Greenhouse Emissions of Agriculture

By: Dr. Ricky Rood , 6:25 AM GMT on July 27, 2013

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Greenhouse Emissions of Agriculture

In the last blog there was a comment by peregrinepickle on the emissions from agriculture. It started:

“It sounds like they may be putting the cart before the workhorse with this study. A 2010 survey of the literature found that too few studies on GHG emissions and the impact of various alternative farming practices have been done in US agricultural regions, including the Great plains Ironically, more research is being done in this vein in China. So it seems premature to appeal to US farmers re: willingness to adopt certain practices before knowing exactly where you are going with it.

Agriculture, compared to other sources, is not a huge contributor to GHGs, relative to the contributions by industry, transportation, and utilities. In the US farming is responsible for 6% of the overall emissions of the six major GHGs. However, farming does contribute about 25% of all CH4 emissions in the US, which is major, as this gas is 21-33 times more potent in warming potential than CO2.”

Back in April and May I wrote two entries on the emissions from agriculture (first entry, second entry). These two entries highlighted both the complexity of calculating the greenhouse emissions related to agriculture as well as suggested some of the controversy associated with the calculation. The controversy is especially high in the calculation associated with livestock.

The amount of direct fossil fuel emissions from use of fuels in machinery and pumps for agriculture is modest, as stated in peregrinepickle’s comment. Those numbers are based on a 2010 inventory by the Environmental Protection Agency. Here is a link to the chapter that details the agricultural inventory. The greenhouse gas emissions compiled in the chapter on agriculture are for greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide, especially methane and nitrous oxide. For the EPA inventory, the carbon dioxide associated with agriculture is accounted for in the energy inventory. Additional emissions and removal of greenhouse gasses are calculated with land use, land change and forestry. The national forests are part of the Department of Agriculture.

The accounting with soils and forests influences, greatly, the budget of emissions associated with agriculture. Based on soil management agriculture can remove and store substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. In the U.S. agriculture is a mature and extensive enterprise, and we are not aggressively converting forest to agricultural land. In fact, the amount of forest is increasing and, therefore, can be accounted as an agricultural removal of carbon dioxide. This fact of increasing forest land is not the case in much of the world. World-wide, deforestation as forest is converted to agricultural use, especially rangeland, accounts for much of the carbon footprint of agriculture. Phil Robertson in an article to appear in the Encyclopedia of Agriculture estimates the total greenhouse gas footprint of agriculture is between 26 and 36 percent (thank you Professor Robertson). This range seems soundly based in the synthesis of research, and the number I would quote based on the current state of knowledge.

As detailed in Livestock’s Long Shadow and stated in the entirety of peregrinepickle’s comment, the impact of agriculture reaches far beyond the relevance to climate change. Notably there are impacts on water quality and land quality, and, in my opinion, the impact of nitrogen (fertilizer) pollution is one of the most under appreciated sources of environmental degradation. Management of this whole portfolio of environmental impacts is one of the special challenges of the agricultural sector of human activities.

The mix of greenhouse gas emissions, the details of the practice of land use, the role of biological processes, and the potential to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere and store them in soil and biomass characterize the climate impact of agriculture. Agriculture is also vulnerable to climate change. Since agriculture is a highly competitive, market-dependent undertaking, market response to weather and climate can amplify weather-related impacts. Agriculture becomes more entangled with the climate problem, when we consider the possibility of biofuels to replace some of our fossil fuels. This complexity complicates the accounting of climate impacts, but also offers some of our best opportunities to improve our management of the environment. Agriculture is no doubt an important player in our management of climate change, and notably absent in President Obama recent speech on climate change.

A primary source of agricultural information is Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. An often cited document is the 2006 documentLivestock’s Long Shadow. There has been much criticism of this report, especially in its calculation of the emissions of the transportation sector. The original authors did modify their specific statements about transportation. As noted in an earlier blog in this series, there is substantial controversy about the impact of agriculture. Therefore, I end here with a set of reference materials that I have used.

EPA National Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data

PDF of Agriculture Chapter of EPA Inventory of Emissions

Agriculture’s Role in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Chapter 8: Working Group 3: IPCC 2007

Energy Efficiency of Conventional, Organic and Alternative Cropping …

Livestock and Climate Change

and to appear

Soil Greenhouse Gas Emissions and their Mitigation, G. Philip Robertson, W.K. Kellogg Biological Station and the Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, Hickory Corners, MI 49060

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1063. Patrap
but critics like meterologist and blogger Anthony Watts say it is too little, too late.

