Quiet in the Atlantic

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:15 PM GMT on September 25, 2013

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In the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico, a stalled stationary front is bringing heavy thunderstorms to west-central Florida, where heavy rains of up to six inches have caused flooding problems. A weak area of low pressure along this front will move over the coastal waters several hundred miles offshore of North Carolina by Friday, when an extratropical storm is expected to develop. Ocean temperatures off the North Carolina coast are 26 - 27°C, which is warm enough to help give the storm some extra energy and moisture. However, wind shear will be high, and this storm is expected to stay non-tropical as it heads north-northeast, potentially bringing rainy weather to New England and the Canadian Maritime Provinces on Sunday and Monday. In their 8 am EDT Wednesday Tropical Weather Outlook, NHC gave no odds that anything tropical would spin up in the next five days. None of the reliable computer models for tropical cyclone genesis predicts development over the next five days, and the Atlantic is dominated by dry air and high wind shear. The next area to watch for development might be the Western Caribbean or the area between the Bahamas and Bermuda next week. However, chances of development will be below average for this time of year, due the fact we are in the suppressed phase of the MJO. This suppressed phase may end by mid-October, increasing the odds of development in about two weeks' time.


Figure 1. All quiet in the Atlantic: The Atlantic remains welcomely quiet at 8:15 am EDT on September 25, 2013, with an unusual lack of heavy thunderstorm activity for this time of year. Image credit: NOAA.

Join me in New York City on Thursday for Climate Week
I write a lot about billion-dollar weather disasters like Hurricane Sandy, the coming great climate disruption, and other "doom-and-gloom" topics. These are important to discuss, but too much talk of disaster can turn people off and make them feel hopeless. Social science research shows that including a positive message along with your science will make people more inclined to believe your science, and it is important to emphasize some of the remarkable solutions on how we can lessen and adapt to climate change that technology and entrepreneurship are coming up with. This Thursday afternoon, I am moderating a panel discussion in New York City on some innovative ways to combat climate change. It's part of Climate Week, which culminates Friday with the release of the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, which is released only once every six years. You can register to attend Thursday's free event here. The session begins at 2 pm with remarks by David Kenny, CEO of The Weather Company, followed by guest speaker Mayor Bloomberg. My "New Frontiers" panel is at 5:40 pm.



Jeff Masters

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NSWIA Weather ‏@nswia_weather 2m
There are currently more than 50 bush and grass fires across New South Wales, 23 remain uncontained. Three emergency warnings are in place.
Member Since: September 30, 2007 Posts: 9 Comments: 15979
Quoting 583. GTstormChaserCaleb:
Nah not really, you had 1887, 1933, and 1950. A season like these will come again eventually. Also, this season is like 1997 at least up to this point, did anyone think we would see a season like that again?
With an El niño or with a super El Niño of course but never in a neutral season,I really thought the tracks and the storms for 2013 will have been amazing but so far fail after fail.2008 and 2010 were the best and my favorite seasons to track,and even in those two season my country was hit directly by a tc something so rare to happen.
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Quoting yoboi:


can you please provide a link??? or links???

Look at Strabo here...or here...or most of his writings here. There were many other Greek geographers and sailors who knew the earth was spherical. I can provide more links, or you can use Google and not look quite as foolish next time.
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Quoting 598. yoboi:


can you please provide a link??? or links???


Start Here

The Catholic Church I believe today has a half-view on science. They won't shun you for it, but they will state that God is higher than science, and that in reality science is a product/effect of God. Or something like that, haven't read about it in a while.
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Quoting yoboi:



it might help if ya refresh your latin research to show ya are wrong....

it might help if ya refresh your ability to link to anything from those two articles that show Latin research has anything from those two articles that shows he's wrong. I spent 12 years in Catholic school, so my knowledge of Latin is pretty good. Either that or you think poor grammar and writing like a fourth grade dropout from the bayou is just cute. I don't.
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Kenny Heatley ‏@kennyheatleySKY 3m
Bass Strait and coastal Victoria seeing wind gusts over 160km/h(100mph), the equivalent of what you would see in Cat 2 cyclone @SkyWeatherAUS
Member Since: September 30, 2007 Posts: 9 Comments: 15979
598. yoboi
Quoting 593. Astrometeor:


Greece isn't Latin. The ancient Greeks were the first people to estimate the size of the Earth, and sailors knew that the Earth had to be round, that's why ships' masts slowly disappear on the horizon, not drop off quickly like the Flat-Earthers would think.

One major inhibitor to science was and still is, religion. The Catholic Church was very stern on science, and tried to keep the science in the ground for a long while. Even today there are some people who claim creationism actually happened and that science doesn't work because it's a "human creation" and is "against God's will".

