Save the Keeling Curve!

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:13 PM GMT on March 11, 2014

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Climate change's most iconic research project is in danger--a victim of budget cuts in an era of increased government belt-tightening. The Keeling Curve is a measurement of the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere made atop Hawaii’s Mauna Loa, begun in 1958 by Dr. Charles Keeling. It is the longest-running such measurement in the world. The curve was instrumental in showing how human emissions of carbon dioxide were steadily accumulating in Earth's atmosphere, and raised awareness that human-caused climate change was an ever-increasing threat to the stability of our climate. After Keeling's death in 2005, the measurements were continued by his son, Ralph F. Keeling. Support from NSF, NOAA and NASA is being diminished or withdrawn, and Keeling has turned to crowd-funding to help raise funds to continue these important measurements. I hope you can join me in making a donation.


Figure 1. The Keeling Curve: climate change's most iconic image. The curve's steady year-by-year increase in CO2 due to burning of coal, oil, and natural gas has wriggles on top of it, due to the natural seasonal cycle in CO2--plants suck in CO2 during the Northern Hemisphere growing season, then release it during the winter. Image credit: Scripps Institution of Oceanography, USCD.


Figure 2. Dr. Charles Keeling posing at the entrance to the Charles Keeling Building at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Image credit: NOAA/ESRL.

CO2 Levels Hit 401 ppm
The latest data from the Keeling curve website shows that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are surging upwards in their usual late winter push, as plants return CO2 to the atmosphere before the Northern Hemisphere spring growing season hits. CO2 levels reached 401 ppm (parts per million) last week on top of Mauna Loa, setting a new record. CO2 levels were at 280 ppm in 1870, increased less than 1 ppm per year in the 1960s, then accelerated to 2 ppm per year during the 2000s. Less than 1% of the increase since 1870 has been due to natural sources, such as volcanoes. The last time carbon dioxide levels reached 400 ppm—between 2.5 and 5 million years ago during the Pliocene Era—the Earth was 3.5 to 9° F warmer (2 to 5° C), and sea levels were 65 to 80 feet higher.

Links
There is a hashtag #savetheKeelingCurve
Eli Rabett's post, Shaking the Cup for Science
What Does 400 ppm Look Like? December 2013 blog post by Robert Monroe of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.




Senate holds all-nighter on climate change
A group of 31 U.S. Senators pulled an all-nighter last night on the floor of the U.S. Senate, taking turns from 9 pm Monday night until 9 am Tuesday morning to promote policy actions on climate change. Many of the Senators involved issued tweets using the hashtag #Up4Climate. The all-nighter was another indication that politicians are becoming increasingly bold about speaking up on climate change.

Latest Version of our WunderMap App Now Includes WunderPhotos
Weather Underground has released today a new version of our WunderMap app for iPhone and iPad. The main new feature that we'd like to highlight is the WunderPhotos layer--now users can view, share, and submit photos all from within the app. Here are a few of the features of the new version of the WunderMap app:

◦ Improved Weather Station display, and both station size and station spacing are now adjustable (Weather Stations Layer ⇒ Settings).
◦ New WunderPhotos layer! View, share, and submit beautiful weather photos.
◦ Fixed incorrect elevation for some Personal Weather Stations.
◦ Swipe-to-delete search history items.
◦ "Terrain/Satellite” and other map options made more prominent.
◦ Bug fixes (crashes, visual glitches, and usability enhancements).
◦ Optimized performance across all devices.


The latest version is available to download for iPhone and iPad at https://itunes.apple.com/app/wundermap/id364884105?mt=8.

Jeff Masters

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257. yoboi
In the last decade there have been 5 El Nino's, and some scientists believe that rising greenhouse gases and global warming.


That's a theory endorsed by Dr Russ Schnell, a scientist doing atmospheric research at Mauna Loa Observatory, 11,000 feet up on Hawaii. "It appears that we have a very good case for suggesting that the El Ninos are going to become more frequent, and they're going to become more intense and in a few years, or a decade or so, we'll go into a permanent El Nino."

"So instead of having cool water periods for a year or two, we'll have El Nino upon El Nino, and that will become the norm. And you'll have an El Nino, that instead of lasting 18 months, lasts 18 years," he said


Link



He almost nailed that prediction.......Got propane????
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How does this program work?


At night a temperature inversion forms near the ground, trapping volcanic emissions coming from Mauna Loa summit fumarloes in a layer tens of meters thick.

Down slope winds sometimes transport these emissions to the observatory, where they are detected as a "noisy" increase above smooth baseline levels for some gases. A volcanic component can be estimated by taking the difference in concentration between periods when the plume is present and periods immediately before and after that exhibit baseline conditions.

The most significant volcanic gas is CO2, which has been monitored since 1958 through three eruption cycles Volcanic CO2 is greatest shortly after an eruption and then decreases exponentially over the subsequent years. Right after the 1984 eruption, Mauna Loa emitted as much CO2 as an American city of 40,000 people.

By 2005, these emissions had fallen by a factor of about 100. This suggests that a reservoir deep beneath the summit is recharged with fresh, CO2 rich magma during and immediately following an eruption which is then quiescently outgassed at an inverse-exponential rate. There were substantial emissions of SO2 and aerosols following the 1975 eruption and much lower levels were seen after the 1984 eruption. By 2000, SO2 and aerosol emissions from Mauna Loa had fallen below detection limits. The CO2 and SO2 data is examined weekly for any significant events which may signal renewed activity in the volcano. The long-term records are updated yearly.
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Quoting 253. opal92nwf:

To further explain: there has been a huge lack of strong/severe thunderstorms at my location for the past half year or so.
All the thunderstorm action has been up here in the mid-atlantic.
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ESRL Global Monitoring

Mauna Loa Volcanic Emissions 1958-Present


National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL)

What does this program measure?
Every continuous atmospheric trace gas and aerosol measurement made at MLO can be monitored for a Mauna Loa volcanic emissions component. Significant amounts of volcanic CO2, SO2, condensation nuclei, light-scattering aerosols, and sulfate have been measured and their emission rates estimated. All other trace gases such as CO, H2, H20, CH4, O3, and Radon do not have detectable volcanic components and upper limit emission rates have been estimated for each of these.