Watts and FOX....?

O dats rich, LoL
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 129090
Quoting 1060. CEastwood:
This is for those who argued against the laws of physics as they applied to climate change or lack thereof. I suppose the improperly sited weather stations were an embarrassment for NOAA, which refused to acknowledge that a thermometer placed next to asphalt might have the capability of altering proper temperature records:

Link


How many fossil fuel GHG's are made making and transporting that asphalt?
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20413
Quoting 1060. CEastwood:
This is for those who argued against the laws of physics as they applied to climate change or lack thereof. I suppose the improperly sited weather stations were an embarrassment for NOAA, which refused to acknowledge that a thermometer placed next to asphalt might have the capability of altering proper temperature records:

Link

Oh this sucks. Time to re-calculate the data and start fresh.
Member Since: April 16, 2013 Posts: 27 Comments: 3168
This is for those who argued against the laws of physics as they applied to climate change or lack thereof. I suppose the improperly sited weather stations were an embarrassment for NOAA, which refused to acknowledge that a thermometer placed next to asphalt might have the capability of altering proper temperature records:

Link
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1059. barbamz
Some little insight in the development of the German Green party, for all who are interested (I wouldn't mind to see Greens and Conservatives a bit more hooked up in future).

Half of Greens Want Merkel to Stay
Spiegel English 08/14/2013

"If I may, Mr. President, you are an a**hole." It is a sentence that has a firm place in German political lore, and it was uttered by Green Party notable Joschka Fischer back in 1984, one year after the environmental activists were elected to German parliament for the first time. His target was center-right Bundestag Vice President Richard Stücklen.

These days, though, the once radical Greens have an entirely different approach to the country's conservatives. According to a new survey, some 45 percent of Green Party voters would like to see Angela Merkel remain in the Chancellery following fall elections.

To be sure, 53 percent of those queried by the pollsters at Forsa on behalf of the business daily Handelsblatt said they would like to see a change at the top. But the high share of Merkel supporters shows that the Greens have left their rambunctious beginnings far behind. ...


Whole article see link above. I've edited the quotation from Mr. Fischer, who later became our minister for foreign affairs, as I know you are a bit more sensitive in the US :)
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Quoting 1056. zampaz:

Hi everyone, been busy, but happy to everyone still hard at work in the wunderground. I'm looking forward to Birthmark's new blog! :)
Regarding the philosophy of science, I love the everything from the "Scientific Method" to the history of science/mathematics. You cannot possibly go wrong with your idea Birthmark.
As I'm busy with other projects at the moment Birthmark, pop me a wumail so I don't miss your first post.


zampaz remember the Arctic can not wait....Yesterday was to late..
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20413
Quoting 1055. yoboi:



TTOA...Tunnel Tour Of America......you can build a small scale model put it on a boat trailer and travel America showing how it works.......


Computers do that better and faster.
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20413
1056. zampaz
Quoting 1026. Birthmark:
Question for all: Would there be any interest in me starting a wunderblog that dealt with the philosophy of science (for wont of a better term, promise I won't go all egg-heady), and climate change? Discussion of the latter would be limited to personal opinions of the posters, data from reliable sources, and reputably published, peer-reviewed science. No links to denialist clap-trap allowed.

I'm willing to do the work only if there is sufficient interest in the project.

ETA: My feelings won't be hurt answers of no interest. I promise.

Hi everyone, been busy, but happy to everyone still hard at work in the wunderground. I'm looking forward to Birthmark's new blog! :)
Regarding the philosophy of science, I love the everything from the "Scientific Method" to the history of science/mathematics. You cannot possibly go wrong with your idea Birthmark.
As I'm busy with other projects at the moment Birthmark, pop me a wumail so I don't miss your first post.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1055. yoboi
Quoting 1054. cyclonebuster:


What the heck is that? LOL...



TTOA...Tunnel Tour Of America......you can build a small scale model put it on a boat trailer and travel America showing how it works.......
Member Since: August 25, 2010 Posts: 7 Comments: 2396
Quoting 1053. yoboi:



cb have you tried doing a TTOA???????