Our theories are purely observation. They change as our understanding and knowledge on science changes. Science doesn't change. It's fact. Our understanding of it, can and does change. Currently the best bet is that AGW is real and is occurring and we as a human race need to start looking towards solutions to the monumental problem that is beginning to show itself.


can you please provide a link??? or links???
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Quoting 594. sar2401:

It's very easy. Put people who seem to think they have some special knowledge and yet write like they they just pulled up from a bayou after failing fourth grade on ignore. You don't have to read it, he doesn't get the attention, and your blood pressure stays under much better control. :-)






Hm. Looks like something would like to clock in in the BOC except this High over TX, again. But no dice:

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596. yoboi
Quoting 444. bappit:

Yoboi is spreading misinformation yet again. He is hoping people are ignorant of Eratosthenes who measured the circumference of the earth back around 240 BC. People thought Columbus was nuts because he based his plans on a gross underestimate of the earth's circumference and the people of the day knew he was wrong. Nevertheless, today we have the East Indies and West Indies because Columbus came back alive and proclaimed himself correct.


Misinformation???? I was just calling out the predictions this yr of record ice melt this yr in the artic....I said it would not be a record this yr 6 months ago...maybe it would be fair to direct that to the naples resident for the wrong prediction.....solar 25 explains it all to me....
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Quoting GTstormChaserCaleb:
Sorry about the rant guys. You all have a goodnight, heading off to bed a little earlier than usual because I have an exam in the morning.

Good night, Caleb...good luck on your exam as well!
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Quoting gulfbreeze:
YOU SHOULD BE BANNED JUST FOR POSTING ALL OF THIS BS!

It's very easy. Put people who seem to think they have some special knowledge and yet write like they they just pulled up from a bayou after failing fourth grade on ignore. You don't have to read it, he doesn't get the attention, and your blood pressure stays under much better control. :-)
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Quoting 589. yoboi:



it might help if ya refresh your latin research to show ya are wrong....


Greece isn't Latin. The ancient Greeks were the first people to estimate the size of the Earth, and sailors knew that the Earth had to be round, that's why ships' masts slowly disappear on the horizon, not drop off quickly like the Flat-Earthers would think.

One major inhibitor to science was and still is, religion. The Catholic Church was very stern on science, and tried to keep the science in the ground for a long while. Even today there are some people who claim creationism actually happened and that science doesn't work because it's a "human creation" and is "against God's will".

Our theories are purely observation. They change as our understanding and knowledge on science changes. Science doesn't change. It's fact. Our understanding of it, can and does change. Currently the best bet is that AGW is real and is occurring and we as a human race need to start looking towards solutions to the monumental problem that is beginning to show itself.
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Quoting GTstormChaserCaleb:
I'm so bad I use Wikipedia..."Findings to date indicate that the iron-rich dust particles which often occur within the SAL reflect solar radiation, thus cooling the atmosphere. The particles also reduce the amount of sunlight reaching the ocean, thus reducing the amount of heating of the ocean. They also tend to increase condensation as they drift into the marine layer below, but not precipitation as the drops formed are too small to fall and tend not to readily coelesce. These tiny drops are subsequently more easily evaporated as they move into drier air laterally or dry air mixes down from the SAL aloft. Research on aerosols also shows that the presence of small particles in air tends to suppress winds. The SAL has also been observed to suppress the development and intensifying of tropical cyclones, which may be related directly to these factors.[1]
The SAL is a subject of ongoing study and research."

El-Nino is overrated, this season just proved that and why pre season forecasts are all pretty much guess work. We need to stop trying to rely on if the season is going to be a El-Nino, Neutral, or La-Nina mentality and go with actual observation, real-time data, and look into other factors. SAL, ULL's, How the concentration of Arctic Ice is behaving, what the droughts are looking like in Texas, South America, if we had put that all into perspective before the season and not go based on data from the last 3 years one could have easily seen why this season wasn't going to be an active one. SST, Tropical Cyclone Heat Potential mean absolutely nothing if those other conditions aren't favorable.

Agreed. Hey Caleb! How have you been...How's the weather in your neck of the woods?
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Sorry about the rant guys. You all have a goodnight, heading off to bed a little earlier than usual because I have an exam in the morning.
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I'm so bad I use Wikipedia..."Findings to date indicate that the iron-rich dust particles which often occur within the SAL reflect solar radiation, thus cooling the atmosphere. The particles also reduce the amount of sunlight reaching the ocean, thus reducing the amount of heating of the ocean. They also tend to increase condensation as they drift into the marine layer below, but not precipitation as the drops formed are too small to fall and tend not to readily coelesce. These tiny drops are subsequently more easily evaporated as they move into drier air laterally or dry air mixes down from the SAL aloft. Research on aerosols also shows that the presence of small particles in air tends to suppress winds. The SAL has also been observed to suppress the development and intensifying of tropical cyclones, which may be related directly to these factors.[1]
The SAL is a subject of ongoing study and research."

