Unprecedented Cut in Colorado River Flow Ordered, Due to Drought

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 3:20 PM GMT on August 20, 2013

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For the first time in history, the U.S. government has ordered that flow of Colorado River water from the 50-year-old Glen Canyon Dam be slashed, due to a water crisis brought about by the region's historic 14-year drought. On Friday, the Federal Bureau of Reclamation--a division of the Department of Interior that manages water and electric power in the West--announced that it would cut water released from Lake Powell's Glen Canyon Dam by 750,000 acre-feet in 2014. An acre-foot is the amount of water that will cover an acre of land one foot deep; 750,000 acre-feet is enough water to supply at least 750,000 homes for one year. The flow reduction will leave the Colorado River 9% below the 8.23 million acre feet that is supposed to be supplied downstream to Lake Mead for use in California, Nevada, Arizona and Mexico under the Colorado River Compact of 1922 and later agreements. "This is the worst 14-year drought period in the last hundred years," said Upper Colorado Regional Director Larry Walkoviak in a Bureau of Reclamation press release.

In the winter of 2005, Lake Powell reached its lowest level since filling, an elevation 150' below full pool. Lake levels recovered some in during 2005 - 2011, but the resurgence of severe to extreme drought conditions have provoked a steep decline in 2012 and 2013, with the lake falling 35' over the past year. As of August 18, 2013, Lake Powell was 109' below full pool (45% of capacity), and was falling at a rate of one foot every six days.


Figure 1. Satellite comparisons of water levels in Arizona and Utah's Lake Powell between 1999 and 2013 show a huge reduction in the amount of water in the lake. Image credit: NASA Earth Observatory.


Figure 2. From October 1, 2012 - July 31, 2013, precipitation over the Colorado River Watershed was about 80% of average. Image credit: Colorado Basin River Forecast Center.

Las Vegas' Water Supply, Lake Mead, Near a Record Low
Downstream of Lake Powell lies Lake Mead, filled in 1936 when Hoover Dam was completed. Lake Mead supplies Las Vegas with ninety percent of its drinking water, and the water level of Lake Mead is expected to fall by eight feet in 2014 due to the lower water flow levels out of Lake Powell ordered on Friday. Lake Mead has fallen by 100 feet since the current 14-year drought began in 2000, and the higher of the two intake pipes used to supply Las Vegas with water from the lake is in danger of running dry. As a result, a seven-year, $800 million project is underway by the Southern Nevada Water Authority to build a third intake pipe that will tap the deepest part of the reservoir. This so-called "third straw" is scheduled to be available late in 2014, which may be cutting it close, if the Colorado River watershed experiences another year of drought as severe as in 2012 - 2013. Southern Nevada has done well to reduce water usage, though--the region's annual water consumption decreased by nearly 29 billion gallons between 2002 and 2012, despite a population increase of more than 400,000 during that span.


Figure 3. Lake Mead water levels from 1938 - 2013 in July show a precipitous drop since drought conditions gripped the Western U.S. in 2000. The Lake Mead photo was taken by wunderphotographer LAjoneson June 29, 2007, when the lake had a "bathtub ring" 109' tall. Water level data from The Bureau of Reclamation.


Figure 4. Workers handle the main drive sections of the tunnel boring machine that is drilling a 3-mile long tunnel through solid rock to supply Las Vegas with water from Lake Mead. The new intake tunnel is designed to maintain the ability to draw upon Colorado River water at lake elevations as low as 1,000 feet above sea level. The lake already has two intake pipes, and the higher of these will go dry when the lake level hits 1050' - 1075'. As of August 2013, the Lake Mead water level was 1106' above sea level, which is 114' below full pool, but 24' above the record low water level of 1081' set in November 2010. Image credit: Southern Nevada Water Authority.

Drought conditions worsen over Southwest U.S. in August
According to the U.S. Drought Monitor, the Western U.S. drought peaked in July 2002, when 79% of the West was in at least severe drought, and 45% of the region was in the two highest categories of drought--extreme to exceptional. However, drought conditions have been steadily intensifying this summer. The August 13, 2013 Drought Monitor report showed that drought conditions in the Western U.S. are now the worst since 2004, with 78% of the West in at least severe drought, and 20% in the two highest categories of drought, extreme and exceptional. The latest U.S. Seasonal Drought Outlook, issued on August 15, calls for drought to remain entrenched over the large majority of the Western U.S. through the end of November.


