# Wobbles in the Barriers: Arctic Oscillation (4)

By: Dr. Ricky Rood , 4:22 PM GMT on October 14, 2013

Wobbles in the Barriers: Arctic Oscillation (4)

This is a continuation of my series on the Arctic Oscillation / North Atlantic Oscillation. Links to background material and previous entries are at the end.

In the last entry I suggested that if you were on a bridge overlooking a swiftly flowing creek then you would notice that twigs floating in the water did not move across the current. They are carried downstream along the edge of the current. The purpose of that comparison was to demonstrate how fast-moving, concentrated flows have the effect of isolating one side of the creek from the other. This is true in the creek, and it is also true about jet streams in the atmosphere.

One way to understand the Arctic Oscillation is to think of it as the variation of an atmospheric jet stream. For the Arctic Oscillation the jet stream of interest is the southern edge of vortex of air that circulates around the North Pole (see previous entry). Air inside the vortex often has characteristics different from air outside it. Intuitively for the Arctic, there is colder air on the side toward the pole. If you look at trace gases, like ozone, they are different across the edge of the vortex. The takeaway idea is that the edge of the vortex is a barrier. It’s not a perfect barrier, but the air on one side is largely separated from the air on the other side. In this blog, I describe the difference between a strong and a weak vortex – which is the same as the difference between the positive and negative phases of the Arctic Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation.

Figure 1: This figure is from the point of view of someone looking down from above at the North Pole (NP). Compare this perspective to Figure 1 in previous blog. This represents a strong, circular vortex centered over the pole, which encloses cold air, represented as blue. The line surrounding the cold air is the jet stream or the edge of the vortex.

Figure 1 shows an idealized schematic of the North Pole as viewed from above. This is the strong vortex case, when there is exceptionally low pressure at the pole. Low pressure is associated with counterclockwise rotation in the Northern Hemisphere. This direction of rotation is called cyclonic. This strong vortex case is the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. During this phase, the vortex aligns strongly with the rotation of the Earth, and there are relatively few wobbles of the edge of the vortex – the jet stream. I drew on the figure two points, X and Y. In this case, the point X is hot and the point Y is cold. It is during this phase when it is relatively warm and moist over, for example, the eastern seaboard of the United States.

Figure 2 compares a strong vortex and a weak vortex. In both cases, the circulation around a central point is counterclockwise or cyclonic. However, in the weak vortex case, the vortex does not align as strongly with the rotation of the Earth and there are places where the edge of vortex extends southwards. The vortex appears displaced from the pole; it is not centered over the pole.

Figure 2: Examples of a strong, circular vortex and a weak, more wavy vortex. See text for a more complete description.

Whether the vortex is stronger or weaker is determined by the atmospheric pressure at the pole. In the winter, an important factor that determines the circulation is the cooling that occurs at polar latitudes during the polar night.

What determines the waviness or wobbles at the edge of this vortex? The structure at the edge of vortex is strongly influenced by several factors. These factors include the structure of the high-pressure centers that are over the oceans and continents to the south of jet stream. One could easily imagine a strong high-pressure center over, for example, Iceland, pushing northward at the edge of the vortex. This might push a lobe of air characteristic of the middle latitude Atlantic Ocean northward. Since the edge of the vortex is something of a barrier, this high-pressure system would distort the edge of the vortex and, perhaps, push the vortex off the pole. This would appear as a displacement of the vortex and its cold air over, for example, Russia. If the high grew and faded, then this would appear as wobbles of the vortex.

Other factors that influence the waviness at the edge of the vortex are the mountain ranges and the thermal contrast between the continents and the oceans. The impact of mountains is easy to understand. Returning to the creek comparison used above, the mountains are like a boulder in the stream. The water bulges around and over the boulder; the air in the atmosphere bulges around and over the mountain ranges. The Rocky Mountains in the western half of North America are perfect examples of where there are often wobbles in the atmospheric jet stream.

