Next century's most important place in the world--Greenland?

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:58 PM GMT on December 21, 2007

Share this Blog
4
+

If one had to pick the region of the world most likely to influence the course of human history this century, the Middle East would be the obvious choice, due to its political volatility and rich oil resources. However, the Middle East may have a significant challenger next century from a seemingly unlikely place--Greenland. Why Greenland? Well, the Greenland ice sheet holds enough water to raise global sea level 7 meters (23 feet). There are worrisome signs that the ice sheet might be more vulnerable than we thought to significant melting near the end of the century, according to research results presented at last week's annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in San Francisco. The meeting is the world's largest annual gathering of climate change scientists.

For climate change scientists, Greenland is clearly the most important place in the world. You could tell this by the way glaciers with unpronounceable names like "Kangerdlugssuaq" rolled off their tongues in a smooth, practiced manner at talks given at the AGU meeting. At least 120 presentations focused on the Arctic or Greenland, and fully 52 of these concerned Greenland. I attended roughly 20 of these talks, and most of the presenters made it clear that they were quite concerned about the future of Arctic sea ice and the Greenland ice sheet, particularly in light of the astounding Arctic sea ice melt that occurred in 2007. A number of these talks raised the possibility that we've reached a tipping point in the Arctic. A complete loss of summertime sea ice may occur between 2013 and 2040, three of the presenters said, with the resulting warming dooming the Greenland ice sheet to a slow but inevitable melting process over a period of centuries. None of the presenters expressed the view that the current melting of the Greenland ice sheet and Arctic sea ice was due to a natural cycle that would completely halt or reverse in the next few years or decades.

At a talk on "The Recent Arctic Warm Period", Dr. Jim Overland, an Arctic expert with NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, didn't offer his view on whether a tipping point had been reached. Instead, he asked the audience to vote. The options he presented:

* A The melt back of Arctic sea ice observed in 2007 is permanent and will not lessen.
* B Ice coverage will partially recover but continue to decrease.
* C The ice would recover to 1980s levels but then continue to decline over the coming century.

Both Options A and B had audience support, but only one brave soul voted for the most conservative option C.


Figure 1. A research submarine breaks through the Arctic ice. Image credit: Bernard Coakley.

The latest news from Greenland
I was amazed see the tremendous breadth and intensity of research efforts focused on Greenland and the Arctic, presented at AGU. Extra funding has been given to research efforts as part of the International Polar Year (IPY) program, scheduled to run March 2007 through 2009. Satellites like Icesat and GRACE measure the extent of Greenland's ice from above, aided by a fleet of small and large research aircraft. Scientists now have unmanned aircraft that can use runways or be launched by slingshot that can measure the extent of Greenland's melt water lakes. The air armada will be joined next year by the Total Pole Airship, the first blimp used for Arctic studies. Manned and unmanned submarines measure the thickness of the sea ice surrounding the island, and both permanent and temporary bases dotted across Greenland and the polar sea ice house scientists doing land-based studies. Ships and buoys also add data from the ocean areas.

A short list of the results presented at AGU all point to an ice sheet in peril:

- Melting of snow above 2000 meters elevation on Greenland reached a new record in 2007 (Tedesco, 2007).

- Leigh Stearns of the University of Maine's Climate Change Institute showed that the contribution of Greenland melting to global sea level rise has doubled in the last five years. According to the 2007 IPCC report (see Figure 4.18), Greenland may account for as much as 10% of the total global annual sea rise of about 3-4 mm/year (approximately 1.5 inches per decade).

- Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) have warmed over 5° C (9° F) over the waters west of Greenland since 1990 (Figure 1, to the right). This has caused the ice-free season to increase by over 60 days per year along the coast.

- The Greenland ice sheet has experienced conditions as warm as those today in the past. Lowell et al. (2007) found organic remains in eastern Greenland that had just been exposed by melting ice, and dated these remains at between A.D. 800 to 1014. Thus, this portion of Greenland was ice-free about 1000 years ago, and temperatures were presumably similar to today's. Erik the Red took advantage of this warm period to establish the first Norse settlements in Greenland around 950 A.D. However, the climate cooled after 1200 A.D., and the Norse settlements disappeared by 1550.

For more information, see our new Greenland feature on our expanding climate change page.

Jeff Masters

References
Lowell, T.V., et al., 2007, Organic Remains from the Istorvet Ice Cap, Liverpool Land, East Greenland: A Record of Late Holocene Climate Change,, Eos Trans. AGU, 88(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract C13A-04.