Figure 5. As of August 13, 2013, severe to exceptional drought gripped nearly all of the Colorado RIver's watershed in Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Wyoming, California, and Colorado. Image credit: NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC.

Causes of the great Western U.S. drought
It is well-known that natural variations in sea surface temperature patterns, such as seen from the El Niño/La Niña oscillation, can influence storm tracks and can cause prolonged periods of drought. These natural variations likely had a hand in causing the great 2000 - 2013 Western U.S. drought. However, changes in the amount of sea ice covering the Arctic can also have a major impact on Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation patterns. We must consider if global warming, which has led to a 50% decline in summer Arctic sea ice extent since 1979, may be altering storm tracks and contributing to drought. In 2004, Lisa Sloan, professor of Earth sciences at UC Santa Cruz, and her graduate student Jacob Sewall published an article in Geophysical Research Letters, Disappearing Arctic sea ice reduces available water in the American west. An accompanying news release explained that their climate models found "a significant reduction in rain and snowfall in the American West” as a result of Arctic sea ice loss:

What they found was a change in atmospheric circulation patterns that caused a small northward shift in the paths of winter storms over western North America. This shift in winter storm tracks resulted in significantly reduced winter precipitation from southern British Columbia to the Gulf of California. In some areas, average annual precipitation dropped by as much as 30 percent. The reductions were greatest along the West Coast, with lesser changes further inland. But even as far inland as the Rocky Mountains, winter precipitation fell by 17 percent.

The sea ice acts like a lid over the ocean surface during the winter, blocking the transfer of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere, Sewall explained. Where the sea ice is reduced, heat transfer from the ocean warms the atmosphere, resulting in a rising column of relatively warm air. The shift in storm tracks over North America was linked to the formation of these columns of warmer air over areas of reduced sea ice in the Greenland Sea and a few other locations.


A follow-up paper by Dr. Sewall in 2005, "Precipitation Shifts over Western North America as a Result of Declining Arctic Sea Ice Cover: The Coupled System Response", used a more sophisticated modeling technique but confirmed the results of the 2004 paper. In a June 2013 interview with climateprogress.org, Dr. Sewall commented:

"I think the hypothesis from 2004 and 2005 is being borne out by current changes. The only real difference is that reality is moving faster than we thought/hoped it would almost a decade ago."


Figure 6. The area of the Western U.S. in drought peaked during 2002 - 2004, but during 2013 has been approaching levels not seen since 2004. Image credit: U.S. Drought Portal.

Western North America drought of 2000 - 2004 the worst in over 800 years
The Colorado River's water woes are due to an extraordinary 14-year drought that began in 2000, which peaked during 2000 - 2004. A 2012 study titled, Reduction in carbon uptake during turn of the century drought in western North America, found that the 2000 - 2004 drought was the most severe Western North America event of its kind since the last mega drought over 800 years ago, during the years 1146 - 1151. The paper analyzed the latest generation of climate models used for the 2013 IPCC report, which project that the weather conditions that spawned the 2000 - 2004 drought will be the new normal in the Western U.S. by 2030, and will be considered extremely wet by the year 2100. If these dire predictions of a coming "megadrought" are anywhere close to correct, it will be extremely challenging for the Southwest U.S. to support a growing population in the coming decades.


Figure 7. Normalized precipitation over Western North America (five-year mean) from 22 climate models used to formulate the 2013 IPCC report, as summarized by Schwalm et al., 2012, Reduction in carbon uptake during turn of the century drought in western North America. The horizontal line marks the precipitation level of the 2000 - 2004 drought, the worst of the past 800 years. Droughts of this intensity are predicted to be the new normal by 2030, and will be considered an outlier of extreme wetness by 2100. The paper states: "This impending drydown of western North America is consistent with present trends in snowpack decline as well as expected in-creases in aridity and extreme climate events,including drought, and is driven by anthropogenically forced increases in temperature with coincident increases in evapotranspiration and decreases in soil moisture. Although regional precipitation patterns are difficult to forecast, climate models tend to underestimate the extent and severity of drought relative to available observations. As such, actual reductions in precipitation may be greater than shown. Forecasted precipitation patterns are consistent with a probable twenty-first century megadrought." Image credit: Schwalm et al., 2012, Reduction in carbon uptake during turn of the century drought in western North America, Nature Geoscience 5, 551-555, Published online 29 JULY 2012, DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1529, www.nature.com/naturegeoscience.

Related posts
Lessons from 2012: Droughts, not Hurricanes, are the Greater Danger, my November 2012 post.