What does this program measure?
Every continuous atmospheric trace gas and aerosol measurement made at MLO can be monitored for a Mauna Loa volcanic emissions component. Significant amounts of volcanic CO2, SO2, condensation nuclei, light-scattering aerosols, and sulfate have been measured and their emission rates estimated. All other trace gases such as CO, H2, H20, CH4, O3, and Radon do not have detectable volcanic components and upper limit emission rates have been estimated for each of these.
How does this program work?
At night a temperature inversion forms near the ground, trapping volcanic emissions coming from Mauna Loa summit fumarloes in a layer tens of meters thick. Down slope winds sometimes transport these emissions to the observatory, where they are detected as a "noisy" increase above smooth baseline levels for some gases. A volcanic component can be estimated by taking the difference in concentration between periods when the plume is present and periods immediately before and after that exhibit baseline conditions. The most significant volcanic gas is CO2, which has been monitored since 1958 through three eruption cycles Volcanic CO2 is greatest shortly after an eruption and then decreases exponentially over the subsequent years. Right after the 1984 eruption, Mauna Loa emitted as much CO2 as an American city of 40,000 people. By 2005, these emissions had fallen by a factor of about 100. This suggests that a reservoir deep beneath the summit is recharged with fresh, CO2 rich magma during and immediately following an eruption which is then quiescently outgassed at an inverse-exponential rate. There were substantial emissions of SO2 and aerosols following the 1975 eruption and much lower levels were seen after the 1984 eruption. By 2000, SO2 and aerosol emissions from Mauna Loa had fallen below detection limits. The CO2 and SO2 data is examined weekly for any significant events which may signal renewed activity in the volcano. The long-term records are updated yearly.

Lead Investigator Steve Ryan of NOAA published papers on this subject in 1995, 2001, and 2006. The data used in these studies came from the SIO (pre-1974) and ESRL (post-1974) Carbon Dioxide analyzers, ESRL Meteorology system, ESRL Condensation Nuclei Counter, ESRL Aerosol Nephelometer , ESRL Sulfur Dioxide analyzer , ESRL Surface Ozone analyzer , ESRL Methane analyzer , ANSTO Radon counter, and ESRL Carbon Cycle flask program. Click here to read the 1995 paper...
Why is this research important?
Our measurements comprise the world's longest and most detailed continuous record of volcanic CO2 emissions. Measurements of volcanic gas emissions complement other geolophysical measurements (earthquake, surface deformation, gravity, petrology, and geochemistry) in providing a description of the structure and workings of Mauna Loa volcano through several eruption cycles. This knowledge may help in predicting future eruptions.
Are there any trends in the data?
The CO2 emission rate follows a very predictable exponentially decreasing trend which is established after each eruption. The slope of these trends have been different for each eruption. Current concentrations of volcanic CO2 (2006) are at their lowest levels since the record began in 1958.
How does this program fit into the big picture?
What is it's role in global climate change?
Mauna Loa volcanic CO2 was used as a tracer to constrain the flow of air around the mountain (1997 paper). The MLO CO2 emissions record (1995 and 2001 papers) is an important component in the "geophysical picture" of how Mauna Loa volcano works. The lack of significant methane emissions from Mauna Loa volcano (2006 paper) helps our understanding of the "life on Mars picture" by suggesting that Martian volcanoes are unlikely to be the source of methane in the atmosphere of Mars.

CO2 emissions from Mauna Loa volcano are an insignificantly small part of the global carbon cycle and do not play a role in climate change.
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Quoting 246. opal92nwf:

fizzling out. I hope to see a tropical cyclone this summer to make up for all of this boringness.



To further explain: there has been a huge lack of strong/severe thunderstorms at my location for the past half year or so.
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thought this was something to chew on from mr burt's blog...our resident weather historian




2. Kratje 12:36 AM GMT on March 11, 2014 +1



Is there any relation between the month in which an El Nino begins and the strength of the El Nino?

I can imagine that if El Nino kicks in just before Hurricane saeson in the western Pacific, it will be stronger.

Action: Quote | Ignore User

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3. Christopher C. Burt, Weather Historian
1:31 AM GMT on March 11, 2014 +2



That is a great question. We know that some of the strongest tropical storms on record (on earth for that matter) developed in both the Eastern Pacific and Western Pacific Ocean during the fall of 1997, just as the powerful El Nino event began to ramp up. Let's see what happens in the Pacific next September-October.

P.S. Meanwhile, it was a very quiet hurricane season (1997) in the Atlantic.


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You have shown us nothing that would show the CO2 measurements Globally are not valid.

Maybe wu mail the author on your discovery?
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The Keeling Curve is one of the best-defined results in climatology and there really are no valid scientific reasons for doubting it.
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That does not speak to Kilauea's past 31 years and ongoing eruptions. Talks about Mauna Loa itself. Here's the official Scripps site info. The site FAQ mentions filtering data during the 3-week 1984 Mauna Loa eruption and refers to a 1960 paper by Charles Keeling. No mention of Kilauea's potential influence.
Quoting 233. Patrap:
Measuring CO2 levels from the volcano at Mauna Loa

Posted on 25 October 2010 by Andy Skuce
The observatory near the summit of the Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii has been recording the amount of carbon dioxide in the air since 1958. This is the longest continuous record of direct measurements of CO2 and it shows a steadily increasing trend from year to year; combined with a saw-tooth effect that is caused by changes in the rate of plant growth through the seasons. This curve is commonly known as the Keeling Curve, named after Charles Keeling, the American scientist who started the project.

Why Mauna Loa? Early attempts to measure CO2 in the USA and Scandinavia found that the readings varied a lot due to the influence of growing plants and the exhaust from motors. Mauna Loa is ideal because it is so remote from big population centres. Also, on tropical islands at night, the prevailing winds blow from the land out to sea, which effect brings clean, well-mixed Central Pacific air from high in the atmosphere to the observatory. This removes any interference coming from the vegetation lower down on the island.