Stearns, L.A., and G.S. Hamilton, 2007, New States of Behavior: Current Status of Outlet Glaciers in Southeast Greenland and the Potential for Similar Changes Elsewhere, Eos Trans. AGU, 88(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract C13A-06.

Tedesco, M., "A New Record in 2007 for Melting in Greenland," EOS, 88:39, 2007, 383.

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 494 - 444

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16Blog Index

494. jpritch
2:35 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
lindenii, you can probably set your browser preferences to not automatically load images.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
493. lindenii
2:36 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
487. latitude25 2:25 AM GMT on December 23, 2007

hey Linden, how was dinner :-)


...in order to design the models, you have to assume certain things.
Like how CO2 works, how water vapor works, how land use works, how that effects climate etc and on and on.

No one really knows how all those things work, so assumptions have to be made.
Then you design a model based on those assumptions.

It's like designing models for hurricanes. You look at history, what was going on with the weather when you had observed a hurricane. Assumptions are made, and you design a model.
But even for hurricanes, with all the models for hurricanes, hurricane trackers will tell you at any given moment that they have more faith in one model than the other
because history has told them that no one model will be right all the time.

We have not had enough history with climate change models to even know if any of them are right or not.


Dinner was great, had BBQ chicken, asparagas and some sort of pasta...left-overs. :-)

As for what you had to say...the rest of us might as well go home. All that needed to be said, you just said and with clarity.

Four gold stars!!

Thanks for trusting me not to be trying to trick you.
492. BahaHurican
9:00 PM EST on December 22, 2007
lat,

What I am finding interesting as I am reading is that they are finding no real difference between European summer temperatures 1000 years ago and now. The winter temperatures seem to be warmer now. It seems they are attributing that to the reduction of aerosols and the increase of greenhouse gasses. I'm still reading, and I want to see where they end up. They may have a point, but so far it's hard for me to see what all they are basing it on.
Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22583
491. lindenii
2:28 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
476. BahaHurican 2:00 AM GMT on December 23, 2007

I've found that the hide button only works for the first time I hit it. Every time I refresh, the message opens the same size.

Maybe I do need to hang out in developer's blog for a while . . .


It would really be nice if you could hide/minimize an individual and still have their name appear next to the post number. ie, the Grey bar with their name on it. Sending them into the netherland never to be seen or heard from again just seems so arcane.

Putting someone on 'IGNORE' should be used as a last resort instead of a 'get even' as it seems to be done here.

Another good reason to have the hide/minimize button is to control those on this website who seem to be compelled to show off their prowess at pasting images.

Their self absorbed attitude is really kind of inconsiderate. If you are visiting the blog using a dial-up access instead of a DSL or faster connection, the time to get the blog going can often take several minutes. Minimizing those bloggers with a penchant for 'cut and paste' to a grey bar, for example, means you can look at their 'cut and paste' prowess at your leisure.

Hey!! I have an idea...why not post those charts and pictures on your blogs and tell everyone that they are there. Those who give a hoot can go to your blog and admire your prowess for hours on end. Isn't that what the blogs are for?

Better yet, why not have the developers program so that thumbnails are posted on the main blog with a link to the larger images on each bloggers site.

Anyway, isn't about time a little consideration was given those of us with dial-up access.

490. cantoriesnumber1fan
2:27 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
atmoaggie, youR the worst troll EVER!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
489. atmoaggie
2:27 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
488. cantoriesnumber1fan 2:27 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
atmoaggie, youR the worst troll EVER!


Right. I had almost left. Good evening to you too.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
488. cantoriesnumber1fan
2:25 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
atmoaggie, youR the worst troll EVER!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
487. latitude25
9:16 PM EST on December 22, 2007
hey Linden, how was dinner :-)

You seem to be saying the current models are deliberately fashioned to give a specific outcome regardless of what time frame is presented to them.

I don't know about deliberately.

It's just that in order to design the models, you have to assume certain things.
Like how CO2 works, how water vapor works, how land use works, how that effects climate etc and on and on.

No one really knows how all those things work, so assumptions have to be made.
Then you design a model based on those assumptions.

It's like designing models for hurricanes. You look at history, what was going on with the weather when you had observed a hurricane. Assumptions are made, and you design a model.
But even for hurricanes, with all the models for hurricanes, hurricane trackers will tell you at any given moment that they have more faith in one model than the other
because history has told them that no one model will be right all the time.

