Category 2 Francisco Brushing Guam, and is a Long-Range Threat to Japan

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:48 PM GMT on October 17, 2013

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Category 2 Typhoon Francisco is steadily intensifying over the warm waters of the Western Pacific about 160 miles southwest of Guam. The typhoon is expected to make its closest approach to Guam on Friday morning (local time), bringing sustained winds of 35 - 45 mph and heavy rain, as the storm heads north-northeast at 9 mph. Long range radar out of Guam and satellite loops show that Francisco is well-organized with an impressive area of heavy thunderstorms and a prominent eye. With warm waters that extend to great depth and low wind shear, continued strengthening is likely, and Francisco is forecast to become a major Category 4 typhoon by Saturday as it turns northwest towards Japan. Both the GFS and European models predict that Francisco will hit Japan on Wednesday or Thursday next week, though there is very high uncertainty in the storm's track that far into the future. Francisco's formation gives the Western Pacific 27 named storms so far in 2013, which is the average number of named storms for an entire year. The last time there were more than 27 tropical storms or typhoons in the Western Pacific was in 2004, when there were 32.


Figure 1. View of Typhoon Francisco from the long range radar out of Guam.


Figure 2. MODIS satellite image of Typhoon Francisco, taken at approximately 03 UTC on October 16, 2013. At the time, Francisco had top winds of about 85 mph. Image credit: NASA.

18 dead, 40+ missing in Japan after Typhoon Wipha
Typhoon Wipha roared past Japan on Tuesday as a Category 1 typhoon, bringing destructive winds and high rains that triggered flooding being blamed for at least 18 deaths. Most of the deaths occurred on Izu Oshima island, about 75 miles south of Tokyo. An astonishing 33.44" (824 mm) fell in just 23 hours on the island, triggering flash floods and mudslides that killed 17 people and left at least 40 missing. During one incredibly wet 6-hour period, 549.5 mm fell, setting a new 6-hour precipitation record for Japan. The previous record was 502.0 mm at Tarama, Okinawa, on April 28, 1988. According to weather records researcher Maximiliano Herrera, the 24-hour total at Oshima Island was the third highest 24-hour rainfall for Japan on record; the record is 851.5 mm at Yanase (Kochi Prefecture) on 19 July 2011, and 2nd place is the 844 mm that fell at Takeshi (Nara) on 1 August 1982. Wipha is the fourth named storm to hit Japan so far in 2013, and the deadliest typhoon to hit Japan since Typhoon Tokage of October 2004. An average of 2.8 tropical storms or typhoons per year hit Japan during the period 1951 - 2003. Japan's record busiest year was 2004, when ten named storms hit, six of them at Category 1 or higher strength. Jeffrey Hayes has put together a nice summary of Japan's typhoon history.

The Atlantic is quiet
None of the reliable computer models for forecasting tropical cyclone genesis is predicting development over the next five days. NHC is giving 10% odds that an area of disturbed weather (Invest 99L) about 200 miles north-northeast of Bermuda headed northeast out to sea, will develop. During the last few days of October and the first week of November, the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO), a pattern of increased thunderstorm activity near the Equator that moves around the globe in 30 - 60 days, is predicted to transition into a phase that will bring an increase in upward-moving air over the Atlantic, boosting the odds of tropical storm formation. The most likely area for formation will be in the Western Caribbean or Gulf of Mexico.

Jeff Masters

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nash36 I hope you're right about crisp weather heading our way
Member Since: June 29, 2013 Posts: 29 Comments: 2086
Record Heat in Alaska to record cold across the US. Amazing! This is what we saw in December 2010 when we had many killer freezes here in FL. .
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Quoting 312. ncstorm:
Chief Meteorologist Jerry Jackson-for those in eastern NC
49 minutes ago
Are you ready for a big change next week? A series of cold fronts will begin to gradually alter our weather pattern over the next 7 days. By next Thursday and Friday (Oct 24/25), high temperatures will range from the upper 50's to mid 60's across eastern North Carolina, with overnight lows dropping into the 30's in some locations! Incidentally, the average daytime high temperature for December 1 (in Wilmington) is 63 degrees.