But how about gas from the volcano? It is true that volcanoes blow out CO2 from time to time and that this can interfere with the readings. Most of the time, though, the prevailing winds blow the volcanic gasses away from the observatory. But when the winds do sometimes blow from active vents towards the observatory, the influence from the volcano is obvious on the normally consistent records and any dubious readings can be easily spotted and edited out (Ryan, 1995).
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Importantly, Mauna Loa is not the only atmospheric measuring station in the world. As the graph from NOAA shows, other stations show the same year-after-year increasing trend. The seasonal saw-tooth varies from place to place, of course, but the background trend remains steadily upwards. The Keeling Curve is one of the best-defined results in climatology and there really are no valid scientific reasons for doubting it.
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Quoting nrtiwlnvragn:
US HAZARDS OUTLOOK
NWS CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER COLLEGE PARK MD
300 PM EDT MARCH 11 2014


Excerpt:

FOR FRIDAY MARCH 14 - TUESDAY MARCH 18: AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS FORECAST
PERIOD, A STRONG LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM IS EXPECTED TO BE MAKING ITS WAY OFF THE
NEW ENGLAND COAST. BEHIND THIS SYSTEM, COLD AIR FROM CANADA IS PREDICTED TO
LEAD TO MUCH BELOW-NORMAL TEMPERATURES FROM THE MID-ATLANTIC TO NEW ENGLAND.
DAILY MINIMUM TEMPERATURES ARE FORECAST TO BE UP TO 24 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL,
WITH ACTUAL VALUES IN THE SINGLE DIGITS FOR A LARGE PART OF THE HAZARD AREA.


Northeast can't get a break from the cold....



Doesn't seem like anyone can. The high here in SE Alabama was 81 before the high clouds filtered in. Tomorrow is supposed to have a high of 70, which will occur at midnight. The rain starts tonight and continues until tomorrow afternoon. The actual high will be about 55 with 25 to 35 mile per winds. Tomorrow night it goes down to near freezing. Thursday the high should be around 45. This roller coaster ride is really getting tiresome.
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fizzling out. I hope to see a tropical cyclone this summer to make up for all of this boringness.

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O Lordy,...





Measuring CO2 levels from the volcano at Mauna Loa

Posted on 25 October 2010 by Andy Skuce
The observatory near the summit of the Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii has been recording the amount of carbon dioxide in the air since 1958. This is the longest continuous record of direct measurements of CO2 and it shows a steadily increasing trend from year to year; combined with a saw-tooth effect that is caused by changes in the rate of plant growth through the seasons. This curve is commonly known as the Keeling Curve, named after Charles Keeling, the American scientist who started the project.

Why Mauna Loa? Early attempts to measure CO2 in the USA and Scandinavia found that the readings varied a lot due to the influence of growing plants and the exhaust from motors. Mauna Loa is ideal because it is so remote from big population centres. Also, on tropical islands at night, the prevailing winds blow from the land out to sea, which effect brings clean, well-mixed Central Pacific air from high in the atmosphere to the observatory. This removes any interference coming from the vegetation lower down on the island.

But how about gas from the volcano? It is true that volcanoes blow out CO2 from time to time and that this can interfere with the readings. Most of the time, though, the prevailing winds blow the volcanic gasses away from the observatory. But when the winds do sometimes blow from active vents towards the observatory, the influence from the volcano is obvious on the normally consistent records and any dubious readings can be easily spotted and edited out (Ryan, 1995).
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"Volcanoes emit very little CO2."
Compared to what? You might want to check on that. I read from just "normal" sources, not global warming discussions, CO2 is second to water vapor in gases volcanoes emit. Not gonna argue over how much CO2 volcanoes emit. Some of what I read stated that CO2 from many volcanic eruptions can be largely unknown, as the volcanoes are too remote to be monitored.

Looked at the Barrow CO2 stats during my reading today, and they seem to mirror Mauna Loa's. Couldn't access the "American Samoa" CO2 curve for some reason. Maybe that one of the six monitoring stations within NOAA’s Global Monitoring Division (GMD) does not monitor CO2. If they don't, wonder why not. Maybe some advantage to a station on a high mountain, but Barrow is not on a mountain and Mauna Loa has had a nearby volcano erupting for the past 31 years. Shrug

'Bye now. My truck's at the doctor and I gotta go pick her up.
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Quoting 581. Physicistretired:
A list of senators who attended last night's climate marathon. Maybe a Thank You call is in order?

This is, after all, the kind of behavior we want to reinforce:


Richard Blumenthal (D-CT) (202) 224-2823
Cory A. Booker (D-NJ) (202) 224-3224
Barbara Boxer (D-CA) (202) 224-3553
Maria Cantwell (D-WA) (202) 224-3441
Benjamin L. Cardin (D-MD) (202) 224-4524
Christopher A. Coons (D-DE) (202) 224-5042
Richard J. Durbin (D-IL) (202) 224-2152
Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) (202) 224-3841
Al Franken (D-MN) (202) 224-5641
Kirsten E. Gillibrand (D-NY) (202) 224-4451
Martin Heinrich (D-NM) (202) 224-5521
Tim Kaine (D-VA) (202) 224-4024
Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) (202) 224-3244
Patrick J. Leahy (D-VT) (202) 224-4242
Edward J. Markey (D-MA) (202) 224-2742
Jeff Merkley (D-OR) (202) 224-3753
Christopher Murphy (D-CT) (202) 224-4041
Patty Murray (D-WA) (202) 224-2621
Bill Nelson (D-FL) (202) 224-5274
Jack Reed (D-RI) (202) 224-4642
Harry Reid (D-NV) (202) 224-3542
Brian Schatz (D-HI) (202) 224-3934
Charles E. Schumer (D-NY) (202) 224-6542
Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH) (202) 224-2841
Mark Udall (D-CO) (202) 224-5941
Tom Udall (D-NM) (202) 224-6621
Elizabeth Warren (D-MA) (202) 224-4543
Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) (202) 224-2921
Ron Wyden (D-OR) (202) 224-5244
Angus S. King Jr. (I-ME) (202) 224-5344
Bernard Sanders (I-VT) (202) 224-5141

And the Democrats who didn't attend. A little negative reinforcement might be helpful?