What the heck is that? LOL...
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20413
1053. yoboi
Quoting 1052. cyclonebuster:


At least I am doing something about it.. What's your plan?



cb have you tried doing a TTOA???????
Member Since: August 25, 2010 Posts: 7 Comments: 2396
Quoting 1051. Xulonn:
Since you say that time is valuable, how many hours have you devoted to promoting your ideas this month? Any positive results for those many hours of work?

I know that you're aware, CB, that actions speak louder than words. At least you're not wasting time spamming us with your tunnels hypothesis, so I assume that you are using the time that is saved to continue your difficult task of working to get your idea to the next step - larger-scale testing.

Or just telling everyone else to do something while you sit on your butt?


At least I am doing something about it.. What's your plan?
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20413
1051. Xulonn
Quoting 1038. cyclonebuster:

It would be a waste of valuable time that which we do not have..
Since you say that time is valuable, how many hours have you devoted to promoting your ideas this month? Any positive results for those many hours of work?

I know that you're aware, CB, that actions speak louder than words. At least you're not wasting time spamming us with your tunnels hypothesis, so I assume that you are using the time that is saved to continue your difficult task of working to get your idea to the next step - larger-scale testing.

Or just telling everyone else to do something while you sit on your butt?
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Quoting 1047. Birthmark:
Even within summer the timing is important.


Not good anytime during the summer...
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20413
Quoting 1048. Xulonn:
I'm very interested - go for it!

I did. :)

And thanks.
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5469
1048. Xulonn
Quoting 1026. Birthmark:
Question for all: Would there be any interest in me starting a wunderblog that dealt with the philosophy of science (for wont of a better term, promise I won't go all egg-heady), and climate change? Discussion of the latter would be limited to personal opinions of the posters, data from reliable sources, and reputably published, peer-reviewed science. No links to denialist clap-trap allowed.
I'm willing to do the work only if there is sufficient interest in the project.
ETA: My feelings won't be hurt answers of no interest. I promise.
I'm very interested - go for it!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Even within summer the timing is important.
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5469
Quoting 1044. Birthmark:

It depends on the time of year, the position of the cyclone relative to the land and the ice over which the cyclone is located, the strength of the cyclone, and probably a few other factors that I'm leaving out.

I've come to learn that nothing is simple in the Arctic.


Hence that is why I said summertime..
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20413
The inevitability of sea level rise
Small numbers can imply big things. Global sea level rose by a little less than 0.2 metres during the 20th century – mainly in response to the 0.8 °C of warming humans have caused through greenhouse gas emissions. That might not look like something to worry about. But there is no doubt that for the next century, sea level will continue to rise substantially. The multi-billion-dollar question is: by how much?

The upper limit of two metres that is currently available in the scientific literature would be extremely difficult and costly to adapt to for many coastal regions. But the sea level will not stop rising at the end of the 21st century. Historical climate records show that sea levels have been higher whenever Earth’s climate was warmer – and not by a couple of centimetres, but by several metres. This inevitability is due to the inertia in the ocean and ice masses on the planet. There are two major reasons for the perpetual response of sea level to human perturbations.

One is due to the long lifetime and warming effect of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Once emitted carbon dioxide causes warming in the atmosphere over many centuries which can only be reduced significantly by actively taking the greenhouse gas out again. This is because both the amount of heat and carbon dioxide the ocean can absorb is reduced, and so the temperature stays up for centuries or even millennia. Of course, not cutting emissions would exacerbate the problem even further.

The other reason is that both the ocean and the ice masses are very big and a warming of the surrounding atmosphere will only penetrate slowly, but inevitably, into them. As a consequence their sea level contribution continues even if the warming does not increase. Sea level rise over the last century has been dominated by ocean warming and loss of glaciers. Our recent study indicates that the future sea level rise will be dominated by ice loss from the two major ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica – slumbering giants that we’re about to wake.





It is easier to understand a future world that has adjusted to a new equilibrium of higher temperatures than it is to understand the dynamic (perhaps rapid) transition from today’s world to a warmer one. That is why we used physical models for the ocean, the mountain glaciers and the big ice sheets to compute how the systems would be different if the world was warmer.