Figure 3: This figure is from the point of view of someone looking down from above at the North Pole (NP). This represents a weak, wavy, wobbly vortex displaced from the pole. The vortex encloses cold air, represented as blue. The line surrounding the cold air is the jet stream or the edge of the vortex. (definition of vortex)

Figure 3 shows an idealized schematic of the North Pole as viewed from above. This is the weak vortex case, when the low pressure at the pole is not as low as average and the pressure is much higher than the strong vortex case of Figure 1. This weak vortex case is the negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation. During this phase, the alignment of the vortex with the rotation of the Earth is less prominent, and there are wobbles of the edge of the vortex – the jet stream. In this case, the point X is cold and the point Y is hot. It is during this phase where it is relatively cool and dry (but potentially snowy) over, for example, the eastern part of the United States.

These figures help to explain the prominent signal of the Arctic Oscillation discussed in the earlier entries (specifically, this blog). That is, when the vortex is weak and wobbly, then there are excursions of colder air to the south and warmer air to the north. This appears as waviness and is an important pattern of variability - warm, cold, warm, cold.

The impact of the changes in the structure of edge of the vortex does not end with these persistent periods of regional warm and cold spells. The edge of the vortex or the jet stream is also important for steering storms. Minimally, therefore, these changes in the edge of the vortex are expected to change the characteristics of how storms move. Simply, if the edge of the vortex has large northward and southward extensions, then storms take a longer time to move, for example, across the United States from the Pacific to the Atlantic Oceans. In the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation they just whip across. In the negative phase, the storms wander around a bit. A more complete discussion of this aspect of the role of the Arctic Oscillation will be in the next entry. (Note use of dramatic tension and the cliffhanger strategy of the serial.)

r

Previous entries:

Barriers in the Atmosphere
Behavior
Definitions and Some Background

August Arctic Oscillation presentation

CPC Climate Glossary “The Arctic Oscillation is a pattern in which atmospheric pressure at polar and middle latitudes fluctuates between negative and positive phases.”