Tammy Baldwin (D-WI) (202) 224-5653
Mark Begich (D-AK) (202) 224-3004
Michael F. Bennet (D-CO) (202) 224-5852
Sherrod Brown (D-OH) (202) 224-2315
Thomas R. Carper (D-DE) (202) 224-2441
Robert P., Jr. Casey (D-PA) (202) 224-6324
Joe Donnelly (D-IN) (202) 224-4814
Kay R. Hagan (D-NC) (202) 224-6342
Tom Harkin (D-IA) (202) 224-3254
Heidi Heitkamp (D-ND) (202) 224-2043
Mazie K. Hirono (D-HI) (202) 224-6361
Tim Johnson (D-SD) (202) 224-5842
Mary L. Landrieu (D-LA) (202) 224-5824
Carl Levin (D-MI) (202) 224-6221
Joe, III Manchin (D-WV) (202) 224-3954
Claire McCaskill (D-MO) (202) 224-6154
Robert Menendez (D-NJ) (202) 224-4744
Barbara A. Mikulski (D-MD) (202) 224-4654
Mark L. Pryor (D-AR) (202) 224-2353
John D. Rockefeller (D-WV) (202) 224-6472
Debbie Stabenow (D-MI) (202) 224-4822
Jon Tester (D-MT) (202) 224-2644
John E. Walsh (D-MT) (202) 224-2651
Mark R. Warner (D-VA) (202) 224-2023

No Republicans attended, so list is necessary for them.

If you prefer email, you can locate any senator here.
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Quoting yonzabam:


Volcanoes emit very little CO2. The measurement are taken there because it's unpolluted by both natural and man made emissions. The other two monitoring stations are at the South Pole and Point Barrow, Alaska, for the same reason.


Carbon dioxide is released when magma rises from the depths of the Earth on its way to the surface. Our studies here at Kilauea show that the eruption discharges between 8,000 and 30,000 metric tonnes of CO2 into the atmosphere each day. Actively erupting volcanoes release much more CO2 than sleeping ones do.

USGS Hawaii Volcano Observatory
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All I have to say is don't go around wishing people death and calling them stupid.I'm not apart of it.
Member Since: August 14, 2010 Posts: 10 Comments: 16679


Yingli Green Energy Signs Its Largest Module Supply Agreement to Date in Israel
27.5 MW of Yingli Solar Modules Selected for Utility-Scale Project


BAODING, China, March 10, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- Yingli Green Energy Holding Company Limited YGE +0.47% ("Yingli Green Energy" or the "Company"), the largest vertically integrated photovoltaic ("PV") module manufacturer in the world, known as "Yingli Solar", today announced its largest supply agreement to date in Israel and the Middle East, under which the Company will deliver 27.5 MW of multicrystalline PV modules between February and April of 2014.(Photo: http://www.prnasia.com/sa/2012/04/01/2012040116043 9160364.jpg )

The Company will supply its YGE 72 Cell NH Series modules to a solar power plant that will occupy more than one million square meters of land in Israel. Designated a National Infrastructure Project by the Israeli Government, the solar farm has been granted the conditional feed-in tariff approval from the Israeli Public Utilities Authority.

"We are pleased to achieve our largest supply agreement to date in Israel," said Mr. Manuel Seiffe, New Market Development Director of Yingli Green Energy International AG. "We look forward to embracing future opportunities to utilize the Middle East's abundant solar resources in close cooperation with leading solar companies in the region."

"This supply agreement builds upon our long-standing relationship with Ledico Ltd., our local distribution partner in Israel, and it also extends our presence and visibility throughout the region. We view Israel as an important and sustainable growth market with the potential to reach more than 340 MW of installed solar PV capacity in 2014. We are excited to continue supporting the region's successful implementation of solar PV through this major supply agreement," said Mr. Liansheng Miao, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Yingli Green Energy.
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239. yoboi
Quoting 235. Patrap:
However, there are probably fortunes at stake, to be made or lost, at some point in this current equation.

Sure, u betcha' dere is.

Billions.

Home / Politicians & Elections / Congress / Sen. James M. Inhofe: Summary Data
Sen. James M. Inhofe


Top 5 Contributors, 2009-2014, Campaign Cmte
Contributor Total Indivs PACs
Boeing Co $22,150 $11,150 $11,000
Devon Energy $21,750 $11,750 $10,000
General Dynamics $19,000 $9,000 $10,000
Murray Energy $18,450 $8,450 $10,000
Robison International $15,300 $15,300 $0
...view more data
Top 5 Industries, 2009-2014, Campaign Cmte
Industry Total Indivs PACs
Oil & Gas $302,600 $136,450 $166,150
Leadership PACs $171,221 $2,000 $169,221
Retired $167,675 $167,675 $0
Lobbyists $111,356 $100,856 $10,500
Electric Utilities $106,850 $5,000 $101,850



I wonder if he stores money in the freezer and does granite work???
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54/82 today. Nice! Ate lunch outside. A milky cirrus sky with the sun shining through. Will probably be an awesome sunset tonight!
Member Since: June 29, 2013 Posts: 27 Comments: 2012
Thanks for the blog update Dr. Masters.
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Good Luck on your Surgery LargoFl......
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However, there are probably fortunes at stake, to be made or lost, at some point in this current equation.

Sure, u betcha' dere is.

Billions.

Home / Politicians & Elections / Congress / Sen. James M. Inhofe: Summary Data
Sen. James M. Inhofe


Top 5 Contributors, 2009-2014, Campaign Cmte
Contributor Total Indivs PACs
Boeing Co $22,150 $11,150 $11,000
Devon Energy $21,750 $11,750 $10,000
General Dynamics $19,000 $9,000 $10,000
Murray Energy $18,450 $8,450 $10,000
Robison International $15,300 $15,300 $0
...view more data
Top 5 Industries, 2009-2014, Campaign Cmte
Industry Total Indivs PACs
Oil & Gas $302,600 $136,450 $166,150
Leadership PACs $171,221 $2,000 $169,221
Retired $167,675 $167,675 $0
Lobbyists $111,356 $100,856 $10,500
Electric Utilities $106,850 $5,000 $101,850
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Weather or Earth/Geological related issues/calamities that affect Man on a widespread basis (whether climate change, post-disaster relief in the wake of a huge natural disaster, or water shortage issues), are events that can unify people to try to find a solution or to take action to lessen the impact and/or assist survivors.

It is rather embarrassing, in my personal opinion, that this current issue (climate change) is being used by politicians and others to strike division into the hearts of men and of the general public. Mother Nature does not discriminate by race, creed, wealth, religion, or political affiliation. However, there are probably fortunes at stake, to be made or lost, at some point in this current equation.
Member Since: August 8, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 9017
Measuring CO2 levels from the volcano at Mauna Loa

Posted on 25 October 2010 by Andy Skuce
The observatory near the summit of the Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii has been recording the amount of carbon dioxide in the air since 1958. This is the longest continuous record of direct measurements of CO2 and it shows a steadily increasing trend from year to year; combined with a saw-tooth effect that is caused by changes in the rate of plant growth through the seasons. This curve is commonly known as the Keeling Curve, named after Charles Keeling, the American scientist who started the project.