Could even get more interesting at the end of the month if we can get a tropical system going in the NW Caribbean and head north only to join forces with the Polar Vortex across the Great lakes.
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180 hours

Member Since: August 19, 2006 Posts: 13 Comments: 15317
First frost & freezes on the way for much of the eastern half of the US.

Link
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Chief Meteorologist Jerry Jackson-for those in eastern NC
49 minutes ago
Are you ready for a big change next week? A series of cold fronts will begin to gradually alter our weather pattern over the next 7 days. By next Thursday and Friday (Oct 24/25), high temperatures will range from the upper 50's to mid 60's across eastern North Carolina, with overnight lows dropping into the 30's in some locations! Incidentally, the average daytime high temperature for December 1 (in Wilmington) is 63 degrees.
Member Since: August 19, 2006 Posts: 13 Comments: 15317
Quoting 309. nash36:


We're slated for a pretty decent cool shot this time next week. Low's in the mid-40's. I'll take it! But the weather here has been nothing short of mind-numbingly boring over the past few years. Even our "severe wx season" has been pretty lame. I am a little biased though, since I am from the Dallas area and have seen first hand what severe wx really looks like. It's a strange phenomenon....Once a healthy line of storms reaches I-95....POOF. They disappear like a fart in the wind.


We had a good rainy summer. Every month from April to September was wetter than normal. On September 17 our station set a record for the heaviest hourly rainfall on record, 4.21"
Member Since: June 29, 2013 Posts: 29 Comments: 2086
Quoting 279. PlazaRed:
I don't really like to pulse Aussie's comment at 273 but without him most of us in our secluded inner regions of the world would not have a clue that these kinds of things are raging on.
What a hell of a mess that chain of fires are.
Feelings and thoughts go out from us to all who are besieged or trapped by these fire events.
We used to have them in the Everglades and they were dangerous as Heck, but then the Park Rangers figured out what we had been telling them all along, that they need to have controlled burns, and allow people to burn their own property during the wet season. The city people who moved into those planned neighborhoods are clueless as to what is going on, and will most likely vote for more firefighters, or more homes to stamp out those dangerous forests, both of which happened in S, Florida.
Member Since: August 25, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 522
Quoting 307. DonnieBwkGA:


It isn't that great in Brunswick either. It has cooled down but still sticky at night. I want some crisp nights in the low 50s or even 40s.


We're slated for a pretty decent cool shot this time next week. Low's in the mid-40's. I'll take it! But the weather here has been nothing short of mind-numbingly boring over the past few years. Even our "severe wx season" has been pretty lame. I am a little biased though, since I am from the Dallas area and have seen first hand what severe wx really looks like. It's a strange phenomenon....Once a healthy line of storms reaches I-95....POOF. They disappear like a fart in the wind.
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150 hours

Member Since: August 19, 2006 Posts: 13 Comments: 15317
Quoting 305. nash36:
It would be really nice (and a longshot, I know) if we get some snow here in Charleston this winter. We last had measurable snow back in 2009 I believe. It would be a very nice change of pace as it pertains to the boring weather we seem to be mired in here.


It isn't that great in Brunswick either. It has cooled down but still sticky at night. I want some crisp nights in the low 50s or even 40s.
Member Since: June 29, 2013 Posts: 29 Comments: 2086
Quoting 292. FunnelVortex:


I can't tell what is on fire more.

Australia or California.


Australia. Despite an intense drought, we've got almost nothing going on right now in terms of fires.
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It would be really nice (and a longshot, I know) if we get some snow here in Charleston this winter. We last had measurable snow back in 2009 I believe. It would be a very nice change of pace as it pertains to the boring weather we seem to be mired in here.
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Quoting 277. VR46L:


Thats the problem with the plus system ... It makes some look better than they are , I am not even sure if some folk make second handles just to plus , or back up an argument sort of to add gravitas ... I do use it as when in Rome do as the romans do but I hate the system and see it as a form of bullying and a method to isolate
I know exactly how you feel.
Member Since: March 29, 2013 Posts: 0 Comments: 320
Quoting 293. hydrus:
Alaska will have above average temps.

