Atlanta tornado one the most damaging on record

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:24 PM GMT on March 17, 2008

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The strong EF2 tornado that smashed through downtown Atlanta at 9:40 pm Friday night is a reminder that the U.S. is potentially vulnerable to a very high death toll from a violent tornado hitting a major city. Friday's tornado, with a width of 200 yards, path length of 6 miles, and winds up to 130 mph, was strong enough to cause an estimated $150-$200 million in damage to downtown Atlanta. Only 16 tornadoes during the 20th century caused inflation-adjusted damage more than $200 million (Brooks and Doswell, 2000), so the Atlanta tornado is one of the most damaging of all time. Fortunately, no one was killed, although at least 27 people were injured, one seriously.

As unlucky as Atlanta was to have its first tornado ever to hit the downtown area, the city was extremely fortunate that the tornado was not not stronger. What would have happened if a clone of the strongest tornado on record--the May 3, 1999 Bridgecreek-Moore F5 tornado--had hit Atlanta? According to tornado researcher Josh Wurman of the Center for Severe Weather Research in Boulder and three co-authors in a paper published in the January 2007 issue of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, the toll would have been staggering--14,900 deaths and tens of billions in damage. I discussed their findings in an April 2007 blog.

However, three tornado researchers, led by Harold Brooks of the National Severe Storms Laboratory, challenged these numbers in a January 2008 article in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. They argued that Wurman et al. overestimated the potential deaths from such a storm by a factor of 100, and a death toll nearer to 150 would be more reasonable. They stated:

Given that the highest death toll in a tornado in U.S. history is 695 in the Tri-State tornado of 1925, and that the last death toll of greater than 100 was in 1953, the validity of these estimates is of some concern.

The authors conceded that a violent tornado traveling the length of a rush hour-packed freeway or hitting a sports stadium filled with spectators could generate much higher death tolls. Wurman et al. responded to the criticism by defending their death toll estimates:

We acknowledge that historical tornadoes have not caused the level of fatalities estimated in our paper. However, considering that tornadoes are relatively rare and that dense population in urban and suburban neighborhoods in the United States is a relatively recent but growing phenomenon, the historical record is too short to indicate the range of possible events.

Considering that Friday's Atlanta tornado hit the Georgia Dome stadium when it was packed with 16,000 people watching an SEC tournament basketball game, I think that both groups of researchers would agree that a death toll in the thousands was quite possible had the Atlanta tornado been an EF5.


Figure 1. Doppler winds image of the March 14, 2008, Atlanta, Georgia EF2 tornado. Note the region just northwest of the city showing blues and reds right next to each other, denoting strong winds moving both towards and away from the radar in a tight circulation. This is the signature associated with a mesocyclone--a rotating thunderstorm that commonly spawns a tornado.

More severe weather expected this week
Severe weather is expected over much of the Midwest and Southern U.S. over the next three days, in association with a strong cold front that will traverse the region. The Storm Prediction Center has placed portions of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, and Arkansas under its lowest classification of potential severe weather today, "Slight Risk". The Weather Underground Severe Weather page and Tornado page are good places to go to follow this week's severe weather.

Good tornado book
For those of you interested in reading about the most violent and most damaging tornado on record, the famed 1999 Bridgecreek-Moore tornado, I recommend a reading of Nancy Mathis' book Storm Warning, which is now out in paperback. I reviewed the book in a blog last year.

Annual WeatherDance contest ready for registration!
Armchair forecasters, now's your chance to shine! WeatherDance, based on teams in the men's and women's NCAA basketball tournaments, allows players to predict which team's city will be hotter or colder on game day in each round of the Big Dance. Beginning today, players can make their forecasts at the Weather Dance Web site at: www.weatherdance.org. The site will be updated with cities promptly after NCAA seeding announcements. First round Weather Dance selections must be entered by 11:59 p.m. EST Wednesday, March 19.