What we found was that for each degree of global warming above pre-industrial levels the ocean warming will contribute about 0.4 metres to global mean sea-level rise while Antarctica will contribute about 1.2 metres. The mountain glaciers have a limited amount of water stored and thus their contribution levels off with higher temperatures. This is over-compensated for by the ice loss from Greenland, so that in total sea level rises quasi-linearly by about 2.3 metres for each degree of global warming (see figure).

How fast this will come about, we do not know. All we can say is that it will take no longer than 2,000 years. Thus the 2.3 metres per degree of warming are not for this century. They need to be considered as our sea level commitment – the sea level rise that cannot be avoided after we have elevated global temperatures to a certain level.

Ben Strauss of Climate Central has considered the different possible future pathways that society might take and computed which US cities are at risk in the long-term. He poses the question as to what year, if we continue with greenhouse emissions at current rates, we will have caused an inevitable sea level rise that puts certain cities at risk.

According to his analysis, within the next few years Miami in Florida will be committed to eventually lie below sea level, while our future actions can still decide on whether we want to one day give up cities such as Virginia Beach, Sacramento, Boston, Jacksonville or New York City.

This is a decision society has to take for future generations. We will need to adapt to climate change in any case, but some things we will not be able to adapt to. Society needs to decide whether we want to give up, for example, the Tower of London, or to put the breaks on climate change so that we don’t have to.
Member Since: June 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 3452
Quoting 1043. cyclonebuster:


Explain.

It depends on the time of year, the position of the cyclone relative to the land and the ice over which the cyclone is located, the strength of the cyclone, and probably a few other factors that I'm leaving out.

I've come to learn that nothing is simple in the Arctic.
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5469
Quoting 1041. Birthmark:

That's not necessarily true.


Explain.
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20413
Quoting 1029. Daisyworld:


I think such a featured blog would be long in coming. Many questions that pop up on this forum could be referred to there.

That's sort of my hope. I'd like to provide some forum where AGW/CC can be discussed without the trolling.
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5469
Quoting 1035. cyclonebuster:
Cyclones are not good for summertime Arctic Ice...

That's not necessarily true.
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5469
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
97:3
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20413
Quoting 1036. Picatso:


I love the idea!


Been there done that... How many times must we hash things out? We need solutions not talk about philosophy of science... Carl Sagan already did this.. The science is already settled.. It would be a waste of valuable time that which we do not have..
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20413
Quoting 1026. Birthmark:
Question for all: Would there be any interest in me starting a wunderblog that dealt with the philosophy of science (for wont of a better term, promise I won't go all egg-heady), and climate change? Discussion of the latter would be limited to personal opinions of the posters, data from reliable sources, and reputably published, peer-reviewed science. No links to denialist clap-trap allowed.

I'm willing to do the work only if there is sufficient interest in the project.

ETA: My feelings won't be hurt answers of no interest. I promise.


I'm In !
Member Since: September 18, 2005 Posts: 25 Comments: 948
1036. Picatso
Quoting 1026. Birthmark:
Question for all: Would there be any interest in me starting a wunderblog that dealt with the philosophy of science (for wont of a better term, promise I won't go all egg-heady), and climate change? Discussion of the latter would be limited to personal opinions of the posters, data from reliable sources, and reputably published, peer-reviewed science. No links to denialist clap-trap allowed.

I'm willing to do the work only if there is sufficient interest in the project.

ETA: My feelings won't be hurt answers of no interest. I promise.


I love the idea!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Cyclones are not good for summertime Arctic Ice...Thanks fossil fuel GHG's for warming our land, sea and air.....





Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20413
Quoting 1031. FLwolverine:
CB, here's a link to a podcast of a program I heard last night on the NPR show On Point. Link. It's a rebroadcast of interviews with some student "climate activists". It's interesting to hear what they are doing. Whether or not you or I agree with them, it's a good starting point to talk about what might be done and what might be effective.