National Geographic has an excellent interactive satellite image that shows the difference in Lake Powell water levels between 1999 and 2013.

How Two Reservoirs Have Become Billboards For What Climate Change Is Doing To The American West, August 12, 2013 climateprogress.org post by Tom Kenworthy.

Scientists Predicted A Decade Ago Arctic Ice Loss Would Worsen Western Droughts. Is That Happening Already?, June 2013 post by Joe Romm at climateprogress.org.

Twenty Cities At Risk of Water Shortages, August 14, 2013 wunderground news post by Nick Wiltgen

References
Sewall, Jacob O., 2005, Precipitation Shifts over Western North America as a Result of Declining Arctic Sea Ice Cover: The Coupled System Response, Earth Interact., 9, 1–23. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/EI171.1

Sewall, J.O., and L.C. Sloan, 2004, Disappearing Arctic sea ice reduces available water in the American west, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L06209, doi:10.1029/2003GL019133. Accompanying news release.

Jeff Masters

Lake Mead - low water (clicks4fun)
Colorado River has been struggling to survive. Predictions of its future are grim in the headlines. Hopefully scientists will figure out how to resolve this bad situation.
Lake Mead - low water
Storm Clouds over Lake Powell, Glen Canyon NRA (catjuice)
Lake Powell, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, AZ
Storm Clouds over Lake Powell, Glen Canyon NRA

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A want another Jose... the Jose of 1999, not the one of 2011 XD

Our Jose was VERY WET!!!!
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Quoting 1005. moonlightcowboy:
And, there is considerable low-level spin now just east of Barbados. LINK, then zoom in.


That is the low that I was also following for the past 3 days. It may catch up to the feature in the Central Caribbean and impart a little impetus to it with the low it is carrying.
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Quoting 1003. moonlightcowboy:
Very weak, low-level steering in the Caribbean. Only a Coriolis motion would drag it a little north in the weak flow, and a very slow-mover would mean great opportunity for intensity especially as it approaches Jamaica and the northwestern Caribbean in the high TCHP.



It is stalled for the moment which is allowing the shear to slacken ahead of it as the ULL in the NW Caribbean slowly lifts out.
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1007. Patrap
Quoting 991. CanesfanatUT:
Pat - cant find it but I agree with your comment that a cat 1 isn't anything to sneeze at. Us in Baton Rouge when Gustav wobbled his eye right smack into the city felt the impact of a cat 1. He wrecked a ton of trees and I didn't have power for 6 days but had to sleep at work for 3 nights because the plant lost power during the storm.


I know, we got nado warnings for 30 hours here, and well, twas a Bumpy Day, and the industrial Canal Floodwall Held so a double win.


A tourist shot this on Rampart, notice no one is there, Gone, left...check out how they react to the first gust.,,esp.


Uploaded on Aug 31, 2008
This was the first wave of Gustav hitting the French Quarter in New Orleans. At the end you can see the speed the storm clouds are coming in and hear the wind picking up.


Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 424 Comments: 128333
1006. tramp96
Quoting 892. Xyrus2000:


No. It just hasn't been a record loss year, which is a nice change considering the alarming pace of recent ice loss. In fact, a rebound year was expected after the heavy loss from 2012. Thankfully the unusually cloudy and cool weather at the pole managed to keep ice loss to slower pace this year.

But don't get the wrong idea. The ice pack is still very much below normal. And the condition of the ice that remains is pretty miserable. Most of the pack is shattered and there's even a hole that's opening at the pole. Not some crack or polyna but a big expanse of open ocean.


Everybody start your cars and eat more beef

Link
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And, there is considerable low-level spin now just east of Barbados. LINK, then zoom in.
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Very weak, low-level steering in the Caribbean. Only a Coriolis motion would drag it a little north in the weak flow, and a very slow-mover would mean great opportunity for intensity especially as it approaches Jamaica and the northwestern Caribbean in the high TCHP.

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Quoting Bluestorm5:
Lol, not really... either I'm reading wrong or kangaroos actually eat people?


I'm talking about the black bears.

Kangaroos have been known to kill. They have very strong back legs and can sit on their tails and kick out with such force it can cause internal bleeding, broken bones. Link
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Quoting 987. SuperStorm093:
That wave doesn't stand a chance in the Caribbean, the ULL to its west will destroy it and the wave looks like it is moving south.
if conditions are right it could affect Portugal.
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Quoting 984. wxgeek723:
Was anyone else bothered last year when Isaac was being compared to Katrina when there was obviously no comparison?