"Officially, Weather Dance began as a class project to get students involved in weather forecasting, but we kept it around because it got popular. People think they can do better forecasting than the meteorologists. Well, here's their shot!" said Perry Samson, WeatherDance creator, co-founder of the The Weather Underground, Inc., and Professor in the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences at the University of Michigan.

This is the third year for the game. Last year more than 2,000 people played. Most play merely for the thrill, but many science teachers involve their classes as part of meteorology units. The winning teacher will receive an invitation and $500 to join the Texas Tech/University of Michigan Storm Chasing team this spring for a day of tornado chasing. Other winners will receive a Weather Underground umbrella or a copy of the book "Extreme Weather," by Christopher C. Burt.

Jeff Masters

Atlanta Tornado Damage (boyntonbeachboy)
Brick Bldg that was destroyed by tornado landed on this car!
Atlanta Tornado Damage
Atlanta Tornado F2 CNN CENTER (boyntonbeachboy)
The first recorded tornado hit downtown Atlanta last night causing major damage
Atlanta Tornado F2 CNN CENTER
2 inch Hail (JoyBelle)
This is some of the hail after tornadoes swept through our area today.
2 inch Hail

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131. Patrap
5:30 PM CDT on March 18, 2008
Dupage Severe Weather Warnings Page.Link
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128749
130. Patrap
5:27 PM CDT on March 18, 2008
Arthur C. Clarke has died.



Clarke was born in Minehead, Somerset, England. As a boy, he enjoyed stargazing and reading old American science fiction pulp magazines (many of which made their way to the UK in ships with sailors who read them to pass the time). After secondary school and studying at Huish's Grammar School, Taunton, he was unable to afford a university education and got a job as an auditor in the pensions section of the Board of Education.

During the Second World War, he served in the Royal Air Force as a radar specialist and was involved in the early warning radar defence system which contributed to the RAF's success during the Battle of Britain. Clarke actually spent most of his service time working on Ground Controlled Approach (GCA) radar, as documented in his semi-autobiographical novel Glide Path. Although GCA did not see much practical use in the war, after several more years of development it was vital to the Berlin Airlift of 1948-1949. He was demobilised with the rank of Flight Lieutenant. After the war, he earned a first-class degree in mathematics and physics at King's College London.

In the postwar years, Clarke became involved with the British Interplanetary Society and served for a time as its chairman. His most important contribution may have been the idea that geostationary satellites would be ideal telecommunications relays. He was the first in the world to propose this concept, doing so in a paper privately circulated among the core technical members of the BIS in 1945. The concept later was published in Wireless World in October of that year.[1][2][3] Clarke also wrote a number of non-fiction books describing the technical details and societal implications of rocketry and space flight. The most notable of these may be The Exploration of Space (1951) and The Promise of Space (1968). In recognition of these contributions, a geostationary orbit sometimes is referred to as a "Clarke orbit".
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128749
129. KoritheMan
10:17 PM GMT on March 18, 2008
The fact that the severe weather appears to be a total bust (PDS watches? Not a single tornado report?) likely is making it even worse, with unimpeded moisture transport northwards.

We may have our first tornado report soon, so the severe weather event may not be a bust as you so aptly put it.

... A Tornado Warning remains in effect until 530 PM CDT for southern
Dunklin... Greene... southeastern Clay and north central Craighead
counties...

At 508 PM CDT... trained weather spotters reported a rotating
wallcloud and funnel cloud in Paragould.
There have been reports of
trees down in Paragould. This is a dangerous storm... take cover
immediately. This tornado was located near Paragould... moving
northeast at 50 mph.

Other locations in the warning include but are not limited to
Cardwell... Marmaduke... Arbyrd... Rector... Senath... Greenway and
Piggott.

.In addition to the tornado... This storm is capable of producing
quarter size hail and destructive straight line winds in excess of
80 mph.

.The safest place to be during a tornado is in a basement. Get under
a workbench or other piece of sturdy furniture. If no basement is
available... seek shelter on the lowest floor of the building in an
interior hallway or room such as a closet. Use blankets or pillows to
cover your body and always stay away from windows.