If they do not restore our summertime Arctic Ice in 5 to 10 years then they are not effective...We will be faced with a thousand years of warming...Minimum...To late for more philosophy it is time to act...
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20413
Blog by robertscribbler on the massive fires and floods in Russia. Weather weirding indeed. Link

Earlier this year, drought and heatwaves blanketed Siberia and Yakutia. But late July, this region had begun to erupt in a series of extraordinary wildfires that blanketed almost all of northern and eastern Russia in very dense smoke. By early August what is perhaps the worst rainstorm in the history of this area of Russia had begun to form. As of the writing of this article, on August 14, major storms and flooding continued with no immediate end in sight.
............
Such burn events are anomalous enough. But for a flood that covers a 1 million square kilometer area to immediately follow in the wake of such amazingly large and widespread fires is anything but normal. Atmospheric patterns that link major weather systems and increase their intensity can be attributed to the formation of powerful heat dome high pressure systems along with weakened and meandering Jet Stream waves. Rising atmospheric heat caused by human warming adds to the density and strength of heat domes (identified as becoming more intense by meteorologist Stu Ostro). Meanwhile erosion of the Jet Stream caused by reduced snow and sea ice cover (identified by Dr. Jennifer Francis) is implicated in a host of problems including more intense and persistent droughts and storm events along with the increased likelihood that weather systems will link up as north to south weather patterns deepen, back up, slow down, and elongate.

Edited to add this quote from one of the comments: To illustrate the immensity of this flood of 1 million square kilometers on the heels of devastating wildfires. A area has been flooded that is more than the area of Texas X TWO.
Member Since: January 6, 2013 Posts: 3 Comments: 2404
Quoting 1026. Birthmark:
Question for all: Would there be any interest in me starting a wunderblog that dealt with the philosophy of science (for wont of a better term, promise I won't go all egg-heady), and climate change? Discussion of the latter would be limited to personal opinions of the posters, data from reliable sources, and reputably published, peer-reviewed science. No links to denialist clap-trap allowed.

I'm willing to do the work only if there is sufficient interest in the project.

ETA: My feelings won't be hurt answers of no interest. I promise.
I'm interested. Thanks.
Member Since: January 6, 2013 Posts: 3 Comments: 2404
Quoting 1028. cyclonebuster:
No! We already know the philosophy of science but if you did one on solutions like the good Dr. has then we will make progress in the right direction even though it is too late for our Arctic...
CB, here's a link to a podcast of a program I heard last night on the NPR show On Point. Link. It's a rebroadcast of interviews with some student "climate activists". It's interesting to hear what they are doing. Whether or not you or I agree with them, it's a good starting point to talk about what might be done and what might be effective.
Member Since: January 6, 2013 Posts: 3 Comments: 2404
Quoting 1026. Birthmark:
Question for all: Would there be any interest in me starting a wunderblog that dealt with the philosophy of science (for wont of a better term, promise I won't go all egg-heady), and climate change? Discussion of the latter would be limited to personal opinions of the posters, data from reliable sources, and reputably published, peer-reviewed science. No links to denialist clap-trap allowed.

I'm willing to do the work only if there is sufficient interest in the project.

ETA: My feelings won't be hurt answers of no interest. I promise.


Go for it!
Member Since: June 1, 2010 Posts: 4 Comments: 3614
Quoting 1026. Birthmark:
Question for all: Would there be any interest in me starting a wunderblog that dealt with the philosophy of science (for wont of a better term, promise I won't go all egg-heady), and climate change? Discussion of the latter would be limited to personal opinions of the posters, data from reliable sources, and reputably published, peer-reviewed science. No links to denialist clap-trap allowed.

I'm willing to do the work only if there is sufficient interest in the project.

ETA: My feelings won't be hurt answers of no interest. I promise.


I think such a featured blog would be long in coming. Many questions that pop up on this forum could be referred to there.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 1026. Birthmark:
Question for all: Would there be any interest in me starting a wunderblog that dealt with the philosophy of science (for wont of a better term, promise I won't go all egg-heady), and climate change? Discussion of the latter would be limited to personal opinions of the posters, data from reliable sources, and reputably published, peer-reviewed science. No links to denialist clap-trap allowed.

I'm willing to do the work only if there is sufficient interest in the project.

ETA: My feelings won't be hurt answers of no interest. I promise.


No! We already know the philosophy of science but if you did one on solutions like the good Dr. has then we will make progress in the right direction even though it is too late for our Arctic...
Member Since: January 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20413
1027. yoboi
Quoting 1026. Birthmark:
Question for all: Would there be any interest in me starting a wunderblog that dealt with the philosophy of science (for wont of a better term, promise I won't go all egg-heady), and climate change? Discussion of the latter would be limited to personal opinions of the posters, data from reliable sources, and reputably published, peer-reviewed science. No links to denialist clap-trap allowed.