Even TWC is guilty of doing this.


Yup. However.

1. Isaac did move over the loop current. Isaac was poorly organized and did not take full advantage, but the possibility was there.

If Isaac had gotten to Cat 3 and moved so that the right side eyewall passed across New Orleans the winds and tide could have been as high as Katrina's were in the city of New Orleans itself.

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Quoting 861. mitthbevnuruodo:


it's all irrelevant. We shouldn't be polluting and poisoning the world, at our lazy whim, whether GW is man made or not...whether temps anywhere, land or sea rise or not. There is no sense in polluting ourselves and our food and our planet...when we have technology for renewable energy and technology for not wasting fresh water etc. I can't see any good arguement for it, unless someone is making money from industries that help poison the world. I know it's hard if it's not impacting someone personally to care sometimes. But it's our home...and even if cause it's not immediate, our children and grandchildrens home. Unless greed and slefishness are that strong, why do things to ruin it for them even? It's not a matter of left or right, it's a matter of a healthy, clean world...for all people, animals, plants and oceans. There's no need in this day and age to pollute ourselves. Even China had the money and knowhow, to let their growth be guided by clean resources. But on the cheap, as with many places, they chose not to. They had a choice too, technology was there...just wasn't the quickest and easiest option. Makes me sad they've been as money grubbing and careless as anyone else. Commies can be just the same as the west I suppose, lining the pockets of those that matter to them.

Anyway, after 1am here, so off to bed. Sorry if ranting a bit. But anything backing things that hurt the environment, when so uneeded, really annoys me. Like I say...no matter what political affiliation...can't see how anyone can think it's ok to readily pollute our homes, when it doesn't have to be that way


Unless your home is made of mud and sticks it took oil
to make it happen.
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Quoting 970. spathy:




Thats not where I was going with that,and I am sure I have the year wrong. But your take could be worse,much worse.

LOL


Well, when you think about it, Brits sending their soldiers and supplies would have to sail hundreds of miles out of the way to avoid it, or sail right into it and sink or be delayed. The founding fathers knew their meteorology - Franklin improved the mail service between continents using rings/eddy strategy that the UK sniffed at...such that the mail took twice as long to get here as it did to get there.

If the FFs knew a storm had just spun up and was expected to RI and the Brits had no clue, that's a great chance to swoop in on George's troops when they were expecting supplies and men that were delayed by a week or even sunk. Then send ships out to intercept the ones who sailed around the storm. The Atlantic 'internet' back then was ships reporting to each other as they met the conditions of the place they just left... so communications were definitely down during such a storm. Take a few generals and politicos hostage, send the news out to incoming Brit ships saying turn around or your boys have a date with the yardarm.

Good strategy.
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GOES-East 10 km Composite LW Diff

Sounder RAMSDIS




Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 424 Comments: 128333
Quoting 992. CanesfanatUT:


I just spent 10 days in Beirut. I are fine. Heh
K,You be fine,my bad!
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Quoting 990. overwash12:
Be careful,that's all I'm gonna say!


I just spent 10 days in Beirut. I are fine. Heh
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Pat - cant find it but I agree with your comment that a cat 1 isn't anything to sneeze at. Us in Baton Rouge when Gustav wobbled his eye right smack into the city felt the impact of a cat 1. He wrecked a ton of trees and I didn't have power for 6 days but had to sleep at work for 3 nights because the plant lost power during the storm.
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Quoting 986. CanesfanatUT:


I watched them in Singapore when I was there for a month. There wasn't any sort of a terrorist vibe that I detected. They had European folks doing the reporting.
Be careful,that's all I'm gonna say!
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RMTC - Sector 4 - Ch 4 - Thermal Infrared

click image for loop

click loop to ZOOM

Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 424 Comments: 128333
988. 7544
Quoting 985. Patrap:


in august every blob must be watch !
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That wave doesn't stand a chance in the Caribbean, the ULL to its west will destroy it and the wave looks like it is moving south.
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Quoting 978. BaltimoreBrian:
Al Jazeera is a well regarded news organization. I get some news from there, and in Arabic too. I don't see why anyone would have a problem with their cable or satellite provider carrying it. You don't have to watch.


I watched them in Singapore when I was there for a month. There wasn't any sort of a terrorist vibe that I detected. They had European folks doing the reporting.
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Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 424 Comments: 128333
Was anyone else bothered last year when Isaac was being compared to Katrina when there was obviously no comparison?