El-Nino is overrated, this season just proved that and why pre season forecasts are all pretty much guess work. We need to stop trying to rely on if the season is going to be a El-Nino, Neutral, or La-Nina mentality and go with actual observation, real-time data, and look into other factors. SAL, ULL's, How the concentration of Arctic Ice is behaving, what the droughts are looking like in Texas, South America, if we had put that all into perspective before the season and not go based on data from the last 3 years one could have easily seen why this season wasn't going to be an active one. SST, Tropical Cyclone Heat Potential mean absolutely nothing if those other conditions aren't favorable.
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589. yoboi
Quoting 504. MrMixon:


Well, if you want to get technical...

Cambridge University historian and philosopher of science William Whewell coined the term "scientist" in 1834 (source). Since "the concept of a spherical Earth dates back to ancient Greek philosophy from around the 6th century BC," (source), I'm thinking the scientific establishment in 1834 was quite in agreement about the roundness of the earth.

So, since the spherical earth theory predates the very creation of the word "scientist," the statement "at one time the majority of scientist [sic] thought the earth was flat" is, I'm afraid, incorrect.



it might help if ya refresh your latin research to show ya are wrong....
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588. Skyepony (Mod)
Quoting 584. StormTrackerScott:


Might be the seed for our Caribbean system down the road.

Maybe.. That is spread out. Has it's moisture over 16 squares.

This lack of consolidation seems to be an inhibitor. We've seen some large distances between upper lows & their surface reflections.


Quoting 578. KoritheMan:


Funny thing is, 1997 was I believe, the strongest El Nino of record, and we still saw more hurricane and major hurricane activity by this point in the season, including ACE consequentially.

Horrendous, this year.


It was extreme as far as the direction of storms..now that is a fish year..almost all the storms go to the NE as soon as they form. Typical El Nino.

I called a trend into MX/Central America this year. The Cool Neutral ENSO, with La Nina conditions here & there gives that westho..

Here's 1997..




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Good evening fellow bloggers! How's everyone?

It has been very hot and dry in Jamaica over the past week or so, September to October is usually the wettest period of the year...this is not good for Jamaica, as season will likely commence in late November.

Current Weather Conditions:
Kingston / Norman Manley, Jamaica

Conditions at

2013.09.26 0300 UTC

Wind from the NNE (020 degrees) at 7 MPH (6 KT)

Visibility: greater than 7 mile(s)
Sky conditions: mostly clear
Weather: Showers in the vicinity
Temperature: 84 F (29 C)
Dew Point: 75 F (24 C)
Relative Humidity: 74%
Pressure (altimeter): 29.88 in. Hg (1012 hPa)
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Quoting 583. GTstormChaserCaleb:
Nah not really, you had 1887, 1933, and 1950. A season like these will come again eventually. Also, this season is like 1997 at least up to this point, did anyone think we would see a season like that again?


I knew we would, but I never thought it would occur in a non El Nino year. Sheesh.
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Quoting bappit:
What's the source of your numbers Sar? I was wondering where Japan fits in.


The amount of energy consumption per capita shows the US is #10 or #11 in the rankings, depending on the list. The numbers are from 2003, but the best I could find go to 2010 and the rankings haven't changed except by one place for a few countries. Japan is #30 in the list. There are some caveats for this list however. Not every country is included because either the information is not available or a country refuses to provide it. Some of the data is of very doubtful accuracy as well. It's highly unlikely that China is really #60, using less energy per capita than industrial powers like Latvia and Malta.

My point in posting this initially is to counter the knee-jerk reaction I see constantly that "The US uses more energy per capita than any other country in the world". That hasn't been true since 1984, and we have managed to remain the most productive economy in the world while still decreasing our overall power consumption by more than 5%. The United States is a pretty good example to follow for other countries that want to reduce energy consumption.
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Quoting 582. Skyepony:


Might be the seed for our Caribbean system down the road.
Member Since: February 28, 2013 Posts: 9 Comments: 4768
Quoting 577. SLU:


It's hard to get a "perfect" hurricane season like 2004/05/08.
Nah not really, you had 1887, 1933, and 1950. A season like these will come again eventually. Also, this season is like 1997 at least up to this point, did anyone think we would see a season like that again?
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582. Skyepony (Mod)
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@RyanMaue
Bad SST observation still out in Gulf of Mexico off Tampa. Shows up in ECMWF ensemble precip fields as a void.