I'm willing to do the work only if there is sufficient interest in the project.

ETA: My feelings won't be hurt answers of no interest. I promise.


I am for learning....
Member Since: August 25, 2010 Posts: 7 Comments: 2396
Question for all: Would there be any interest in me starting a wunderblog that dealt with the philosophy of science (for wont of a better term, promise I won't go all egg-heady), and climate change? Discussion of the latter would be limited to personal opinions of the posters, data from reliable sources, and reputably published, peer-reviewed science. No links to denialist clap-trap allowed.

I'm willing to do the work only if there is sufficient interest in the project.

ETA: My feelings won't be hurt answers of no interest. I promise.
Member Since: October 30, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 5469
The Bronze Age collapse was caused by climate change: study

A cold, dry spell that lasted hundreds of years may have driven the collapse of Eastern Mediterranean civilizations in the 13th century BC, researchers in France said Wednesday.

In the Late Bronze Age, powerful kingdoms spanned lands that are now Egypt, Greece, Cyprus, Syria, Turkey, Israel and the Palestinian territories, but they collapsed suddenly around 1200 BC.

Archeologists have long debated the reasons behind their fall, often citing economic factors.

The latest findings, published in the open-access journal PLoS One, are based on an analysis of sediment from an ancient lake in southeastern Cyprus by lead researcher David Kaniewski of the University of Paul Sabatier in Toulouse.

Kaniewski found evidence of a 300-year drought beginning around 3,200 years ago in pollen grains derived from sediments of the Larnaca Salt Lake complex.

Changes in carbon isotopes and local plant species suggest that the series of four lakes were once a sea harbor at the heart of trade routes in the region, offering a new piece of the puzzle that suggests a history of environmental changes drove the region into a dark age.

"This climate shift caused crop failures, death and famine, which precipitated or hastened socio-economic crises and forced regional human migrations at the end of the Late Bronze Age in the Eastern Mediterranean and southwest Asia," the study said.

Other researchers have found related evidence of a climate shift in sea surface temperatures and a two degree Celsius drop around the same time in the northern hemisphere.

"It adds a tremendous amount of weight to the argument that what ended these civilizations was climate change."

more at RawStory.com (AFP)

*edit - additional information at LiveScience.com
Member Since: September 18, 2005 Posts: 25 Comments: 948
1024. barbamz
Just to add something to the agricultural topic of the blog entry sequel:

Cooler weather slowing Arkansas rice development
By CHUCK BARTELS, Associated Press, Published Wednesday, August 14, 2013, at 4:54 p.m

LITTLE ROCK, Ark. — A year ago, Arkansas rice farmers were bringing in a record harvest after planting early and then weathering a costly drought. This year, growers got a late start and temperatures have been so cool that rice plants are taking longer to mature.

University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture Rice Research Center Director Chuck Wilson said Wednesday that the harvest won't likely begin until September.

"The harvest will be just starting Labor Day weekend," Wilson said. "At least I think there's going to be some rice ready by then."

Wilson said yields will be a bit less than last year. The U.S. Department of Agriculture on Tuesday projected rice yields to average 160 bushels per acre.

"I don't think I'm that optimistic," Wilson said.

Arkansas rice grows in the fertile soil in the eastern half of the state. Weather conditions have varied widely between the northern and southern regions.

"Some north Arkansas fields never got planted because they never got dry enough to plant," Wilson said.

In south Arkansas, growers have been beset by drought and have watched their input costs rise while running their pumps for much of the summer. Much of southeast Arkansas got a welcome downpour on Tuesday, taking a little pressure off growers.

"I've got soybean guys that told me they've watered (with irrigation) five to six times," Wilson said.

In the northeast, flooding has been a problem in places, with the National Weather Service warning on Wednesday about stretches of the Cache and White rivers leaving their banks.

Lows were forecast in the upper 50s for much of the state, with highs in the mid-80s. Wilson said low temperatures aren't a major problem, though the longer a crop stays in the ground, the greater the risk that something else will go wrong, such as a damaging storm moving through.