We have not had enough history with climate change models to even know if any of them are right or not.


.

Member Since: August 24, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 3654
486. atmoaggie
2:23 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
OK, I am out. Without impeding doom to see on the radar, the 3-yr-old and 1-yr-old come before blogging.

Cheers.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
485. hydrus
2:15 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
Baha--they probrably dont know what hot water & soap feels like. back in a while.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21762
484. atmoaggie
2:15 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
That line of storms was a bit of a wimp. 2 thunderclaps, hard rain for 5 minutes, now light (aka stratiform rain for those familiar). Certainly cooler out here now, though, as expected. Bring on the normal temps for late Dec.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
483. atmoaggie
2:13 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
Hydrus, your take on the trolls is right on. They probably do not wash thier hands after visiting the facilities, either.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
482. atmoaggie
2:09 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
A couple of days ago...it rained. Moderately.

I would call it that anyway, but I am a met. Involved in storm surge modeling. The weather has to get really hairy before my panties get in a bunch.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
481. lindenii
2:10 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
473. latitude25 1:58 AM GMT on December 23, 2007

Using the same models to explain the Medieval Warm Period, would give the same results, and of course align it with what the models predict for now.


This is not a trick. It is a serious question.

Could you, please, flesh out the details just a wee bit more?

You seem to be saying the current models are deliberately fashioned to give a specific outcome regardless of what time frame is presented to them.

Am I anywhere close?
480. atmoaggie
1:58 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
The model talk reminds me of something once said about the mean global temperature work. Some researcher said that makes as much sense as a mean global telephone number. Gather all telephone numbers, take a mean, and you have a number. Funny, but has a point.

Trying to quantify GW with temperature stations that have changing landscape around them (the white cement road upwind gets repaved with asphalt), changing stations themselves (in the 90's Russia/Ukraine shuttered hundreds of stations included in the historical record...note that these were in the least accessible, least populated areas, like Siberia), and the like is a bit shortsighted, in my opinion. Maybe we shouldn't call it global warming. We should call it warming in the locations where we currently measure the temperature, which is ever-changing.

Just thoughts.

I am not all against intelligently reducing humans impact on earth and the chemical composition of the atmosphere, where practical.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
479. hydrus
1:56 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
Hang in there atmo.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21762
478. hydrus
1:59 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
Bahahurricane--I guess trolls dont have much respect for other peoples thoughts & interestes---or thier own.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21762
477. latitude25
8:58 PM EST on December 22, 2007
is that the writers suggest man has been impacting his weather, albeit on a less than global scale, for more than the last 150 years.

Well of course

You can't make frogs feel guilty and pay.
Member Since: August 24, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 3654
476. BahaHurican
8:57 PM EST on December 22, 2007
I've found that the hide button only works for the first time I hit it. Every time I refresh, the message opens the same size.

Maybe I do need to hang out in developer's blog for a while . . .
Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22583
475. hydrus
1:56 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
Atmoaggie--didnt your area just have some rough weather a couple of days ago?
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21762
474. atmoaggie
1:54 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
A troll, at least here, is someone who literally seems to be trying to provoke a fight. They are intentionally rude. They never have anything useful to post and seem to have goal of disrupting any discussion other may be having. They mostly show up here only when a TC is appoaching. They would love to cut and paste the bible for a post only because it would be impossible to refresh and read what others might say in a discussion.

We don't see them much in the off season.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
473. latitude25
8:49 PM EST on December 22, 2007
hey Baha,

Others may find it of interest.

I think that's the biggest problem that a lot of people have trying to believe some of the GW stuff.

Those guys tell you right up front that they are looking for another reason to explain that period, and tell that they use the same models that are used to predict GW.

A lot of people have a problem with the models and the assumptions that the people that designed the models made with CO2, water vapor, etc.

Using the same models to explain the Medieval Warm Period, would give the same results, and of course align it with what the models predict for now.

Personally I wish they would not do that because I firmly believe that they can no more design a model for this than they can design one to pick lottery tickets. I wish they would not give so much credit to their models at all, for anything.

.
Member Since: August 24, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 3654
472. BahaHurican
8:55 PM EST on December 22, 2007
Hydrus, it's too cold for trolls right now LOL.

Seriously, we tend to have more trouble during the first three months of the hurricane season, when schools are out and minds are idle.
Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22583
471. lindenii
1:55 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
467. atmoaggie 1:43 AM GMT on December 23, 2007

I am on the show all setting. I usually just "-" this one I do not care for when a troll appears and never see that post again.