Member Since: May 17, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 907
GFS is showing some much drier air moving into FL later tomorrow.

Member Since: February 28, 2013 Posts: 9 Comments: 4768
Quoting 450. ScottLincoln:

That's the one downside to free... it's not for credit so there's no consequence. You can use it as a way to be intellectually honest and learn, or as a mechanism to spew silliness thinking you are making some sort of point.
If it were for credit, of course, those individuals would fail the course which would have ramifications for their academic career.
One Impression that I haven't talked about here, Scott, is the discussions between students from around the world who took the course seriously and talked about themselves, their background and their view of AGW/CC from their own cultural perspectives. I think that alone would be an interesting reason to sign up - just to read the forums - it will open your eyes to the wide international level of interest in the subject. It's a good counter to the ignorance and idiocy of the denialist community here at WU. It's easy to dis-enroll, which I did just before the end when I had accomplished my goals for the course.

In spite of the lack of rigor compared to actual hard-core college/university courses, I think that the UBC Coursera Climate Science course is is a great offering that will help many interested people of all ages, backgrounds, and educational fields and levels from around the world learn about AGW/CC via real climate science.
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Quoting 575. CatfishJones:

Link


Funny thing is, 1997 was I believe, the strongest El Nino of record, and we still saw more hurricane and major hurricane activity by this point in the season, including ACE consequentially.

Horrendous, this year.
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577. SLU
Quoting 572. KoritheMan:


This year recurvature has not been the issue, it's been lack of storm formation.

If it isn't one thing, it's another, lol.


It's hard to get a "perfect" hurricane season like 2004/05/08.
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Quoting 573. KoritheMan:


Yeah, you might. The odds of me getting one are considerably decreased. :/
Ohhh you can always get something like this a late season crossover hurricane. :D

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Quoting 568. KoritheMan:


Exactly. There are down years in terms of landfalls as well, and this likewise appears to be one of them.

Link
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Quoting 550. gulfbreeze:
OK there is a lot of people on this blog that do not understand that everyear is not 2004 or 2005! There are down years and if you beleave in History look it up! Models are not always right and so call experts are not allways right (GW). Weather is just that it can change in a heart beat and no one know's what may happen we only have about 150 years of real records and that's only a drop in the bucket when it comes to Weather History!!!
Whatchu talking about? "The first known records of rainfall were kept by the Ancient Greeks about 500 B.C. This was followed 100 years later by people in India using bowls to record the rainfall."

Ever heard about the story about Jang Yeong Sil, a Korean scientist who invented the world's first rain gauge, he was ordered to build a chair for King Seong, well the chair broke while the King was travelling and Jang was expelled from the palace and thrown in jail for it.
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Quoting 571. GTstormChaserCaleb:
Cool! Maybe we'll get a hurricane next. :D


Yeah, you might. The odds of me getting one are considerably decreased. :/
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Quoting 553. SLU:


Yep .. I predicted a cataclysmic year for the Caribbean and the US with several landfalling major hurricanes based on the 500mb pattern in the earlier stages of the season but fortunately that has busted.



This year recurvature has not been the issue, it's been lack of storm formation.

If it isn't one thing, it's another, lol.
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Quoting 569. StormTrackerScott:
Storm front moving in yesterday evening. This storm had a tornado warning with it.

Cool! Maybe we'll get a hurricane next. :D
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Quoting 552. wxgeek723:


'08 was the best.


You said it. ;)
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Storm front moving in yesterday evening. This storm had a tornado warning with it.

Member Since: February 28, 2013 Posts: 9 Comments: 4768
Quoting 550. gulfbreeze:
OK there is a lot of people on this blog that do not understand that everyear is not 2004 or 2005! There are down years and if you beleave in History look it up! Models are not always right and so call experts are not allways right (GW). Weather is just that it can change in a heart beat and no one know's what may happen we only have about 150 years of real records and that's only a drop in the bucket when it comes to Weather History!!!


Exactly. There are down years in terms of landfalls as well, and this likewise appears to be one of them.
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Southern Caribbean

Member Since: February 28, 2013 Posts: 9 Comments: 4768
Good Night Peeps, Stay Safe, use those Buttons, Stop Bickering. Sleep Well.
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Quoting 562. will40:
gulfbreeze


and you should be banned for quoting it


& Patrap shouldn't post that most if not all on here don't have the attention span to read thru all of that.
Member Since: February 28, 2013 Posts: 9 Comments: 4768
Quoting will40:
gulfbreeze


and you should be banned for quoting it


I both

It should of been linked.