Now then Hydrus!
What about the rest of the chart/map thing for the north of America concerning this cold/hot thing which is predicted to cause all sorts of record problems, or at lest a bit of mild discussion.
I'm sure somebody can fill in the white spaces so as we can all see what most of you over there are in for.
Keeper would be able to post it but he's probably preparing for the nearest thing to doom this year so far!
Member Since: January 21, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 2079
Quoting 290. Neapolitan:
Don't know that that happens, but I have it on great authority that some handles were created with the sole intent of voting down comments by certain members literally tens of thousands of times. Pretty pathetic, as I'm sure you'd agree...

I happened across an obscure section of the WU blogs once and saw one handle upvoted on multiple posts, each about nothing pretty much, by a set of about 15 different handles. Seems silly since the public visitors see all the posts anyway. Anyone may WU mail me if you want to know what handle benefited from the obviously fake adulation, but I may not answer.
Member Since: May 18, 2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 6037
301. Pallis
10:56 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 277. VR46L:


Thats the problem with the plus system ... It makes some look better than they are , I am not even sure if some folk make second handles just to plus , or back up an argument sort of to add gravitas ... I do use it as when in Rome do as the romans do but I hate the system and see it as a form of bullying and a method to isolate
I never noticed it. A couple goes to an art gallery. They find a picture of a naked women with only her privates covered with leaves. The wife doesn't like it and moves on but the huband keeps looking. The wife asks: "What are you waiting for?" The husband replies: "Autumn."


Member Since: August 25, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 522
300. ncstorm
10:55 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
18z Snow map for the GFS..currently running..

138 hours
Member Since: August 19, 2006 Posts: 13 Comments: 15317
299. DonnieBwkGA
10:55 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Pallis you say that winter freezes in South Florida kill almonds to the roots? This nursery site rates almonds as hardy in zones 5-8, which means they grow in parts of Maine, Minnesota and Montana.

Click on map in page.
Member Since: June 29, 2013 Posts: 29 Comments: 2086
298. luvtogolf
10:55 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 272. DonnieBwkGA:
I think it's funny that I got plusses for showing that Washington DC had a warmer than average summer. But when ncstorm said NC was cooler than normal and I showed he was right (at least about Raleigh, NC) also I got nothing. LOL. Partisanship!


Yeah I think AGW is real and proven. But partisanship is still funny.


There is no partisanship on this blog. All you have to do is mention cold weather without any reference to GW and the deniers jump right on and reference some record heat in - insert city here.
Member Since: June 12, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 992
297. canyonboy
10:54 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 254. stormgirI:
the global warming fanatics use that and the cpc every day on here to make their case. they comb their database like a criminal investigator gathers evidence like on CSI. so funny,,


I think it is so funny that NOAA, presumably the best there is, can't predict the Atlantic hurricane season accurately but is predicting the weather decades in advance.

Interesting fact: humans are very good at seeing patterns, even in random events.
Member Since: December 19, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 29
296. Neapolitan
10:53 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 243. Jedkins01:


Well if spring was really cold, is making note of September record highs outnumbering record lows 5 to 1 any more significant?

I would say no. In fact neither the cold in spring or the warmth in September is a great enough time scale to say anything about a short term climate trend.

I'm not saying its not interesting to observe, but I don't think it matters until the yearly climate averages are scaled, and frankly I don't think record highs and lows are good for looking at climate trends since they compose a very small fraction of temperature data to compute a climate.

That doesn't mean they aren't important, but I'm sure you see my point.