I have tried that little 'minus' box a bunch of times and it does absolutely nothing...not even move. Is there somewhere I must navigate to in order to set that little box 'active'?

I am not interested in setting someone to 'IGNORE' Hitting the 'Hide' button for an individual and having it stick would work just fine for me, that way I could open the post up at my leisure. Not permanent or hidden completely, just 'minimized'.

You know..the grey bar with their name on it.
470. BahaHurican
8:42 PM EST on December 22, 2007
Our modelling results suggest
that the warm summer conditions during the early second
millennium compared to the climate background state
of the 13th–18th century are due to a large extent to the
long term cooling induced by changes in land-use in Europe.


From the source I am reading (link given above). What's interesting to me about this is that the writers suggest man has been impacting his weather, albeit on a less than global scale, for more than the last 150 years.
Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22583
469. atmoaggie
1:52 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
Not yet. The line is still roughly 10 miles to my west. I am about 2 miles south of the latest severe t-storm warning.

More reported trees down. 2 parishes to my west.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
468. hydrus
1:44 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
I am new at posting on this blog or any blog for that matter.I dont believe I have witnessed a troll.Atmoaggie is that line east of you now?
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21762
467. atmoaggie
1:42 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
I am on the show all setting. I usually just "-" this one I do not care for when a troll appears and never see that post again.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
466. BahaHurican
8:12 PM EST on December 22, 2007
449. lindenii 7:08 PM EST on December 22, 2007
I just read the underlying code for this blog and Average is hard coded into the blog, there aint no way to change it.


This is interesting. I have mine set to "Show Bad" and it works fine. The only person on your list who is minimised is MikeOhio.

For those of you who may not have been around in the last two seasons, the ratings system is the Admins defense against trolls, of whom we have had a large number over the years. Basically the ratings system means the Admin had to do less "banning" of people and can save this measure for the really extreme cases. If you like a post, you can + it. If you minus a post because you dislike it, remember the minus affects you too. The more minuses you have, the lower your rating goes. The default filter setting used to be "Show all", but I do know there was a problem with the filter settings a few months ago. I haven't checked Developer's Blog for a while to find out what is going on. Maybe you can post a message over there about it and see what is going on with it.
Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22583
465. atmoaggie
1:39 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
That is a pretty strong shear storm NE of Baton Rouge, north of Lake Pontchartrain. My source has 92 mph shear there.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
464. atmoaggie
1:31 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
I am directly east of BR. Covington.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
463. atmoaggie
1:20 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
One interesting nugget of historical fact usually not shared by the fear mongers is that the medieval warm period is when advaced math, astronomy, meteorology, metallurgy, and many other technological advances were invented. The food grew itself. A lot less starving and freezing went on.

The plague, Irish potato famine, and largest of wars historically occurred during periods of cooler temperatures, including, but not limited to, the little ice age.

So, if we do warm some, via anthropogenic or other causes, so what? A few low-lying areas might be under water. Like Venice, Italy? Move or dig canals rather than streets. The polar bears WILL adapt, that is how they came to exist in the first place anyway. It is called natural selection. Plants do it too. Species, including humans, having to adapt to a changing world, might be healthy and is not worth the time, trouble, or cost of trying to rid our emissions of the gas that has driven nearly every energy-requiring process that has happened since caveman Joe built a fire.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
462. hydrus
1:27 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
Atmoaggie--are you near that cell e-ne of baton rouge?It looks like a bad one.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21762
461. atmoaggie
1:18 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
Severe storms rolling through SE LA tonight. Some reports of downed trees already. A couple of cells with high shear present now. Heads up! (Myself included)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
460. BahaHurican
8:09 PM EST on December 22, 2007
Evening everybody.

Just reading this interesting report on the Medieval Warm period. Others may find it of interest.
Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22583
459. ShenValleyFlyFish
8:09 PM EST on December 22, 2007
Member Since: September 9, 2007 Posts: 36 Comments: 4687
458. hydrus
1:02 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
Patrap-Apocolypse Now is a great movie.That blog is exceedingly adequate.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21762
457. hydrus
12:52 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
StSimons--good blog on georgia hurricanes.If possible,could you give me info on the effects hurricanes,donna,dora & gracie had on the georgia coast?
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21762
456. beell
12:37 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
lindenii,
My pleasure in the interest of free speech lol
Passed on to me by blogger nrtiwlnvragn a couple of months back.
Merry Christmas