"I don't get too nervous until it gets in the 30s. We have before in August but we're not going to (this year), based on what I'm seeing. I'm not too worried," he said.

Rice is a $1 billion crop in Arkansas, with about 1.12 million acres planted this year.


Source://www.kansas.com/2013/08/14/2942709/cooler -weather-slowing-arkansas.html#storylink=cpy
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Quoting 1019. RevElvis:
A "Breathing" Earth


Thank you. That is quite mesmerizing!
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The unbelievable, record-smashing streak of warm days in Kugluktuk, Nunavut is finally over as yesterday's (August 13) high hit a modest 18.8 C and the forecast calls for a continued cool-down.

Check out these amazing stats...

Date/High/Low

04 -- 29.8 / 11.0
05 -- 30.3 / 16.0
06 -- 26.9 / 10.8
07 -- 27.7 / 13.6
08 -- 28.2 / 11.8
09 -- 28.2 / 14.0
10 -- 29.2 / 11.9
11 -- 29.3 / 12.4
12 -- 29.3 / 14.1

The previous record High for the month of August was 29.2 C set on 01/2000.
Records only go back to 1977.
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1021. yoboi
Neap....I don't know if you check your wu-e-mail....I sent you a few questions that I hope you can help me with......TIA....
Member Since: August 25, 2010 Posts: 7 Comments: 2396
Defense Contractor: Climate Change Could Create "Business Opportunities"

Raytheon is worried about the risks of global warming. But it also thinks climate-related "security concerns" could boost demand for its military products.

What kind of business opportunities? Raytheon cites its renewable energy technologies, weather-prediction products, and emergency response equipment for natural disasters. But the company also expects to see "demand for its military products and services as security concerns may arise as results of droughts, floods, and storm events occur as a result of climate change."

The document says that these extreme weather conditions could have "destabilizing effects" and that on an international level, "climate change may cause humanitarian disasters, contribute to political violence, and undermine weak governments":

Recent actions and statements by members of Congress, members of the UN Security Council, and U.S. military officers have drawn attention to the consequences of climate change, including the destabilizing effects of storms, droughts, and floods. Domestically, the effects of climate change could overwhelm disaster-response capabilities. Internationally, climate change may cause humanitarian disasters, contribute to political violence, and undermine weak governments. Customers' needs are changing as the world transitions to a low-carbon economy where energy efficiency, renewable energy, and highly efficiently energy delivery becomes paramount. Expanded business opportunities will arise to Raytheon as a result of these security concerns and the possible consequences.

Raytheon says in the document that these opportunities are "very likely" to occur 6 to 10 years down the road, but the company doesn't specify which military products in particular it thinks could become more popular.,,

more at MotherJones.com
Member Since: September 18, 2005 Posts: 25 Comments: 948
A "Breathing" Earth

The Earths Seasonal Heartbeat as Seen from Space timelapse space seasons NASA ice gifs

ThisIsColossal.com
Member Since: September 18, 2005 Posts: 25 Comments: 948
1018. yoboi
Quoting 1016. Some1Has2BtheRookie:


Yobio, for as long as these elected officials remain a viable enough force to block any efforts that are suggested, then we have only delayed the time needed to make any meaningful efforts. We, the human population of this planet, cannot begin the needed tasks until these obstructionist are diminished to the point that they are no longer a force against actions that need to be taken now. Daisyworld is correct, strong actions should have been taken to mitigate the climate change at least 20 years ago. We cannot afford 20 more years of those that have the power to stop any efforts that are needed now.



IMO DC is broken neither side can work together.....they only care about how much money THEY can make.....With all issues we face... DC is just one big quagmire..........
Member Since: August 25, 2010 Posts: 7 Comments: 2396
Quoting 1015. RevElvis:
Sen. Ron Johnson (R-Ws) Accuses Group Fighting Climate Change Of 'Environmental Jihad'

Sen. Ron Johnson (R-Wis.) coined a new term to describe the push for climate change action: "environmental jihad."

In a fundraising email to supporters on Tuesday, Johnson hit back at the League of Conservation Voters (LVC), an environmental advocacy group, for a new ad campaign attacking the senator and other climate change deniers in Congress.

