. Cochise111:Another paper...Ah, geez, too bad you again didn't bother reading that paper before citing it here; if you had done that instead of rushing here pell-mell from whatever sad corner of the denialosphere you've been inhabiting, you might have noticed that the salient point of the paper is that the Pacific has warmed 16 times faster over the past 60 years than it has at any time over the past 10,000. (Pssst...the very first sentence of the paper's abstract might have provided you a helpful clue: "Observed increases in ocean heat content (OHC) and temperature are robust indicators of global warming during the past several decades.")Ouch...
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13256
##### 1308. Patrap
 Really, on a Friday?
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 414 Comments: 125476
##### 1307. tramp96
 Flea wags the dogLink
Member Since: August 15, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 1363

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