Member Since: September 30, 2007 Posts: 9 Comments: 15979
gulfbreeze


and you should be banned for quoting it
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Quoting 560. Astrometeor:
@gulfbreeze

You didn't have to quote the text, if you don't like it, minus/ignore it and move on.
Sorry it did take up a lot of space.
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@gulfbreeze

You didn't have to quote the text, if you don't like it, minus/ignore it and move on.
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Quoting 551. MrMixon:
First hard frost and first forecast with snow this Thursday/Friday... bring it on! (My wife and I are both ready for allergy season to end).



Strangely, my current local forecast calls for a lower low on Friday (27 F), but rain, instead of snow.



Go figure...


Perhaps rain during the day, but then the system clears out before snow can fall?

I have to deal with allergies year-round because my school has mold in it, and the district refuses to acknowledge it.
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Quoting 442. Dakster:


yuk... Looking for more Algae blooms? I hope they are not as bad as they were earlier in the year.


Speaking of algae blooms, Madison Water confirmed that our water supply did have a an algae bloom run through the plant and into everyone's (North Nashville, TN's) drinking supply, and they did confirm too that it tastes like dirt.

My water should taste like normal in a day or two.
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One, two, three and to the fo'
Snoop Doggy Dogg and Dr. Dre are at the do'
Ready to make an entrance, so back on up
Gimme the microphone first, so I can bust like a bubble
Compton and Long Beach together, now you know you in trouble
Ain't nothin' but a G thang, baaaaabay!
Two loc'ed out G's so we're craaaaazay!
Member Since: February 28, 2013 Posts: 9 Comments: 4768
Only 150 years of weather history?

Me tink's you's should use da google on dat un.

You may learn sumting'




List of Arctic expeditions
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is incomplete. Please help to improve the article, or discuss the issue on the talk page. (February 2009)
This list of Arctic expeditions is a timeline of historic expeditions in, and explorers of, the Arctic.

Contents [hide]
1 Pre-expedition
2 1400s
3 1500s
4 1600s
5 1700s
6 1800s
7 1900s
8 2000s
9 See also
10 References
11 Further reading
Pre-expedition[edit source]

Inuit, Greek, and Viking voyages in the far north ( Faroes/Greenland/Novaya Zemlya )
1400s[edit source]

1496 Russian G. Istoma venturing out of the White Sea explores Murman Coast and coast of northern Norway, also western coast of Novaya Zemlya
1497 Russians D. Zaytsev and D. Ralev venturing out of the White Sea follow route of G. Istoma
1500s[edit source]

1553 English expedition piloted by Richard Chancellor searches for the North-east Passage
1575–77 English expeditions led by Martin Frobisher reaches Baffin Island
1579 Danish expedition led by John Allday fails to reach Greenland due to ice
1585–87 English expeditions led by John Davis explore the Davis Strait-Baffin Bay region and reaches Upernavik
1596–97 Dutch expedition piloted by Willem Barentsz discovers Spitsbergen
1600s[edit source]

1605–07 Danish expeditions led by John Cunningham, Godske Lindenov and Carsten Richardson (all piloted by James Hall), search for the lost Norse colonies on Greenland
1606 John Knight dies commanding an English expedition in search of the Northwest Passage
1607 Henry Hudson explores Spitsbergen
1610 Jonas Poole thoroughly explores Spitsbergen's west coast, reporting that he saw a "great store of whales"; this report leads to the establishment of the English whaling trade.
1610 Russian K. Kurochkin explores mouth of the Yenesei River and adjoining coast
1612 James Hall and William Baffin explores Southwest Greenland
1612–1613 British Button Expedition
1613 Several whaling expeditions, consisting of a total of at least thirty ships, from England, France, Spain, and the Netherlands crowd Spitsbergen's west coast.
1614 Dutch and French expeditions discover Jan Mayen
1615 Robert Fotherby, in the pinnace Richard, is the first English expedition to reach Jan Mayen
1616 English expedition piloted by William Baffin explores Davis Strait-Baffin Bay region
1619–20 Danish expedition led by Jens Munk in Enhiörningen (Unicorn) and Lamprenen (Lamprey) to discover the Northwest Passage penetrated Davis Strait as far north as 69°, found Frobisher Bay, spent a winter in Hudson Bay.
1633-34 I. Rebrov explores the mouth of the Lena River
1633-35 I. Perfilyev explores Lena and Yana Rivers and intervening coast
1638 I. Rebrov explores coast between the Lena and Indigirka Rivers
1641 D.M. Zyryan and M.V. Stadukhin explore mouth of the Indigirka River and adjoining coast
1646 I. Ignatyev explores explores the mouth of the Kolyma River and adjoining coast
1648 Ya. Semyonov explores mouth of Kotuy River and adjoining coast
1648 Semyon Dezhnyov and Fedot Alekseyev explore from the Kolyma River through the Bering Strait
1649 M.V. Stadukhin explores coast from Kolyma River to Bering Strait
1686-1687 Bezvestnaya Expedition explores the coast of Taymyr Peninsula
1700s[edit source]