"The League of Conservation Voters is one of the many attack dog groups used by President Obama, the Democrats and the extreme left to weaken, defeat and silence conservatives," Johnson wrote in the email. "They use TV ads -- filled with smears -- because they work."

"The League of Conservation voters is not an organization with a balanced approach to a cleaner environment," he added. "They are an extreme left group on an environmental jihad."


more at HuffingtonPost.com

OpenSecrets.org (Sen. Johnson's "sponsors")


Coining new terms is not a new process by the current Republican leadership. Popular catch phrases are about all they have left to garner support for their ideologies. "Patriot Act" is an misnomer in its actionable purposes. A true patriot would never surrender personal liberties and freedoms in order to obtain security. A security that has a limited impact on actually providing us with security. How do you stop a mad man with a bomb that is as intent on blowing himself up along with as many other people that he can?
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4758
Quoting 1014. yoboi:



Rookie I understand your point.....But I am looking at reality.....20 yrs from now they will still be bickering and nothing will get done.....so why waste the time & money doing such a thing??????


Yobio, for as long as these elected officials remain a viable enough force to block any efforts that are suggested, then we have only delayed the time needed to make any meaningful efforts. We, the human population of this planet, cannot begin the needed tasks until these obstructionist are diminished to the point that they are no longer a force against actions that need to be taken now. Daisyworld is correct, strong actions should have been taken to mitigate the climate change at least 20 years ago. We cannot afford 20 more years of those that have the power to stop any efforts that are needed now.
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4758
Sen. Ron Johnson (R-Ws) Accuses Group Fighting Climate Change Of 'Environmental Jihad'

Sen. Ron Johnson (R-Wis.) coined a new term to describe the push for climate change action: "environmental jihad."

In a fundraising email to supporters on Tuesday, Johnson hit back at the League of Conservation Voters (LVC), an environmental advocacy group, for a new ad campaign attacking the senator and other climate change deniers in Congress.

"The League of Conservation Voters is one of the many attack dog groups used by President Obama, the Democrats and the extreme left to weaken, defeat and silence conservatives," Johnson wrote in the email. "They use TV ads -- filled with smears -- because they work."

"The League of Conservation voters is not an organization with a balanced approach to a cleaner environment," he added. "They are an extreme left group on an environmental jihad."


more at HuffingtonPost.com

OpenSecrets.org (Sen. Johnson's "sponsors")
Member Since: September 18, 2005 Posts: 25 Comments: 948
1014. yoboi
Quoting 1013. Some1Has2BtheRookie:


I disagree with your disagreement, Yoboi. :) Ads, like these, are a part of fixing the problem. We need to know, beyond any reasonable doubt, who are the elected officials that cave to the corporate interests and their own ideologies over the rights for all of us to enjoy clean air, clean water and a healthy environment. Until these elected officials that will follow the psuedo-sciences are thinned out to the point that they are no longer a strong enough force to subvert the efforts made that would make some differences concerning the problems a warming climate will bring to every person on this planet, then any efforts made to correct the problems will be blocked by these elected officials. (wow! is there any way to shorten that sentence and still retain the context of the sentence?)You must clear the trash and debris out of the way before you can make a foundation on which to build.



Rookie I understand your point.....But I am looking at reality.....20 yrs from now they will still be bickering and nothing will get done.....so why waste the time & money doing such a thing??????
Member Since: August 25, 2010 Posts: 7 Comments: 2396
Quoting 1002. yoboi:


I disagree.....how is an ad blitz attacking people helping?????? why not do an ad blitz with showing how to fix the problem.......


I disagree with your disagreement, Yoboi. :) Ads, like these, are a part of fixing the problem. We need to know, beyond any reasonable doubt, who are the elected officials that cave to the corporate interests and their own ideologies over the rights for all of us to enjoy clean air, clean water and a healthy environment. Until these elected officials that will follow the psuedo-sciences are thinned out to the point that they are no longer a strong enough force to subvert the efforts made that would make some differences concerning the problems a warming climate will bring to every person on this planet, then any efforts made to correct the problems will be blocked by these elected officials. (wow! is there any way to shorten that sentence and still retain the context of the sentence?)You must clear the trash and debris out of the way before you can make a foundation on which to build.
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4758

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About RickyRood

I'm a professor at U Michigan and lead a course on climate change problem solving. These articles often come from and contribute to the course.