Not sure I follow your point. I was merely pointing out in so many words that temperature records set during a much warmer than normal September had evened out the temperature records set during a much cooler than normal spring, and now 2013 is pretty much even. I mentioned not a word about climate, or trends, or anything of that sort...
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13538
295. VR46L
10:51 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 290. Neapolitan:
Don't know that that happens, but I have it on great authority that some handles were created with the sole intent of voting down comments by certain members literally tens of thousands of times. Pretty pathetic, as I'm sure you'd agree...


Really I never heard that ....
Member Since: March 1, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 6901
294. ncstorm
10:50 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 290. Neapolitan:
Don't know that that happens, but I have it on great authority that some handles were created with the sole intent of voting down comments by certain members literally tens of thousands of times. Pretty pathetic, as I'm sure you'd agree...


I honestly think handles were created to spark a debate or grow the "numbers" for a particular issue or gain sympathy for a blogger that is constantly attacked..pretty pathetic as well..
Member Since: August 19, 2006 Posts: 13 Comments: 15317
293. hydrus
10:50 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 278. bappit:

What's it do with Alaska?
Alaska will have above average temps.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21264
292. FunnelVortex
10:50 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 273. AussieStorm:
Good morning all.



This is what we are waking up to here in Sydney after yesterdays firestorm up in the Blue Mountains. At the moment there are no reports of any deaths but that could change once police go from house to house to check. Here in Sydney its a very smoky, hazy day. There is over 100 bushfires burning with at least 30 burning out of control.


I can't tell what is on fire more.

Australia or California.
Member Since: October 20, 2012 Posts: 7 Comments: 2873
291. Andrebrooks
10:49 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
My Winter Weather Blog is always open.GUESS WHAT WINTER WEATHER FORECAST 2013 -2014 IS HERE.PUT YOUR FORECAST FOR EACH REGION OF THE US.
Link
Member Since: March 25, 2013 Posts: 29 Comments: 991
290. Neapolitan
10:48 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 277. VR46L:


Thats the problem with the plus system ... It makes some look better than they are , I am not even sure if some folk make second handles just to plus , or back up an argument sort of to add gravitas ...
Don't know that that happens, but I have it on great authority that some handles were created with the sole intent of voting down comments by certain members literally tens of thousands of times. Pretty pathetic, as I'm sure you'd agree...
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13538
289. ncstorm
10:47 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 284. grandmariner:

I haven't been on in a long time and just noticed the plus minus system and how you can see if someone plussed you. Could you also see minuses. I can't find it....


No, one cant see if he/she has been minus or not..would hurt many a ego here if they saw the minuses they receive in addition to the plusses..
Member Since: August 19, 2006 Posts: 13 Comments: 15317
288. VR46L
10:47 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 282. grandmariner:
You know you're right!! She was in here in July predicting the rest of the season like she had a crystal ball in front of her. Keen sixth sense maybe. LOL. But she wasn't all that off. Nothing ever really materialized....not yet at least. *Knocking on wood!!*


Nope she wasn't.....

Plus system you can see who pluses you but not who minuses you
Member Since: March 1, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 6901
287. Pallis
10:47 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 262. GiovanniDatoli:

Tell me about it. I think people misread the colors on the map as how much colder or warmer it will be when that isn't true at all. Instead, it's the probability it will be cooler or warmer than historic averages. So the deep shade of purple indicates an 80% it will be cooler for some areas of the Midwest, but that doesn't necessarily mean record cold at all. It could be indicating a very strong likelyhood that maybe it's only 5 degrees below normal for that timeframe.
In South Florida we base the entire winter on the few really cold fronts that make it through, mostly because it kills strawberries, and citrus, but also because it kills fish. The only upside is that it kills some weeds and insects, but those are hardy and will be back.I noticed that the almond tree dies, but not the root part, so it grew 25 ft. in one year. Amazing. Semitropical is a lifestyle dependent on the weather.
Member Since: August 25, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 522
286. Tornado6042008X
10:47 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 283. MAweatherboy1:

I'm in the same position you are. Definitely apply to Penn State. I don't know that I'll be going there but the program has a great reputation. As a New England resident I'm looking at Plymouth State University, Lyndon State, and UMass Lowell. They all have good programs and are pretty close to home for me. Not sure where you're from but if you're in the Northeast also those are good places to look.
Thank you. I am fairly close by in Northern Virginia so I will definitely look into those universities. And Penn State is one of the schools that I am already applying to:)
Member Since: March 29, 2013 Posts: 0 Comments: 320
285. DonnieBwkGA
10:46 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
This is the report showing that the 1947 Georgia hurricane was stronger than previously shown. It was suspected that this was true for a while. The 974 mb pressure was at Savannah airport about 20 miles north of the track and there was no lull in the wind.

The report is a reanalysis of the 1944-1953 hurricane seasons. It is 866 pages long. Pages 337-349 show the hurricane I am talking about. Going by the page numbers on the pages themselves it is 322-334.

Pressure was lowered from 974 mb to 966 mb at landfall
Wind increased from 75 kts to 90 kts at landfall
Member Since: June 29, 2013 Posts: 29 Comments: 2086
283. MAweatherboy1
10:43 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 276. Tornado6042008X:
Good morning! Good afternoon! Good evening where ever you are! 

I am in the process of applying to colleges/universities with good meteorology programs. I was lurking last night and someone said Oklahoma University has a good severe weather meteorology program, Penn State has a good winter weather meteorology program, and Florida has a good tropical weather meteorology program. As a soon to graduate high school student right now, I want to know whether there are, along with those universities, other universities with good meteorology programs that you weather people know about that would be good for me to apply to? 

I apologize for being off topic. 

I'm in the same position you are. Definitely apply to Penn State. I don't know that I'll be going there but the program has a great reputation. As a New England resident I'm looking at Plymouth State University, Lyndon State, and UMass Lowell. They all have good programs and are pretty close to home for me. Not sure where you're from but if you're in the Northeast also those are good places to look.
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 83 Comments: 7788
281. bappit
10:38 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 247. PlazaRed:
I note there is an object code named 99L off the East coast of the USA!
Has this been declared harmless and as such ignored as nobody is raving about it!

Somebody mentioned it back around post 103. Edit: 102. Just can't trust my memory.
Member Since: May 18, 2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 6037
280. ncstorm
10:37 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 272. DonnieBwkGA:
I think it's funny that I got plusses for showing that Washington DC had a warmer than average summer. But when ncstorm said NC was cooler than normal and I showed he was right (at least about Raleigh, NC) also I got nothing. LOL. Partisanship!


Yeah I think AGW is real and proven. But partisanship is still funny.


its okay Donnie..the minuses I get balances it all out as do the temps for the summer for the US...LOL..
Member Since: August 19, 2006 Posts: 13 Comments: 15317
279. PlazaRed
10:36 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
I don't really like to pulse Aussie's comment at 273 but without him most of us in our secluded inner regions of the world would not have a clue that these kinds of things are raging on.
What a hell of a mess that chain of fires are.
Feelings and thoughts go out from us to all who are besieged or trapped by these fire events.
Member Since: January 21, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 2079
278. bappit
10:33 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 200. hydrus:
Euro on board with the forecast cold snap.

What's it do with Alaska?
Member Since: May 18, 2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 6037
277. VR46L
10:32 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 272. DonnieBwkGA:
I think it's funny that I got plusses for showing that Washington DC had a warmer than average summer. But when ncstorm said NC was cooler than normal and I showed he was right also I got nothing. LOL. Partisanship!


Yeah I think AGW is real and proven. But partisanship is still funny.


Thats the problem with the plus system ... It makes some look better than they are , I am not even sure if some folk make second handles just to plus , or back up an argument sort of to add gravitas ... I do use it as when in Rome do as the romans do but I hate the system and see it as a form of bullying and a method to isolate
Member Since: March 1, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 6901
276. Tornado6042008X
10:32 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Good morning! Good afternoon! Good evening where ever you are! 