.If in Mobile homes or vehicles... Evacuate them and get inside a
substantial shelter. If no shelter is available... lie flat in the
nearest ditch or other low spot and cover your head with your hands.

.Stay tuned to this broadcast for the latest updates and information.
To report severe weather only... call 1 800 4 3 2 0 8 7 5.

Lat... Lon 3608 8999 3586 9081 3595 9087 3596 9086
3601 9086 3603 9084 3605 9084 3608 9082
3643 9016
time... Mot... loc 2208z 239deg 47kt 3611 9041
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
128. Patrap
5:13 PM CDT on March 18, 2008
Good Drought relief for Many in the Southeast..
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128749
126. TEXASYANKEE43
10:02 PM GMT on March 18, 2008
123. atmoaggie 9:46 PM GMT on March 18, 2008
Liberty? Dayton?


Liberty
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
125. atmoaggie
9:46 PM GMT on March 18, 2008
Yes, STL, someone asked about nados in Dallas. I wouldn't expect that now.

I hear ya about the floods.

See Link...9 inches of rain (in places) and counting.
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12463
124. Patrap
4:45 PM CDT on March 18, 2008
Turn around,dont drown!!!!.

The Flooding in Missouri is a bad issue, the severe event is further south. All interest in Missouri should Heed Local NWS statements and Local Emg Mgrs too.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128749
123. atmoaggie
9:44 PM GMT on March 18, 2008
119. TEXASYANKEE43 9:36 PM GMT on March 18, 2008

Liberty? Dayton?
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12463
121. Patrap
4:37 PM CDT on March 18, 2008
NWS Radar Houston currently Link

Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128749
120. Patrap
4:35 PM CDT on March 18, 2008
GOM 60 Hour Wave Model from ESL Link
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128749
119. TEXASYANKEE43
9:33 PM GMT on March 18, 2008
116. Patrap 9:30 PM GMT on March 18, 2008


I live in the L shaped county to the right of Houston. (right in the middle of the RED!)due North of Galveston
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
118. Patrap
4:33 PM CDT on March 18, 2008
Forecaster: DARROW
Issued: 18/1948Z
Valid: 18/2000Z - 19/1200Z
Forecast Risk of Severe Storms: Moderate Risk


Mar 18, 2008 2000 UTC Day 1 Convective Outlook

Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128749
117. atmoaggie
9:26 PM GMT on March 18, 2008
EHI (CAPE considered with helicity) shows some potential for nados in the NAM foreacst for TX/LA in the next 24 hours, but the EHI falls after that for inland areas. Some high EHI values still offshore AL/FL/GA/SC/NC for tomorrow.

Link
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12463
116. Patrap
4:30 PM CDT on March 18, 2008
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128749
115. Patrap
4:27 PM CDT on March 18, 2008
What to Do During a Tornado: Link
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128749
114. atmoaggie
9:24 PM GMT on March 18, 2008
CAPE isn't very high at all, but CIN is fairly low. I would be somewhat surprised at nados with CAPE less than 2500 J/kg

From the latest RUC/WRF:
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12463
113. Patrap
4:23 PM CDT on March 18, 2008
The Media is well on top of the Fray. And the NOAA network has all transmitters in operation at this time.

Employers and others may find this useful.

Emergency Action Plan Checklist.PDF:Link
Tornado Safety...in Brief. Link

Encourage your family members to plan for their own safety in many different locations. It is important to make decisions about the safest places well BEFORE you ever have to go to them.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128749
112. Patrap
4:04 PM CDT on March 18, 2008
Its almost Spring,..nothing new here.

Severe Weather season is 365.