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##### 407. JohnLonergan
 Horatio Algeranon says: October 18, 2013 at 6:13 am “Rambler Waves of Brain” – by Horatio Algeranon Denial is a stadium wave Passing through a crowd An undulating rant and rave Where reason ain’t allowed Back and forth and in and out Like wheat-fields in the breeze Rambler waves without a doubt Brain raves if you please Warning: “stadium waves” may be hazardous to your health. Take precautions: Always wear a braincoat and avoid the urge to stand/sit (or kneel, like they do in church) just because everyone around you is doing it.
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 3266
##### 405. RevElvis
 Scientists Say Climate Change Is Damaging Iowa Agriculture"Radio Iowa reports that 155 scientists from 36 colleges and universities in Iowa are jointly issuing a call for action against global warming and calling on the US Department of Agriculture to update its policies to better protect the land. 'The last couple of years have underscored the fact that we are very vulnerable to weather conditions and weather extremes in Iowa,' says Gene Takle, director of the Climate Science Program at Iowa State. Both years were marked by heavy spring rains followed by droughts that damaged Iowa's farmland. 'This has become a real issue for us, particularly with regard to getting crops planted in the spring,' says Takle adding that Iowa had 900,000 acres that weren't planted this year because of these intense spring rains. 'Following on the heels of the disastrous 2012 loss of 90% of Iowa's apple crop, the 2013 cool March and record-breaking March-through-May rainfall set most ornamental and garden plants back well behind seasonal norms,' says the Iowa Climate Statement for 2013 . 'Iowa's soils and agriculture remain our most important economic resources, but these resources are threatened by climate change (PDF)." When the Iowa climate change statement was first released in 2011, 44 Iowa scientists signed on and last year's statement was signed by 137 Iowa scientists. "It's easy to set up a straw-man argument, to say, 'Oh, well climates always change; there have been changes in the past. This might just be natural,' " says David Courard-Hauri. "And often that gets played on the Internet as, 'Maybe scientists haven't thought about the fact that there have been natural changes in the past and maybe this is related.' " Of course scientists have thought about that possibility, says Courard-Hauri, but the evidence strongly suggests the climate is changing faster than could be expected to happen naturally."Slashdot.orgRadioIowa.org
Member Since: September 18, 2005 Posts: 25 Comments: 948
##### 404. RevElvis
 Saving the planet from short-term thinking will take ‘man on the moon’ commitment“We choose to go to the moon.” So said John F Kennedy in September 1962 as he pledged a manned lunar landing by the end of the decade.The US president knew that his country’s space programme would be expensive. He knew it would have its critics. But he took the long-term view. Warming to his theme in Houston that day, JFK went on: “We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organise and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too.”That was the world’s richest country at the apogee of its power in an age where both Democrats and Republicans were prepared to invest in the future. Kennedy’s predecessor Dwight Eisenhower took a plan for a system of interstate highways and made sure it happened.Contrast that with today’s America, which looks less like the leader of the free world than a banana republic with a reserve currency. Planning for the long term now involves last ditch deals on Capitol Hill to ensure that the federal government can remain open until January and debts can be paid at least until February.The US is not the only country with advanced short-termism; it merely provides the most egregious example of the disease. This is a world of fast food and short attention spans; of politicians so dominated by a 24/7 news agenda that they have lost the habit of planning for the long term. Britain provides another example of the trend. Governments of both left and right have for years put energy policy in the “too hard to think about box”. They have not been able to make up their minds whether to commit to renewables (which is what Germany has done) or to nuclear (which is what the French have done). As a result, the nation of Rutherford is now prepared to have a totalitarian country take a majority stake in a new generation of nuclear power stations.Politics, technology and human nature all militate in favour of kicking the can down the road. The most severe financial and economic crisis in more than half a century has further discouraged policymakers from raising their eyes from the present to the distant horizon.Clearly, though, the world faces long-term challenges that will only become more acute through prevarication. These include coping with a bigger and ageing global population; ensuring growth is sustainable and equitable; providing the resources to pay for modern transport and energy infrastructure; and reshaping international institutions so that they represent the world as it is in the early 21st century rather than as it was in 1945.RawStory.com (The Guardian)
Member Since: September 18, 2005 Posts: 25 Comments: 948