I am in the process of applying to colleges/universities with good meteorology programs. I was lurking last night and someone said Oklahoma University has a good severe weather meteorology program, Penn State has a good winter weather meteorology program, and Florida has a good tropical weather meteorology program. As a soon to graduate high school student right now, I want to know whether there are, along with those universities, other universities with good meteorology programs that you weather people know about that would be good for me to apply to? 

I apologize for being off topic. 
Member Since: March 29, 2013 Posts: 0 Comments: 320
275. PlazaRed
10:31 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 270. hurricanes2018:

wow!!

Not wanting to be the usual pain with questions but!
On the chart there is the lower USA and Alaska!
What happens in the rest of the north American continent? Like if we could see Canada then the picture would take on a much more deep and electrifying significance.
The imagination can only go so far with these things?
Member Since: January 21, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 2079
274. VR46L
10:27 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 264. GiovanniDatoli:

Ignore. She comes on and spouts silliness from time to time.


Aw , stormgirl is cool . She always thought this season would be quiet , Don't knock her completely !
Member Since: March 1, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 6901
273. AussieStorm
10:27 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Good morning all.



This is what we are waking up to here in Sydney after yesterdays firestorm up in the Blue Mountains. At the moment there are no reports of any deaths but that could change once police go from house to house to check. Here in Sydney its a very smoky, hazy day. There is over 100 bushfires burning with at least 30 burning out of control.
Member Since: September 30, 2007 Posts: 9 Comments: 15935
272. DonnieBwkGA
10:26 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
I think it's funny that I got plusses for showing that Washington DC had a warmer than average summer. But when ncstorm said NC was cooler than normal and I showed he was right (at least about Raleigh, NC) also I got nothing. LOL. Partisanship!


Yeah I think AGW is real and proven. But partisanship is still funny.
Member Since: June 29, 2013 Posts: 29 Comments: 2086
271. DonnieBwkGA
10:23 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 257. FunnelVortex:


And they were names like "Cat" and "Fox" right?


My favorite is Hurricane Love.

Hurricane How, Hurricane Item, Tropical Storm Jig and Hurricane Dog are up there though.

Member Since: June 29, 2013 Posts: 29 Comments: 2086
270. hurricanes2018
10:22 PM GMT on October 17, 2013

wow!!
Member Since: March 12, 2013 Posts: 18 Comments: 35673
269. bappit
10:22 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 217. MrMixon:
I don't know if "laminar flow" is the right word, but I always find it fascinating to see pockets of wet or dry air forming thin, contiguous bands, such as the thin band of dry air that stretches from the east Pacific all the way to the Colorado/New Mexico border.

(Click to animate)

Here is a great example of laminar flow.
Member Since: May 18, 2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 6037
268. PalmBeachWeather
10:17 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
PensacolaDoug....You have mail
Member Since: October 3, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 5864
267. ScottLincoln
10:15 PM GMT on October 17, 2013
Quoting 262. GiovanniDatoli:

Tell me about it. I think people misread the colors on the map as how much colder or warmer it will be when that isn't true at all. Instead, it's the probability it will be cooler or warmer than historic averages. So the deep shade of purple indicates an 80% it will be cooler for some areas of the Midwest, but that doesn't necessarily mean record cold at all. It could be indicating a very strong likelyhood that maybe it's only 5 degrees below normal for that timeframe.

Exactly. It's the percent chance of it being in that particular tercile (either below normal or above normal). The "leftover %" is the probability of the other two terciles. We went over this in March with some individuals, although then they were using a particularly cold snap, to claim that it would be one of the coldest Marches on record. Through arithmetic we were able to show just how cold the country would have to average for such a record, yet the claims continued. When all was said and done, we had a "near normal" March (middle tercile). In fact, March 2013 was barely below the 1900-2000 average for the CONUS.

So, learning from this, we should be cautious, and have substantial quantitative evidence, to begin making forecasts of "historic" or "among ___ on record." By definition, they are not common events.
Member Since: September 28, 2002 Posts: 5 Comments: 3193

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.