WV Loop Atlantic Basin Link
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128749
111. CybrTeddy
9:02 PM GMT on March 18, 2008
Wow, were getting really bad floods in Dallas. I am praying that Dallas dosent get hit by a Tornado. Whats going on with the weather!? ITS INSANE!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
110. TerraNova
5:00 PM EDT on March 18, 2008
Afternoon H23 and Weather456...I agree; the probability portion of the GTWO is something that I've always hoped the NHC would put in somehow.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
109. weathermanwannabe
4:51 PM EDT on March 18, 2008
The low pressure system over Northern Mexico (about to enter Texas) is starting to move NE (as predicted) and will be dragging the front accross southern/coastal TX/LA/MS soon.....To the North (Mid-CONUS) the system will cause lots of flooding............Overall, a pretty bad weather situation for the US right now...Prayers out to everyone in the path of this weather event and hoping for the best.......I'll see everyone tommorow (from the western florida panhandle (I'm in Tallahassee today) and keep Yall posted on local events here as the front moves through the Florida Panhandle............BBT
Member Since: August 8, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 9240
108. hurricane23
4:48 PM EDT on March 18, 2008
Ive been posting about the NHC changes for weeks now on dr.masters lol!The changes are great if you ask me.Hopefully we wont see those red shades to much this season.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
107. Weather456
4:42 PM AST on March 18, 2008
terra....thanks for that piece of info
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
106. TerraNova
4:28 PM EDT on March 18, 2008
New issue times are up for the TWO (Tropical Weather Outlook) beginning on June 1st.

The issuance times for the TWO and GTWO will be changed to 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 UTC. In previous years, the Atlantic TWO was issued at 5:30 AM, 11:30 AM, 5:30 PM, and 10:30 PM, ET while the Pacific TWO's were issued at 4 AM, 10 AM, 4 PM, and 10 PM, PT.

Also they're making some great changes to the GTWO (Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook) including the addition of color coded probabilities of genesis.

Link
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
105. CCTXangel
3:22 PM CDT on March 18, 2008
My county (Nueces) -- Corpus Christi, has been in a tornado warning for a while now. These storms appeared out of no where. I was looking outside and the wind picked up substantially. Then i look at the TV and there's a tornado warning for an area two streets away from mine, moving away from my house. Thank god. I know funnel clouds were reported, no idea if they touched down.

Shocked

One minute it's sunny, the next it's dark.

The tornado was heading for the Naval Air Station and A&M Corpus Christi... where i go to school.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
104. CCTXangel
2:52 PM CDT on March 18, 2008
Tornado warning was issued for the area where my house is in Corpus Christi. That was real random. Supposedly this storm is headed for the Naval Air Station and A&M Corpus Christi.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
103. hurricane23
3:33 PM EDT on March 18, 2008
Finally they put out that PNS at the NHC.

Here's an example of what the updated graphical outlook will look like.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
102. CCTXangel
2:22 PM CDT on March 18, 2008
Pretty furious line of storms a few miles northwest of my house. It just went from sunny to dark. The GRLevel3 was indicating weak rotation with this storm.... This popped out of no where
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
100. CCTXangel
2:14 PM CDT on March 18, 2008
So the forecasters said we were supposed to have a lot of rain today but i woke up to a DRY SIDEWALK.

Why is this??
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
99. Patrap
2:09 PM CDT on March 18, 2008
FAA to order spot check of maintenance records at all U.S. carriers
03.18.08, 2:22 PM ET

SAN FRANCISCO (Thomson Financial) - The Federal Aviation Administration is ordering a spot check of maintenance paperwork at all U.S. carriers, according to a media report Tuesday.

Story Link
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128749
96. ncleclerc
6:52 PM GMT on March 18, 2008
My cousin just sent this to me that works with an airline...

Just reported on the news, due to severe weather, American Airlines has cancelled all their flights at DFW in Dallas. That is over 700 flights!

Really nasty out here on the Great Plains today.