##### 403. RevElvis
 Carbon-negative energy, a reality at last"All Power Labs in Berkeley, California has produced and sold over 500 machines that take in dense biomass and put out energy. What makes the machines special is that instead of releasing carbon back into the atmosphere, it's concentrated into a lump charcoal that makes excellent fertilizer. The energy is produced cheaply, too; many of the machines went to poor nations who normally pay much more per kilowatt. '[T]he PowerPallets are still relatively simple, at least as far as their users are concerned. For one, thing Price explained, much of the machine is made with plumbing fixtures that are the same everywhere in the world. That means they're easy to repair. At the same time, while researchers at the 50 or so institutions that have bought the machines are excited by opening up the computer control system and poking around inside, a guy running a corn mill in Uganda with a PowerPallet "will never need to open that door and never will," Price said.'"cnet.comSlashdot.org
Member Since: September 18, 2005 Posts: 25 Comments: 948
##### 402. Daisyworld
 I just wanted to take a moment to thank the moderator(s) and/or admin(s) who have been weeding out the recent tsunami of climate change denial comments here. I've noticed that you've been very active here lately, and it is very much appreciated. Thank you, thank you, THANK YOU.
##### 401. Xulonn
Member Since: June 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 1443
##### 400. schistkicker
 Quoting 331. JohnLonergan:From Open Mind:The ICP reportMany of you are probably aware of a “report” which is intended to contradict the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) report. Its authors call it the “NIPCC” report for “Non-governmental International Panel on Climate Change.” It’s supposed to represent the very best that so-called “skeptics” have to offer.But in my opinion, a much more accurate acronym would be “ICP” report — for “Intentional Cherry-Picking.” You don’t have to look any further than their “Summary for Policymakers” (SPM) to see cherry-picking taken to the extreme. And I do mean, extreme. One of the most obvious, most egregious, and frankly most ridiculous examples is Figure 4 from their SPM. It looks like this:Here’s what they have to say when referring to this figure:“… a wide variety of datasets other than the HadCRUT global air temperature curve favored by the IPCC do not exhibit a warming trend during the second half of the twentieth century. See Figure 4.”Let’s find out whether or not their claim is correct. ...Grab some popcorn and watch the carnage ensue.I'm still this far behind, and I haven't read the linked blog yet. But based on my reading of the "Figure 4", my 'favorite' part is where they "starting point" and "ending points" they used for comparison nearly completely overlapped-- of course there's little visible trend, when only two years of the end-range are independent of the starting-range... and both ranges end just before the global temps do their upward step in 1998, and exclude any of the warm 2000's years, too. I look forward to seeing how many other ways they're wrong.
##### 399. Xulonn
 .
Member Since: June 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 1443
##### 398. Neapolitan
 Quoting 395. overwash12:I don't know if this is factual or not. LinkBirthmark already gave you the details, but here is a great general guideline to follow to avoid embarrassment on science-based fora: if the piece to which you're about to link is a) several years old, and it b) appears on a denialist website that c) hasn't been updated in six months, and it cites d) a "project" that has been thoroughly discredited and debunked and dismissed by mainstream scientists, along with e) most people familiar with it, then you should probably not bother linking it.
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13508
##### 397. Naga5000
 Ah the Sunday Opinion pieces are in full swing I see. Have a great day everyone, I'm off to watch the Dolphins at the pub.
##### 396. Birthmark
 Quoting 395. overwash12:I don't know if this is factual or not. LinkIt is factual in that it exists. Aside from that it is completely bogus.
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5469
##### 395. overwash12
 I don't know if this is factual or not. Link
##### 394. Birthmark
 Quoting 391. Cochise111:Perhaps we should let geologists predict climate using real science. They couldn't do any worse than the present charlatans. Look out, the ice-age cometh:LinkDerpolicious! LOLHey, did you ever find a data set to substantiate your claim of no warming, or can we just assume you were spreading propaganda? ;)
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5469
##### 393. JohnLonergan
 Time for some Sunday morning wit and whimsy from Horatio: “Deniers’ Least Action Principle”– by Horatio AlgeranonDeniers always actTo minimize the factThat temperature increasesBy picking cherry piecesOf all the many pathsThey choose the one with mathsThat leads to zero actionOn greenhouse gas reduction
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 3266
##### 392. cyclonebuster
 Quoting 391. Cochise111:Perhaps we should let geologists predict climate using real science. They couldn't do any worse than the present charlatans. Look out, the ice-age cometh:LinkThe Sun God has spoken...
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20400