Cool tune Shen. Love girls that wear funny hats.
Thanks
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
455. Weather456
8:36 PM AST on December 22, 2007
lindenii,

Merry Xmas to you too.
Member Since: July 24, 2005 Posts: 407 Comments: 19076
454. lindenii
12:36 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
453. beell 12:19 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
lindenii,
This used to work anyway.
Click "My Blog" on top left
Click "Modify my profile" on right under "Control Panel".
Middle of same page, Set "Comment Filter" to
"Show All".
Update profile at bottom of same page to save changes.
Return to main blog and set filter to "Show All"


beell

Thank you so very much for that information. It worked perfectly.

Feels great being able to think for myself.

sulli...I did try that box at the top...untold numbers of times and it never worked. Like I said, the setting of 'Average' is hard coded, probably what the programmer thought was a good 'default'.

Anyway, I am now set to 'All'.

Christmas is off to a good start thanks to beell.

Merry Christmas everybody!!
453. beell
12:19 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
lindenii,
This used to work anyway.
Click "My Blog" on top left
Click "Modify my profile" on right under "Control Panel".
Middle of same page, Set "Comment Filter" to
"Show All".
Update profile at bottom of same page to save changes.
Return to main blog and set filter to "Show All"
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
452. ShenValleyFlyFish
7:18 PM EST on December 22, 2007
It can't be all bad.
Shen

Member Since: September 9, 2007 Posts: 36 Comments: 4687
451. sullivanweather
12:15 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
450. latitude25
7:13 PM EST on December 22, 2007
linden

It's not that big of a deal.

People read blogs because they are nosey.

If someone's post is blocked off, that just means that more people will open it and read it
and it will have even more importance.

Everyone will open and read it to see why it was blocked off.
;-)
Member Since: August 24, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 3654
449. lindenii
12:08 AM GMT on December 23, 2007
I just read the underlying code for this blog and Average is hard coded into the blog, there aint no way to change it.

Those of us with differing viewpoints are stuck being bullied by the 'in crowd'.
448. lindenii
11:57 PM GMT on December 22, 2007
444. sullivanweather 11:45 PM GMT on December 22, 2007
linden,

Perhaps your filter settings are such that it only shows comments recommended by other bloggers.

Most likely the comments you aren't seeing is because other bloggers disliked those comments and clicked on the '-' sign in the comment box.

According to the list you've made (mainly anti-AGW bloggers) those comments have been marked poorly (since there is a disproportionate number of AGW bloggers vs. anti-AGW ones)


????

First of all, sulli, thanks for your kind reply. Now, on to my comments.

Is this an elementary school where someone else 'censors' what I can, conveniently, read.

Since when do I not have the right to see what others post to this blog. If I do not like what they have to say, thats when I should be able to 'minimize' them...at my discretion...not yours. And the ultimate is, of course, the dreaded 'IGNORE' button.

So what you are saying is that I can go giving bad marks to certain individuals...over and over..and they will be, eventually, 'minimzed'? Is it that 'minus sign? I tried it and nothing seems to happen.

BTW I already tried the filters and they don't want to set, they keep going back to 'Average'. Also, when logging on anonymously, those same posts are not minimized which then leads to another question.

If the general public can see all the posts and when logged on as a member, I cannot...Who died and made them, the 'in crowd' the supreme leaders making decisions for me?
447. latitude25
6:54 PM EST on December 22, 2007
rotfl at mom
You are not a ditz!

gee who would have thought it
more censorship from the AGW bloggers

LOL
Member Since: August 24, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 3654
446. surfmom
11:50 PM GMT on December 22, 2007
I am such a ditz. I thought they were just shy and I had to open up their spot to see what they had to say ---I can't believe how stupid/clueless I am --probably will get the award for the idiot of the night LOL!!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
445. surfmom
11:46 PM GMT on December 22, 2007
hmmmm i am so naive i was totally clueless to all of this - jeeze I hope I don't ever get the squeeze
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
444. sullivanweather
11:44 PM GMT on December 22, 2007
linden,

Perhaps your filter settings are such that it only shows comments recommended by other bloggers.

Most likely the comments you aren't seeing is because other bloggers disliked those comments and clicked on the '-' sign in the comment box.

According to the list you've made (mainly anti-AGW bloggers) those comments have been marked poorly (since there is a disproportionate number of AGW bloggers vs. anti-AGW ones)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Viewing: 494 - 444

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.