Take care all!!!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
95. atmoaggie
6:50 PM GMT on March 18, 2008
And changing the timing of the tropical weather outlook from NHC:

TO:SUBSCRIBERS:
-FAMILY OF SERVICES
-NOAA WEATHER WIRE SERVICE
-EMERGENCY MANAGERS WEATHER INFORMATION NETWORK
OTHER NWS PARTNERS...USERS AND EMPLOYEES

FROM:THERESE Z. PIERCE
CHIEF...MARINE AND COASTAL SERVICES BRANCH

SUBJECT:CHANGE TO THE ISSUANCE TIMES FOR THE EASTERN PACIFIC
AND ATLANTIC TEXT TROPICAL WEATHER OUTLOOK /TWO/
PRODUCTS: EFFECTIVE MAY 15 2008 AND JUNE 1 2008...
RESPECTIVELY

REFER TO:PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT TRANSMITTED MAR 18 2008
FOR EXPERIMENTAL GRAPHICAL TWO PRODUCT

BEGINNING MAY 15 2008 FOR THE EASTERN PACIFIC HURRICANE
BASIN...AND BEGINNING JUNE 1 2008 FOR THE ATLANTIC HURRICANE
BASIN...IN RESPONSE TO USER FEEDBACK AND IN COORDINATION WITH THE
SCHEDULE FOR OTHER NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER PRODUCTS...THE
ISSUANCE TIMES FOR THE TEXT TWO WILL CHANGE AS FOLLOWS.

1. FOR THE EASTERN PACIFIC BASIN...THE CURRENT TWO ISSUANCE TIMES
ARE 0400/1000/1600/AND 2200 PACIFIC LOCAL TIME. EFFECTIVE MAY 15
2008 THE NEW ISSUANCE TIMES WILL BE 0500/1100/1700/AND 2300
PACIFIC DAYLIGHT TIME...WHICH CORRESPONDS TO 0400/1000/1600 AND
2200 PACIFIC STANDARD TIME...OR 0000/0600/1200 AND 1800
COORDINATED UNIVERSAL TIME /UTC/.

2. FOR THE ATLANTIC BASIN...THE CURRENT TWO ISSUANCE TIMES ARE
0530/1130/1730/AND 2230 EASTERN LOCAL TIME. EFFECTIVE JUNE 1 2008
THE NEW ISSUANCE TIMES WILL BE 0200/0800/1400 AND 2000 EASTERN
DAYLIGHT TIME...WHICH CORRESPONDS TO 0100/0700/1300 AND 1900
EASTERN STANDARD TIME...OR 0000/0600/1200 AND 1800 UTC.

THERE WILL BE NO CHANGE TO THE PRODUCT CONTENT.
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12463
94. atmoaggie
6:44 PM GMT on March 18, 2008
More changes to the NHC products (from email):

"FROM: THERESE Z. PIERCE
CHIEF...MARINE AND COASTAL SERVICES BRANCH

SUBJECT: CHANGES TO THE MAXIMUM 1-MINUTE WIND SPEED
PROBABILITY PRODUCT: EFFECTIVE MAY 15 2008

REFER TO: SERVICE CHANGE NOTICE /SCN/ 08-19: TRANSMITTED
MAR 17 2008

BASED ON USER FEEDBACK...AND TO PROVIDE GREATER FORMAT
CONSISTENCY WITH THE TROPICAL CYCLONE PROBABILISTIC WIND SPEED
TEXT /PWS/ PRODUCTS...THE MAXIMUM 1-MINUTE WIND SPEED PROBABILITY
PRODUCT WILL CHANGE EFFECTIVE MAY 15 2008 AS FOLLOWS:

1. EXPANDED PROBABILITY FORECASTS FROM 72 TO 120 HOURS...THE
CURRENT PRODUCT PROVIDES PROBABILITY FORECASTS THROUGH 72 HOURS.
THE ENHANCED PRODUCT WILL INCLUDE 96 AND 120 HOUR PROBABILITY
FORECASTS.