##### 389. EstherD
 Quoting 349. tramp96:Science is founded on uncertainty. Each time we learn something new and surprising, the astonishment comes with the realization that we were wrong before. — Lewis ThomasI like the other Lewis Thomas quotes that Daisyworld included in #352, but I'm not very fond of this one... it doesn't reflect my understanding of how science works."Wrong" to me means nothing salvageable... you throw the whole shebang out and start over. That rarely happens with a major body of accepted work. Rather, science functions by incremental refinement... the residual errors and effects not covered by today's theory are explained by tomorrow's updated version, and today's theory often continues to be useful as first-order approximation, or in certain special cases.As written, Thomas's quote gives the anti-science crowd far too much leverage, which is probably why it was chosen by our friend, tramp96. Consequently, I would prefer something more like: "Science thrives on the unexplained. Each time we learn something new and surprising, the astonishment comes with the realization that our previous understanding just wasn't quite good enough."
##### 388. Xulonn
 Quoting 349. tramp96:Science is founded on uncertainty. Each time we learn something new and surprising, the astonishment comes with the realization that we were wrong before. — Lewis ThomasNice try at cherry-picking - unfortunately, Daisyworld smashed your cherry into an unrecognizable red blob.
Member Since: June 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 1443
##### 387. cyclonebuster
 Quoting 382. Naga5000:Previously NeapolitanFan and CEastwood.Reincarnated Sun God worshipers...
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20400
##### 386. Daisyworld
 The Other Carbon Dioxide Problem: Ocean Acidificationby NOAAVisualizations
##### 385. Daisyworld
 Nearly a hundred wildfires are raging across southern Australiaby Norah O'Donnell | CBS News | October 18, 2013
##### 384. Naga5000
 Written by a dolt, must be Bolt. Finally a rhyme I can get behind. I'm on a roll, it's out of control.
##### 382. Naga5000
 Quoting 380. cyclonebuster:Who Cochise111????He prays to the Sun God...Previously NeapolitanFan and CEastwood.
##### 381. JohnLonergan
 Deltoid has an entire category in the archives devoted to Bolt(46 entries).
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 3266
##### 380. cyclonebuster
 Quoting 371. Naga5000:Hmm...wrong, bud. Antarctic sea ice increase is consistent with a warming world, interestingly enough Antarctic glacial ice is decreasing. I kind of feel bad for you since your so blindly fooled by pseudo science. What do you do for a living?Who Cochise111????He prays to the Sun God...
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20400
##### 379. JohnLonergan
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 3266
##### 378. Naga5000
 Quoting 376. Neapolitan:Breathlessly boldfaced passages aside, I don't see a single thing in either abstract that sheds any new light on climate change. Of course, I have, perhaps foolishly, only read the abstracts as reproduced on HS, and as we've seen many times--many, many, many times--the HockeyShtick folks not above doing a little lot of selective editing when those abstracts don't quite say what their denialist/contrarian/skeptic audience craves, so I'll withhold full judgement until and unless I read the actual papers.But HS told him how to interpret the papers he doesn't understand himself. It must be true!
##### 377. JohnLonergan
 Quoting 375. Birthmark:Link doesn't work. Coincidence?RetryWhich type of conspiracy theorist are you?LargerI tried to change something, DumbModify comment hates me, IT'S A CONSPIRACY!!!
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 3266
##### 376. Neapolitan
 Quoting 365. Cochise111:It gets worse and worse for the CO2 proponents. CO2 increases and temperatures decrease. As I've written for years, "it's the sun." Go ahead and attack these authors, because you can't attack their methodology.LinkLinkBreathlessly boldfaced passages aside, I don't see a single thing in either abstract that sheds any new light on climate change. Of course, I have, perhaps foolishly, only read the abstracts as reproduced on HS, and as we've seen many times--many, many, many times--the HockeyShtick folks not above doing a little lot of selective editing when those abstracts don't quite say what their denialist/contrarian/skeptic audience craves, so I'll withhold full judgement until and unless I read the actual papers.
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13508
##### 375. Birthmark
 Quoting 373. JohnLonergan:Which type of conspiracy theorist are you?Link to larger versionLink doesn't work. Coincidence?
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5469
##### 374. Neapolitan
 Quoting 370. Cochise111:Why is it that everyone except the people on this blog admit that global temperatures haven't increased in fifteen years at least?Oh, dear, I see that you've made yet another mistake. But no worries, mate; I've gone ahead and corrected it for you below. And, yes: you're welcome:Why is it that everyone except the people on this blog most climatologists, meteorologists, atmospheric dynamicists, atmospheric physicists, atmospheric chemists, solar physicists, historical climatologists, geophysicists, geochemists, geologists, soil scientists, oceanographers, glaciologists, palaeoclimatologists, palaeoenvironmental reconstructionists, ecologists, synthetic biologists, biochemists, global change biologists, biogeographers, ecophysiologists, ecological geneticists, applied mathematicians, mathematical modellers, computer scientists, numerical modellers, bayesian inferencists, mathematical statisticians, and time series analysts admit that global temperatures haven't increased in fifteen years at least?