Why Mauna Loa? Early attempts to measure CO2 in the USA and Scandinavia found that the readings varied a lot due to the influence of growing plants and the exhaust from motors. Mauna Loa is ideal because it is so remote from big population centres. Also, on tropical islands at night, the prevailing winds blow from the land out to sea, which effect brings clean, well-mixed Central Pacific air from high in the atmosphere to the observatory. This removes any interference coming from the vegetation lower down on the island.

But how about gas from the volcano? It is true that volcanoes blow out CO2 from time to time and that this can interfere with the readings. Most of the time, though, the prevailing winds blow the volcanic gasses away from the observatory. But when the winds do sometimes blow from active vents towards the observatory, the influence from the volcano is obvious on the normally consistent records and any dubious readings can be easily spotted and edited out (Ryan, 1995).
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2014
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Good luck LargoFL - I'm positive it will work out well for you.

I am sure the blog joins me in wishing you a quick and successful treatment.
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Quoting 228. Barefootontherocks:
Sure would like to know more about how the Scripps scientists filter the influence of nearby volcanic activity out of the CO2 data. The site FAQ mentions filtering data during the 3-week 1984 Mauna Loa eruption and refers to a 1960 paper by Charles Keeling. I googled and I read and I did not find anything about the potential influence of Mauna Loa's nearby sister mountain, Kilauea, and her eruptions, steady and ongoing since 1983. Filtered also? Much of the southern Big Island is old lava flow. Does it release or sequester CO2? Maybe someone knows.

If the U.S. NOAA wants the data, they can pay for it.


Volcanoes emit very little CO2. The measurement are taken there because it's unpolluted by both natural and man made emissions. The other two monitoring stations are at the South Pole and Point Barrow, Alaska, for the same reason.
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Sure would like to know more about how the Scripps scientists filter the influence of nearby volcanic activity out of the CO2 data. The site FAQ mentions filtering data during the 3-week 1984 Mauna Loa eruption and refers to a 1960 paper by Charles Keeling.

I googled and I read and I did not find anything about the potential influence of Mauna Loa's nearby sister mountain, Kilauea, and her eruptions, steady and ongoing since 1983. Filtered also? Much of the southern Big Island is old lava flow. Does it release or sequester CO2? Maybe someone knows.

If the U.S. NOAA wants the data, they can pay for it.
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Quoting 223. FLwolverine:
Yipes! That's way up by Saginaw, which means nasty weather over an awful lot of southern lower Michigan!

Define nasty! :P

Going to be a fun storm for me. For everyone else, not so much.
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massive system in south pacific
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Quoting 221. Patrap:
Sen. James Inhofe, R-Okla., said Democrats who showed up were not convincing anyone with their stunt.

"They'll have an audience of themselves, so I hope they enjoy it," Inhofe said about an hour into the marathon, planned to last for nearly 15 hours. Inhofe's speech marked the only time Republicans engaged in the debate. Two other GOP senators, Alabama's Jeff Sessions and Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell of Kentucky, took to the Senate floor earlier Monday to denounce Democrats before the overnight session began.



​James M. Inhofe
Credentials


BA, Economics, University of Tulsa, 1973.

Background

Senator Inhofe is the senior Senator from Oklahoma and a member of the Republican Party. He is former chairman (2003 to 2007) and currently a ranking minority member of the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works.

Stance on Climate Change

"I have offered compelling evidence that catastrophic global warming is a hoax. That conclusion is supported by the painstaking work of the nation's top climate scientists."

The scientists that Inhofe mentioned include: Fred Singer, Richard Lindzen, David Wojick, Roy Spencer, John Christy, Paul Reiter, David Legates, Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas, Frederick Sietz, as well as the signatories of both the Heidelberg Appeal and the Oregon Petition.

Inhofe has been described as "the first person to stand up and say this global warming is the greatest hoax that has been perpetrated."




If people like that genuinely believe what they're saying, that's one thing, but it's frightening that they can become senators.

If, as I believe, they are telling lies for money, they should be locked up along with murderers, drug dealers, and the other dregs of society, because they are every bit as deserving of a prison sentence.
Member Since: July 20, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 2918
US HAZARDS OUTLOOK
NWS CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER COLLEGE PARK MD
300 PM EDT MARCH 11 2014


Excerpt:

FOR FRIDAY MARCH 14 - TUESDAY MARCH 18: AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS FORECAST
PERIOD, A STRONG LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM IS EXPECTED TO BE MAKING ITS WAY OFF THE
NEW ENGLAND COAST. BEHIND THIS SYSTEM, COLD AIR FROM CANADA IS PREDICTED TO
LEAD TO MUCH BELOW-NORMAL TEMPERATURES FROM THE MID-ATLANTIC TO NEW ENGLAND.
DAILY MINIMUM TEMPERATURES ARE FORECAST TO BE UP TO 24 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL,
WITH ACTUAL VALUES IN THE SINGLE DIGITS FOR A LARGE PART OF THE HAZARD AREA.


Northeast can't get a break from the cold....


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Quoting 219. wxchaser97:
We will find out soon enough.
...........IT APPEARS THE STRONGEST OF THE WINDS ARE AT THE
BACK HALF OF THE SNOW. CERTAINLY WILL CREATE SOME BLOWING SNOW AND
NEAR BLIZZARD CONDITIONS FOR THE AREAS ALONG AND SOUTH OF M-46.
Yipes! That's way up by Saginaw, which means nasty weather over an awful lot of southern lower Michigan!
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Quoting 180. LargoFl:
im sorry if i pissed some folks off today..just found out i have the big C on my outer ear and in 2 weeks i go for surgery..depression certainly hits hard huh...
I wish you good luck, Largo. If it is basal cell carcinoma it is not a big deal at all. If it is squamous cell it is a bit more serious but still likely not
a major problem.

Regardless, good luck with the surgery and have a quick recovery!
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Sen. James Inhofe, R-Okla., said Democrats who showed up were not convincing anyone with their stunt.