2. REVISED PRODUCT FORMAT. THE CURRENT PRODUCT IS TABULAR...WITH
FORECAST TIMES IN HORIZONTAL ROWS AND WIND SPEED INTERVALS IN
VERTICAL COLUMNS. THE REVISED PRODUCT WILL REMAIN TABULAR...BUT
FORECASTS WILL BE PROVIDED IN COLUMNS AND WIND SPEED INTERVALS
WILL BE PROVIDED IN ROWS.

AN EXAMPLE OF THE ENHANCED MAXIMUM 1-MINUTE WIND SPEED
PROBABILITY PRODUCT IS PROVIDED ONLINE AT /USE LOWER CASE
LETTERS/:

HTTP://WWW.NHC.NOAA.GOV/ABOUTNHCGRAPHICS.SHTML
"
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12463
93. weathermanwannabe
2:22 PM EDT on March 18, 2008
92. JFLORIDA 1:44 PM EDT on March 18, 2008 Thursday looks bad for Most of Florida HOG

It will ultimately depend on how well the front/squall line holds together as it moves eastward; the Florida Panhandle may get a little bumpy on Wednesday but the current forcast (after the system moves through TX/LA/MS/AL) is for the system to weaken a bit as it moves east along the Gulf......Just too early to tell right know what the Peninsula of Florida can expect, if anything, as the front approaches you on late Wed/Early Thurs...........
Member Since: August 8, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 9240
89. surfmom
5:00 PM GMT on March 18, 2008
hey Patrap --yeah you called it wave watch alert!Post78. The only good thing coming out of this wind will be waves in the GOM - It's starting to fill in now,not surfable yet - should be tomorrow wednesday through thursday. Gulf temp. 68 and VERY windy here in SRQ.

Can't get wet today - Got to work out horses w/my son this afternoon. This constant wind has been a real stresser for the horses and the riders. Had one colic with the last front, and then working them out with these gusts takes a bit of courage when you have these 1000+lb four legged running machines spooking at everything that goes flying by. But it is as it is - definitely a helmet day.

These potential tornado set-ups w3ill surely keep you guys busy today. Off to work G'day all

\
Member Since: July 18, 2007 Posts: 30 Comments: 26536
88. weathermanwannabe
1:03 PM EDT on March 18, 2008
Yup...A strong bowing section in the line of t-storms moving just east/south-east of Ft. Smith/AK right now.........
Member Since: August 8, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 9240
87. NEwxguy
4:51 PM GMT on March 18, 2008
lookout in Arkansas


Tornado Vortex Signature (SRX_C0)
ID: C0
County: Logan
Max: 62 dBZ
Top: 26,000 ft.
VIL: 24 kg/m²
Chance of Severe Hail: 20%
Chance of Hail: 80%
Max Hail Size: 0.75 in.
Speed: 57 knots
Direction (from): SW (223
Member Since: September 6, 2007 Posts: 881 Comments: 15840
85. weathermanwannabe
11:49 AM EDT on March 18, 2008
We have all said many times; if conditions heading towards you are not looking good, and you are able to ride out the weather in a more sturdy stucture/home (friend-relative), by all means, make the phone calls and make the plans to spend the night somewhere else..........
Member Since: August 8, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 9240
83. TEXASYANKEE43
3:39 PM GMT on March 18, 2008
82. weathermanwannabe 3:36 PM GMT on March 18, 2008


It's all about the timing of the front and how stable/unstable the air mass is as the front approaches...Please take care this evening.....



Last night was no picnic. This afternoon and evening is what has me worried......I live in a camper trailer.(in a trailer park)and you know how nadoes love to hunt them down?
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82. weathermanwannabe
11:30 AM EDT on March 18, 2008
It's more like a torrant of moist air. We have had gusts of near 50 mph. this am here in Liberty, Tx.

Yeah.....While frontal related conditions have not deteriorated yet, my concern for you guys/LA is if severe weather breaks out in the overnight hours when people are not awake/as alert.......It's all about the timing of the front and how stable/unstable the air mass is as the front approaches...Please take care this evening.....
Member Since: August 8, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 9240

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.