Vitus Bering
1712 M. Vagin and Ya. Permyakov explore vicinity of mouth of Yana River and adjoining coast
1733–43 Great Northern Expedition / Second Kamchatka expedition explores coast from the Ob River to the Lena River
1751–53 Peder Olsen Walløe explores the east coast of Greenland from Cape Farewell in umiaks
1760-63 S.F. Loshkin explores Novaya Zemlya
1765-66 V.Ya. Chichagov explores Kola Peninsula coast and Spitzbergen
1768-69 F.F. Rozmyslov explores Novaya Zemlya and Matochkin Shar Strait
1773 Captain Constantine Phipps in HMS Carcass and Commander Skeffington Lutwidge in HMS Racehorse reach 80° 37' N, with a young Midshipman Horatio Nelson among the crew.[1]
1800s[edit source]

1809-11 M.M. Gedenshtorm explores New Siberian Islands
1818 Royal Navy expedition led by Captain David Buchan[2]
1818 Royal Navy expedition led by John Ross to search for the Northwest Passage extended a far north along the west coast of Greenland as Pituffik and met the Kap York-Inuit
1819 Royal Navy expedition aboard HMS Hecla and HMS Griper led by William Edward Parry[3]
1820-24 F.P. Wrangel explores east Siberian coast from mouth of the Kolyma River to the Bering Strait
1821-24 F.P. Litke explores eastern Barents and west coast of Novaya Zemlya, including Matochkin Shar
1821-23 P.F. Anzhu continues exploration of New Siberian Islands
1822 William Scoresby lands in East Greenland near the mouth of the fjord system that would later be named for him – Scoresby Sund.
1823 Douglas Charles Clavering and Edward Sabine explores East Greenland northwards to Clavering Island, where they get in contact with the now extinct Northeast Greenland Inuit.
1826 F. Beechy aboard "Blossom" explores Alaskan coast from Point Barrow to the Bering Strait
1827 First Norwegian expedition to the Arctic, lead by Baltazar M. Keilhau.
1827 Royal Navy expedition to Spitsbergen led by William Edward Parry reaches 82°45’N [4]
1828–30 Danish expedition led by W. A. Graah tries to locate the lost Norse colonies in Southeast Greenland, but does not reach Ammassalik Island.
1829–33 Royal Navy expedition led by John Ross to search for the Northwest Passage discovered James Ross Strait and King William Land, located the magnetic north pole at 70°05′N 96°44′W
1833 P.K. Pastukhov explores southern half of eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya
1833–35 Royal Navy expedition led by Captain George Back[5]
1838–40 La Recherche Expedition (1838-1840)
1845 Franklin's lost expedition led by Sir John Franklin searches for the Northwest Passage.
1848 Rae-Richardson Arctic Expedition searched overland for Franklin's lost expedition.
1850 McClure Arctic Expedition led by Robert McClure, a British search for the members of Franklin's lost expedition.
1850–51 First Grinnell Expedition led by Edwin DeHaven, first American search for the members of Franklin's lost expedition.
1852 Edward Augustus Inglefield sets out to search for Franklin's ill-fated expedition
1853–55 American expedition led by Elisha Kent Kane[6]
1857–59 British expedition led by Francis Leopold McClintock
1860–61 American expedition led by Isaac Israel Hayes
1860–62 First expedition led by Charles Francis Hall (USA)
1864–69 Second expedition led by Charles Francis Hall
1868 First German North Polar Expedition led by Carl Koldewey along the east coast of Greenland
1869–70 Second German North Polar Expedition (Germania and Hansa) led by Carl Koldewey reaches Sabine Island.
1871–73 Third expedition led by Charles Francis Hall: Polaris expedition
1872–74 Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition led by Captain Karl Weyprecht
1875–76 British Arctic Expedition led by Captain George Nares
1876–78 Norwegian Northern Seas Expedition in Vøringen explored the Northern Atlantic up to 80°N.
1878 J. A. D. Jensen explores the inland ice sheeth from West Greenland
1878-1881 different voyages with Dutch polar schooner Willem Barents in the area around Spitsbergen and Nova Zembla, organised by Geographical Society of Amsterdam. Goals were 1) placing memorial stones for 17th century Dutch discoveries and 2) scientific research.
1878–79 Swedish Vega expedition, led by Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld
1879–82 USS Jeanette expedition with Lt. George Washington De Long (commander) and George W. Melville (chief engineer)[7]
1881–84 Lady Franklin Bay Expedition, US Army expedition led by Adolphus Greely
1882–1883 (First International Polar Year) Danish Dijmphna expedition to the territory between Russia and the North Pole
1883–85 Umiak Expedition led by Gustav Holm and Thomas Vilhelm Garde along the southeastern coast of Greenland in the shallow waters between the coast and the sea ice.
1883 Failed attempt by Nordenskiöld to cross Greenland from the west
1886 Failed attempt by Robert E Peary (USA) to cross Greenland
1888-89 First successful crossing of the Greenland inland ice by Norwegian expedition led by Fridtjof Nansen (from east to west)
1891–92 The East Greenland Expedition on the Hekla led by Carl Ryder fails to get through the sea ice of East Greenland, but explores the Scoresby Sund system in detail
1891–92 Third US Greenland expedition led by Peary.
1892 Swedish expedition led by Alfred Björling
1893–95 Fourth US Greenland expedition led by Peary
1893–96 Norwegian expedition by Fridtjof Nansen and Hjalmar Johansen on the Fram and over ice towards the North Pole.
1894–97 Jackson-Harmsworth Expedition, led by Frederick George Jackson
1897 S. A. Andrée's Arctic balloon expedition
1898–1902 Second Fram voyage under Otto Sverdrup
1898–1900 The Carlsbergfund Expedition to East Greenland led by G. C. Amdrup explores the Blosseville Coast
1899 Alfred Gabriel Nathorst explores the fjords of Northeast Greenland, in particular the King Oscar Fjord system
1899 Attempt to ski to North Pole from Franz Josef Land by Walter Wellman
1899–1900 Italian North Pole expedition led by Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi on the ship Stella Polare
1900s[edit source]