"They'll have an audience of themselves, so I hope they enjoy it," Inhofe said about an hour into the marathon, planned to last for nearly 15 hours. Inhofe's speech marked the only time Republicans engaged in the debate. Two other GOP senators, Alabama's Jeff Sessions and Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell of Kentucky, took to the Senate floor earlier Monday to denounce Democrats before the overnight session began.



James M. Inhofe
Credentials


BA, Economics, University of Tulsa, 1973.

Background

Senator Inhofe is the senior Senator from Oklahoma and a member of the Republican Party. He is former chairman (2003 to 2007) and currently a ranking minority member of the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works.

Stance on Climate Change

"I have offered compelling evidence that catastrophic global warming is a hoax. That conclusion is supported by the painstaking work of the nation's top climate scientists."

The scientists that Inhofe mentioned include: Fred Singer, Richard Lindzen, David Wojick, Roy Spencer, John Christy, Paul Reiter, David Legates, Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas, Frederick Sietz, as well as the signatories of both the Heidelberg Appeal and the Oregon Petition.

Inhofe has been described as "the first person to stand up and say this global warming is the greatest hoax that has been perpetrated."



Key Quotes

"The Kyoto Protocol has no environmental benefits; natural variability, not fossil fuel emissions, is the overwhelming factor influencing climate change; satellite data, confirmed by NOAA balloon measurements, confirms that no meaningful warming has occurred over the last century; and climate models predicting dramatic temperature increases over the next 100 years are flawed and highly imperfect."

"Thus far no one has seriously demonstrated any scientific proof that increased global temperatures would lead to the catastrophes predicted by alarmists. In fact, it appears that just the opposite is true: that increases in global temperatures may have a beneficial effect on how we live our lives."

On the subject of environmental groups: "To me it seems that it is more important to the leadership of these groups to turn their once laudable movement into a political machine by sending out their partisan snake-oil salesmen and misleading the American public regarding their purely politically partisan agenda under the guise of environmental protection.

"With all of the hysteria, all of the fear, all of the phony science, could it be that man-made global warming is the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people? It sure sounds like it."
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220. VR46L
Quoting 180. LargoFl:
im sorry if i pissed some folks off today..just found out i have the big C on my outer ear and in 2 weeks i go for surgery..depression certainly hits hard huh...


Stuff like that does effect your blogging . You can try and keep the real world out of your blogging but that kind of stuff really effects you no matter how you try and not let it .

Best of luck to you , The big C is something I would not wish on my worst enemy .

Get well soon !
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Quoting 216. GeorgiaStormz:


yes you can, but will you?
We will find out soon enough.


AS MANY STORMS AS WE HAVE HAD THIS WINTER...TOMORROW MORNINGS
COMMUTE FOR METRO DETROIT MAY BE AS BAD AS ANY OF THE STORMS THIS
YEAR. WHILE THE AMOUNTS WILL NOT BE AS HIGH AS JANUARY 4-5...THE
IMPACTS WITH THE INTENSITY OF SNOWFALL...VISIBILITIES 1/4 TO 1/2
MILE...WIND AND TIMING ON A WEEKDAY RUSH HOUR WILL BE MORE
SIGNIFICANT.

IT APPEARS THE STRONGEST OF THE WINDS ARE AT THE
BACK HALF OF THE SNOW. CERTAINLY WILL CREATE SOME BLOWING SNOW AND
NEAR BLIZZARD CONDITIONS FOR THE AREAS ALONG AND SOUTH OF M-46.
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Quoting 196. yoboi:



I was up all night watching the senate/climate slumber party.......They had some real knee slappers...they had one guy saying that warming causes cold winters then in the same breath started complaining about a propane shortage.....
LOL
Quoting 180. LargoFl:
im sorry if i pissed some folks off today..just found out i have the big C on my outer ear and in 2 weeks i go for surgery..depression certainly hits hard huh...
Hang tough. :)
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Here is my forecast :-(. My specific location is right in the heart of the action. To be honest, it has been very quiet for the last three weeks as storms have been skirting to the south. Only a few piddling inches of snow in all that time.

Oh, and it is 51 degrees right now, the warmest day since October. Ironic...


URGENT - WINTER WEATHER MESSAGE
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE BUFFALO NY
201 PM EDT TUE MAR 11 2014

NYZ003>005-013-014-120215-
/O.CON.KBUF.WS.W.0006.140312T0900Z-140313T0900Z/
MONROE-WAYNE-NORTHERN CAYUGA-LIVINGSTON-ONTARIO-
INCLUDING THE CITIES OF...ROCHESTER...NEWARK...FAIR HAVEN...
GENESEO...CANANDAIGUA
201 PM EDT TUE MAR 11 2014

...WINTER STORM WARNING REMAINS IN EFFECT FROM 5 AM WEDNESDAY TO
5 AM EDT THURSDAY...

* LOCATIONS...GENESEE VALLEY AND WESTERN FINGER LAKES.

* TIMING...LATE TONIGHT THROUGH LATE WEDNESDAY NIGHT.

* HAZARDS...HEAVY SNOW AND BLOWING SNOW.

* ACCUMULATIONS...8 TO 12 INCHES WEDNESDAY...AND 4 TO 8 INCHES
WEDNESDAY NIGHT...LEADING TO STORM TOTALS OF 12 TO 20 INCHES.

* WINDS...NORTH 20 TO 30 MPH...WITH GUSTS TO 45 MPH ALONG THE LAKE
ONTARIO SHORELINE.

* VISIBILITIES...BELOW A QUARTER MILE AT TIMES.

* IMPACTS...LIGHT SNOW OR MIXED PRECIPITATION ON WEDNESDAY MORNING
WILL INTENSIFY RAPIDLY BY LATE IN THE MORNING. THE COMBINATION
OF HEAVY SNOW AND BLOWING SNOW WILL MAKE TRAVEL NEARLY
IMPOSSIBLE WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON AND EVENING...ESPECIALLY NEAR THE
LAKE ONTARIO SHORELINE WHERE WINDS WILL BE THE STRONGEST. VISIBILITY WILL
BE DRAMATICALLY REDUCED WITH DEEP SNOW COVER ON ROADWAYS DURING
THE PEAK OF THE STORM.
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Quoting 213. wxchaser97:

We'll get very close with this storm, but probably won't break the record. I think we can do it and we still can get accumulating snow in April.


yes you can, but will you?
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No one ever comments on those articles.
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My friend's professor got freaked out and overreacted and is keeping all the students in the class and locking the door...what a fail.


here comes the rain...btw, did hh27 say anything about OU?