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13508
##### 373. JohnLonergan
 Which type of conspiracy theorist are you?Link to larger version
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 3266
##### 372. Birthmark
 Quoting 370. Cochise111: It's only science to you if it shows declining ice. Selective science it should be called. Why is it that everyone except the people on this blog admit that global temperatures haven't increased in fifteen years at least? Talk about denial.Please show the data set(s) that demonstrate that there hasn't been any warming. TIA.Otherwise, you are merely babbling.
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5469
##### 371. Naga5000
 Quoting 370. Cochise111: It's only science to you if it shows declining ice. Selective science it should be called. Why is it that everyone except the people on this blog admit that global temperatures haven't increased in fifteen years at least? Talk about denial.Hmm...wrong, bud. Antarctic sea ice increase is consistent with a warming world, interestingly enough Antarctic glacial ice is decreasing. I kind of feel bad for you since your so blindly fooled by pseudo science. What do you do for a living?
##### 369. Birthmark
 Quoting 367. Cochise111:It made a difference to the warmists when ice levels were lower, but, of course, that doesn't matter anymore. Another prediction with an epic fail.Know how I can tell that you aren't familiar with the scientific literature concerning Antarctic sea ice? lol
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5469
##### 368. Birthmark
 Quoting 365. Cochise111:Yes, look how cool it's gotten just since late 2007!Brrr! ;)
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5469
##### 366. Birthmark
 Quoting 362. Cochise111:Antarctic ice at an all-time high. Ouch!Did you cut yourself shaving?All-time high? Hmmm...You sure about that?But, really. What difference does it make anyway? lol
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5469
##### 365. Cochise111
 It gets worse and worse for the CO2 proponents. CO2 increases and temperatures decrease. As I've written for years, "it's the sun." Go ahead and attack these authors, because you can't attack their methodology.LinkLink
Member Since: February 9, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 328
##### 364. JohnLonergan
 Dr. Masters' blog ,Climatic tipping points, stories about our possible future,"Tipping Points" was published in The Guardian today.Link
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 3266
##### 363. tramp96
 Quoting 358. JohnLonergan:"Uncertainty" does not mean that we don't know anything.Uncertainty means what it means don't read anything into it.
Member Since: August 15, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 1554
##### 361. JohnLonergan
 Does this sound a little too familiar?Canadian hamlet evacuated after oil train crash causes huge blazeEmergency crews battled a massive fire on Saturday after a Canadian National tanker train carrying oil and gas derailed west of Edmonton, Alberta, overnight. No injuries have been reported so far.A Canadian National spokesman, Louis-Antoine Paquin, said 13 cars four carrying petroleum crude oil and nine loaded with liquified petroleum gas came off the tracks around 1am local time in the hamlet of Gainford, about 50 miles from Edmonton. The entire community of roughly 100 people was evacuated.More in The Guardian:
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 3266
##### 360. JohnLonergan
 The Evangelical Science Denier and the Alarmist Fundamentalist Religious Cult: The Cornwall AllianceI wrote an article on David Legates' denial of science a few hours ago. I've been told that David rejects science on quasi-religious grounds. He is a member of a cult called the Cornwall Alliance.David Legates apparently rejects even more aspects of climate science than does Roy Spencer. Based on his article from yesterday, David rejects the greenhouse effect. The thing they have in common is that they are both members of an evangelical quasi-religious cult in the USA called the Cornwall Alliance. Based on their published material, this cult is a mixture of fundamentalist christianity, alarmist economics, pseudo-science, opposition to mainstream climate science and more than a hint of sexism (and suggestive of more deviant thinking). It assumes male supremacy and that men were put on earth to plunder as they please. Only in the USA, home of the weird and wacky.A Mission to Reject ScienceRead more at HotWhopper
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 3266
##### 359. Naga5000
 Quoting 353. yoboi:And if you can't explain the pause....Do you really know the cause????Take your hockeyschtick nonsense somewhere else. You don't understand climate because you read the hockeyschtick and take it as gospel.
##### 358. JohnLonergan
 Quoting 355. Birthmark:"Uncertainty" isn't the same as vacuous. That's why they're different words. :)"Uncertainty" does not mean that we don't know anything.
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 3266
##### 357. Patrap
 If the pause don't fit, you must acquit.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 423 Comments: 127807

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