1898, 1899, 1906, 1907 Prince Albert I's Arctic Exploration with Princesse Alice
1900–03 Russian ship Zarya
1901–02 First North Pole expedition financed by US industrialist William Ziegler, led by Evelyn Baldwin
1902–04 The Literary Expedition led by Ludvig Mylius-Erichsen together with Knud Rasmussen explores the Northwest Greenland coast between Uumanaq and Thule
1903–06 Amundsen's ''Gjøa'' Expedition when Roald Amundsen traversed the Northwest Passage for the first time
1903–05 Ziegler Polar Expedition overland, led by Anthony Fiala
1905–06 North Pole expedition led by Robert Peary, from Ellesmere Island
1906–08 The Danmark Expedition led by Ludvig Mylius-Erichsen reaches Nordostrundingen, but ends fatally
1906, 1907, 1909 The airship America and Walter Wellman
1906–08 Anglo-American Polar Expedition (Mikkelsen-Leffingwell Expedition)
1907–09 US North Pole expedition led by Frederick Cook
1909–12 The Alabama Expedition to Northeast Greenland led by Ejnar Mikkelsen in an operation to recover bodies and logs of the fatal Danmark expedition
1908–09 expedition led by Robert Peary
1910–15 Russian Arctic Ocean Hydrographic Expedition in Taymyr and Vaigach
1912 First Thule Expedition – Knud Rasmussen and Peter Freuchen explores North Greenland
1912–13 J.P. Koch crosses the inland ice in North Greenland
1912–15 Brusilov Expedition, ill-fated expedition led by Captain Georgy Brusilov
1913 Crocker Land Expedition
1913–14 Russian expedition aboard Foka, led by Georgiy Sedov
1913–18 Canadian Arctic Expedition 1913-1916 led by Vilhjalmur Stefansson, initially in the Karluk
1916–18 Second Thule Expedition – Knud Rasmussen and Peter Freuchen explores North Greenland and establishes that Peary Land is not an island
1918–25 Roald Amundsen traversed the Northeast Passage with Maud
1919 Third Thule Expedition – Knud Rasmussen explores North Greenland and lays out depots for Roald Amundsen's polar drift in Maud
1919–20 Fourth Thule Expedition – Knud Rasmussen explores East Greenland
1921–23 Bicentenary Jubilee Expedition (commemorating Hans Egede's landing in Greenland) led by Lauge Koch explores North Greenland
1921–24 Fifth Thule Expedition led by Knud Rasmussen crossed the Northwest Passage on dog sledges from Thule across Arctic Canada to Nome, Alaska demonstrates how inuit culture could spread rapidly
1925 Flying boat expedition led by Roald Amundsen and Lincoln Ellsworth
1926 Aircraft flight by Richard E. Byrd and Floyd Bennett
1926 The airship Norge (Roald Amundsen, Umberto Nobile and Lincoln Ellsworth)
1928 Eielson-Wilkins Arctic Ocean crossing (powered flight Alaska-Spitsbergen)
1928 The airship Italia (Umberto Nobile)
1930 Bratvaag Expedition to Franz Josef Land, found long lost remains of S. A. Andrée's expedition.
1931 Sir Hubert Wilkins with submarine Nautilus (failed 800 km south of the pole).
1931 Sixth Thule Expedition led by Knud Rasmussen explores Northeast Greenland
1931–34 The Three-year Expedition to East Greenland led by Lauge Koch explores Northeast Greenland
1932 Icebreaker Sibiryakov
1933 Russian steamship Chelyuskin
1937 Soviet transpolar flights
1937–1938 MacGregor Arctic Expedition
1938–present Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations
1948 Russian scientific expedition led by Aleksandr Kuznetsov lands aircraft at Pole
1958 USS Nautilus passes under the Arctic ice
1959 Discoverer 1 first satellite in polar orbit. (Prototype; no camera.)
1960 Tiros 1 weather satellite in polar orbit; eventually returned 22952 cloud cover photos
1968 Ralph Plaisted and three others reach the north pole by snowmobile.
1968–69 Wally Herbert, British explorer, reaches Pole on foot and traverses the polar sea
1977 Arktika, nuclear-powered icebreaker, reaches the North Pole
1982 Sir Ranulph Fiennes and Charles Burton cross the Arctic Ocean in a single season.
1986 Will Steger and party reach the north pole by dogsled without resupply.
1988 Will Steger completes first south-north traverse of Greenland.
1988 Ski-Trek a joint Soviet-Canadian transpolar expedition aided by satellites.
1992 Scientific environmental expedition; crossing of the Greenland inland ice by Japanese expedition led by Kenji Yoshikawa (from east to west)
1994 Shane Lundgren led expedition began in Moscow and proceeded north of the Arctic Circle across Siberia to Magadan.
1995 Smithsonian Institution's Arctic Studies Center joined Shane Lundgren in a flying expedition to chronicle indigenous people from Yakutsk to Alaska across the Bering Straits. Discovery Online was launched through this expedition.
1955 Marek Kamiński unsupported walked to the North Pole on 23 May 1995 (27 December 1995, he reached the South Pole alone)
2000s[edit source]