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Quoting 211. GeorgiaStormz:


Record?
This is one of your last chances.

We'll get very close with this storm, but probably won't break the record. I think we can do it and we still can get accumulating snow in April.
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212. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Tropical Cyclone Warning Center Darwin
Tropical Cyclone Advice #30
TROPICAL LOW, FORMER TC GILLIAN (14U)
4:54 AM CST March 12 2014
=============================================

At 3:30 AM CST, Tropical Low, Former Gillian (1005 hPa) located at 14.5S 141.8E or 50 km north northeast of Pormpuraaw and 75 km south southeast of Cape Keerweer has 10 minute sustained winds of 20 knots with gusts of 45 knots. The tropical low is reported as moving south at 3 knots.

Dvorak Intensity: T1.5/1.5/W0.5/24 HRS

Ex-TROPICAL CYCLONE GILLIAN is located over land near the Cape York Peninsula west coast. It is expected turn and take a more west southwest track across the Gulf of Carpentaria during today.

GALES are not expected during the next 24 hours but may develop during Thursday if the low redevelops into a tropical cyclone. The system is expected to take a more northerly track later Thursday before weakening on Friday.

Forecast and Intensity
========================
12 HRS 14.8S 141.0E - 25 knots (Tropical Low)
24 HRS 14.8S 140.0E - 25 knots (Tropical Low)
48 HRS 14.6S 139.6E - 40 knots (CAT 1)
72 HRS 13.0S 139.0E - 25 knots (Tropical Low)

Additional Information
=======================

The low level center lies over land close to the west coast of Cape York Peninsula using recent surface observations and animated near infrared satellite imagery, however confidence in this position remains low. A weak curved band could be identified to the west providing a 0.2-0.3 wrap and a DT of 1.5. A steady 24 hour trend gives a MET of 2.0, while the PT is adjusted down to 1.5. Final T based on PT.

In the short term, Ex-Tropical cyclone Gillian has been moving slowly to the south in a balanced steering regime. The system is expected to adopt a west southwest track during Wednesday due to a strengthening mid-level ridge to the south of the system.

Ex-Tropical Cyclone Gillian is currently in an area of moderate northeast vertical wind shear [20-25 knots], just north of the upper level ridge. During Wednesday the upper level ridge is forecast to move northwards and as such, vertical wind shear should reduce and will allow the system to become more vertical. At the same time the system will be moving over warm water.

Forecast intensity is based on a slow development rate for the next 12 hours then a more standard development rate for the following 24 hours, with reformation into a tropical cyclone possible on Thursday. A mid level trough sweeping across southeast Australia may also assist in poleward outflow during this time.

Later on Thursday a mid level trough is forecast to amplify over southeast Australia, steering the system north and directing dry air towards the system along its western flank. This is also expected to shear the mid level circulation away from the low level center. This deteriorating environment is expected to cause the system to weaken below cyclone intensity on Friday as it moves northwest through the Gulf of Carpentaria.

Ex-Tropical Cyclone Gillian is quite a small sized system, which in the right environment could make it more susceptible to rapid intensity fluctuations.

Tropical Cyclone Watches/Warnings
===================================

A Cyclone WATCH continues for a developing tropical low for coastal areas from Groote Eylandt to Burketown, including Alyangula, Borroloola and Mornington Island
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Quoting 210. wxchaser97:
Should be a respectable storm with heavy snow and gusty winds. School impacts are likely, might be my 8th snow day of the year.

...WINTER STORM WARNING IN EFFECT FROM 2 AM TO 3 PM EDT
WEDNESDAY...

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN DETROIT/PONTIAC HAS ISSUED A
WINTER STORM WARNING FOR HEAVY SNOW...WHICH IS IN EFFECT FROM 2
AM TO 3 PM EDT WEDNESDAY. THE WINTER STORM WATCH IS NO LONGER IN
EFFECT.

HAZARDOUS WEATHER...

* SCATTERED AREAS OF RAIN WILL TRANSITION TO ALL SNOW BETWEEN
MIDNIGHT AND 2 AM. THE SNOW WILL BECOME HEAVY TOWARD DAYBREAK
WEDNESDAY MORNING BEFORE TAPERING OFF IN THE EARLY AFTERNOON.

* VISIBILITIES WILL BE REDUCE TO A HALF MILE OR LESS FROM FALLING
AND BLOWING SNOW DURING THE MORNING RUSH HOUR AT THE PEAK OF
THE EVENT.

* TOTAL SNOW ACCUMULATIONS WILL BE 6 TO 9 INCHES.

* WINDS WILL TURN TO THE NORTH AND NORTHEAST TONIGHT AND INCREASE
DURING THE DAY WEDNESDAY. NORTHEASTERLY WIND GUSTS OVER 30 MPH
ARE POSSIBLE WEDNESDAY...WHICH WILL CAUSE SOME BLOWING AND
DRIFTING OF THE SNOW.

* TEMPERATURES WILL FALL INTO THE TEENS BY LATE WEDNESDAY
AFTERNOON... WHILE WIND CHILL READINGS DROP TO AROUND ZERO.

IMPACTS...

* ROADS WILL BECOME SNOW COVERED AND VERY HAZARDOUS.

* VISIBILITIES WILL BECOME POOR DUE TO BOTH FALLING AND BLOWING
SNOW.


Record?
This is one of your last chances.
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Should be a respectable storm with heavy snow and gusty winds. School impacts are likely, might be my 8th snow day of the year.

...WINTER STORM WARNING IN EFFECT FROM 2 AM TO 3 PM EDT
WEDNESDAY...

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN DETROIT/PONTIAC HAS ISSUED A
WINTER STORM WARNING FOR HEAVY SNOW...WHICH IS IN EFFECT FROM 2
AM TO 3 PM EDT WEDNESDAY. THE WINTER STORM WATCH IS NO LONGER IN
EFFECT.

HAZARDOUS WEATHER...