2004 Together to the Pole - a Polish four-man expedition led by Marek Kamiński, with Jan Mela (a teenage double amputee, who in the same year reached also the South Pole)
2004 Five members of the Ice Warrior Squad reach the Geomagnetic North Pole, including the first two women in history to do so.
2007 Arktika 2007, Russian submersible descends to the ocean floor below the North Pole.
2007 Top Gear: Polar Special, BBC's Top Gear team are the first to reach the magnetic North Pole in a car.
2008 Alex Hibbert and George Bullard complete Tiso Trans Greenland expedition. The longest fully unsupported expedition in history at 1374 statute miles.
See also[edit source]

Arctic exploration
Cartographic expeditions to Greenland
Farthest North
North Pole
Territorial claims in the Arctic
History of research ships
List of Antarctic expeditions
List of Russian explorers
References[edit source]

[8]

Jump up ^ E. C. Coleman (2006). The Royal Navy in Polar Exploration: From Frobisher to Ross. Tempus. pp. 65–77. ISBN 978-0-7524-3660-9. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
Jump up ^ Beechey, F. W. (1843). A Voyage Of Discovery Towards The North Pole, Performed In His Majesty's Ships Dorothea And Trent, Under The Command Of Captain David Buchan, R. N., 1818. London: Richard Bentley. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
Jump up ^ *An Officer Of The Expedition (1821). Letters Written During The Later Voyage Of Discovery In The Western Arctic Sea. London: Sir Richard Phillips And Co. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
Jump up ^ "Polar Discovery". Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
Jump up ^ King, Richard (1836). Narrative Of A Journey To The Shores Of The Arctic Ocean In 1833, 1834, and 1835; Under The Command Of Capt. Back, R. N., Volume I. London: Richard Bentley. Retrieved 2009-08-15. King, Richard (1836). Narrative Of A Journey To The Shores Of The Arctic Ocean In 1833, 1834, and 1835; Under The Command Of Capt. Back, R. N., Volume II. London: Richard Bentley. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
Jump up ^ Sonntag, August (1865). Professor Sonntag's Thrilling Narrative Of The Grinnell Exploring Expedition To The Arctic Ocean In The Years 1853, 1854, and 1855 In Se
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