* SCATTERED AREAS OF RAIN WILL TRANSITION TO ALL SNOW BETWEEN
MIDNIGHT AND 2 AM. THE SNOW WILL BECOME HEAVY TOWARD DAYBREAK
WEDNESDAY MORNING BEFORE TAPERING OFF IN THE EARLY AFTERNOON.

* VISIBILITIES WILL BE REDUCE TO A HALF MILE OR LESS FROM FALLING
AND BLOWING SNOW DURING THE MORNING RUSH HOUR AT THE PEAK OF
THE EVENT.

* TOTAL SNOW ACCUMULATIONS WILL BE 6 TO 9 INCHES.

* WINDS WILL TURN TO THE NORTH AND NORTHEAST TONIGHT AND INCREASE
DURING THE DAY WEDNESDAY. NORTHEASTERLY WIND GUSTS OVER 30 MPH
ARE POSSIBLE WEDNESDAY...WHICH WILL CAUSE SOME BLOWING AND
DRIFTING OF THE SNOW.

* TEMPERATURES WILL FALL INTO THE TEENS BY LATE WEDNESDAY
AFTERNOON... WHILE WIND CHILL READINGS DROP TO AROUND ZERO.

IMPACTS...

* ROADS WILL BECOME SNOW COVERED AND VERY HAZARDOUS.

* VISIBILITIES WILL BECOME POOR DUE TO BOTH FALLING AND BLOWING
SNOW.
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Democrats Clock All-Nighter With Talk Of Climate Crisis

AP | by DONNA CASSATA and MATTHEW DALY

WASHINGTON (AP) — Democratic senators clocked an all-nighter, working in shifts into Tuesday morning to warn of the devastation from climate change and the danger of inaction.

Addressing a nearly empty chamber and visitor gallery, more than two dozen speakers agreed with each other about the need to act on climate change. Naysayers — Republicans — largely stayed away, arguing hours earlier that regulation would cost Americans jobs in a sluggish economy.

"We can translate climate destruction into a positive," insisted Sen. Richard Blumenthal, D-Conn., who spoke about fuel cells built in Danbury and other Connecticut cities. He called climate change "implacable, relentless and only we can stop it."

Hawaii's Brian Schatz said, "Climate change is real, it is caused by humans, and it is solvable."

In Schatz's view, the debate, such as it was, showed that a growing number of senators are committed to working together on climate change, even if no Republicans were among them. "This is where intractable, longstanding issues get solved," he said of the Senate.

Rhode Island Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse thanked the many Senate employees who remained on duty throughout the night — doorkeepers, U.S. Capitol police, clerks and young pages. He alluded to the light at the top of the Capitol Dome that remains on when either the House or Senate is in session.

"I hope that wasn't the only light shed last night," Whitehouse said, hoping that the debate proved illuminating.

Sens. Jack Reed of Rhode Island, Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts and Ben Cardin of Maryland offered stories of the impact of rising sea levels on their home state locales and constituents.

"We are on the cusp of a climate crisis," Warren said, that threatens "our health, economy and our world."

Despite that bravado, Democratic leaders made it clear they have no plans to bring a climate bill to the Senate floor this year. Indeed, the issue is so politically charged that a host of Democrats who face tough re-election fights in the fall opted to skip the session. Sens. Mary Landrieu of Louisiana, Mark Pryor of Arkansas, Mark Begich of Alaska and Kay Hagan of North Carolina were among Democrats who stayed away.

Sen. James Inhofe, R-Okla., said Democrats who showed up were not convincing anyone with their stunt.

"They'll have an audience of themselves, so I hope they enjoy it," Inhofe said about an hour into the marathon, planned to last for nearly 15 hours. Inhofe's speech marked the only time Republicans engaged in the debate. Two other GOP senators, Alabama's Jeff Sessions and Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell of Kentucky, took to the Senate floor earlier Monday to denounce Democrats before the overnight session began.

McConnell suggested the Democratic motivation was campaign money — Tom Steyer's money.

"It's cruel to tell struggling coal families that they can't have a job because some billionaire from San Francisco disagrees with their line of work," McConnell said. He was referring to Steyer, a former hedge-fund manager and environmentalist who says he will spend $100 million — $50 million of his own money and $50 million from other donors — to make climate change a top-tier issue in the 2014 elections.

Leading off, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D-Nev., called climate change "a question of our own survival" and said the United States and other countries have a responsibility to act "before it is too late."

House Democrats pushed through a bill to limit greenhouse gas emissions blamed for global warming in 2009, then lost their majority the following election. A climate bill led by then-Massachusetts Sen. John Kerry collapsed in 2010 without a vote in the Democratic-controlled Senate.

Sen. Barbara Boxer, D-Calif., said the climate debate, which had its own Twitter hashtag, #Up4Climate, had drawn interest from around the nation and the world. Democrats received two separate petitions urging them to act, with a total of about 100,000 signatures, Boxer said.

"The American people are listening," Boxer said. "They care." She added that the event should "wake up Congress to the dangers of climate change."

Boxer and Whitehouse lead the recently launched Senate Climate Action Task Force, which organized the session.

Whitehouse said the session was needed to highlight obstacles to climate legislation, including ads financed by Charles and David Koch, conservative activists who have spent $15 million on Senate races, mostly criticizing Democrats over Obamacare. The Koch brothers, whose interests include oil, chemicals, textiles and paper, have also spent millions on ads critical of action against climate change.

Whitehouse conceded that lawmakers do not have the 60 votes needed to act on the matter, even in the Democratic-controlled Senate, but said the speeches could help change the dynamic.

"Tonight is not about a specific legislative proposal," he said. "It's about showing the environmental community, young people and anyone paying attention to climate change that the Senate is starting to stir and we want to get some actions going."

The episode followed overnight speeches last year by Republicans Sens. Rand Paul of Kentucky and Ted Cruz of Texas. Paul criticized U.S. drone policy, while Cruz pushed to take money away from the new health care law.

____

Follow Matthew Daly on Twitter: https://twitter.com/MatthewDalyWDC
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Nice line of storms showing up in Gulf on Tampa's long range radar.

Member Since: February 28, 2013 Posts: 4 Comments: 2644
Just got online again after being offline for the whole morning after I commented (stupid work!!). Just wanted to say thanks to Rick Derr and Dr. Jeff Masters. Glad to see the community responding to this by donating too!
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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