Even TWC is guilty of doing this.
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Here is Al Jazeera's science page.

And here is Al Jazeera's environment page.


Pretty good! I think I'll add it to my links.

And post my first link from them here.

Scientists warn of 3-foot sea level rise by 2100


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Neil young is always good! Even when the tropics are dead!
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981. flsky
Quoting 977. moonlightcowboy:



Now that looks spooky.

Something to talk about anyway
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Ch 2 - Short Wave

Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 424 Comments: 128333
979. flsky
Quoting 954. luvtogolf:


Do ya think that the leeves breaking had anything to do with it.

Not in Mississippi
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Al Jazeera is a well regarded news organization. I get some news from there, and in Arabic too. I don't see why anyone would have a problem with their cable or satellite provider carrying it. You don't have to watch.
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Quoting 969. MississippiWx:
Just out of curiosity. Would anyone be interested in reading a blog about Hattiesburg's recovery after our tornado? I'm thinking about doing one, and I might do it even if you aren't interested. :-P

I'd like to read it, sounds interesting.
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Quoting 969. MississippiWx:
Just out of curiosity. Would anyone be interested in reading a blog about Hattiesburg's recovery after our tornado? I'm thinking about doing one, and I might do it even if you aren't interested. :-P


Go for it Drew!
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973. flsky
Quoting 969. MississippiWx:
Just out of curiosity. Would anyone be interested in reading a blog about Hattiesburg's recovery after our tornado? I'm thinking about doing one, and I might do it even if you aren't interested. :-P

Sure.
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So boring
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Quoting 969. MississippiWx:
Just out of curiosity. Would anyone be interested in reading a blog about Hattiesburg's recovery after our tornado? I'm thinking about doing one, and I might do it even if you aren't interested. :-P
I am, actually. Might help me in class since I'm in Weather and Society class which mean class focuses on how weather impact people. Katrina and Joplin are two famous recent examples.
Member Since: August 1, 2011 Posts: 28 Comments: 8009
Just out of curiosity. Would anyone be interested in reading a blog about Hattiesburg's recovery after our tornado? I'm thinking about doing one, and I might do it even if you aren't interested. :-P
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Quoting 966. Patrap:
I have the Miss Large Levees protecting me on the South Side, and a 14 Billion Dollar one on the other 2...

What could go wrong ?





Published on Jun 20, 2012

Hurricane Isaac, Katrina etc. - New Orleans Renewal (Levees Rebuilt)- as part of the news series by GeoBeats.

The levees in New Orleans that were decimated by the effects of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, are finally in place.

The 113 mile long construction made up of levees, flood walls and pumps cost a reported 14 and a half billion dollars.

There are two fifty foot lift gates which allow boat access to the waterways and can be shut to block the water from a nearby lake, and 95 foot navigation gate with two sides weighing 220 tons each is in place to seal off a canal in case of hurricane conditions.

Hurricane Issac - New Orleans Renewal (Levees Rebuilt) - Katrina, which caused 81 billion dollars of damage, and almost two thousand deaths, proved the old system of levees was insufficient.

Initial construction on the project started in 2006 and engineers have vastly improved on the reconstructed walls to make them more resilient and effective against the inevitable storms that occur during hurricane season.

Allowing the immense project to move forward as quickly as possible, Congress voted to give all the funding in a lump sum rather than giving the money incrementally. Senior project manager Kevin G. Wagner told the New York Times, "It's truly amazing, starting in 2009, to be where we are today."




Good for water. Not good for wind. Seems like Florida has the opposite problem. Good for wind bad for water.
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Typhoon Trami

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I have the Miss River Large Levees protecting me on the South Side, and a 14 Billion Dollar one on the other 2...

What could go wrong ?





Published on Jun 20, 2012

Hurricane Isaac, Katrina etc. - New Orleans Renewal (Levees Rebuilt)- as part of the news series by GeoBeats.

The levees in New Orleans that were decimated by the effects of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, are finally in place.

The 113 mile long construction made up of levees, flood walls and pumps cost a reported 14 and a half billion dollars.

There are two fifty foot lift gates which allow boat access to the waterways and can be shut to block the water from a nearby lake, and 95 foot navigation gate with two sides weighing 220 tons each is in place to seal off a canal in case of hurricane conditions.

Hurricane Issac - New Orleans Renewal (Levees Rebuilt) - Katrina, which caused 81 billion dollars of damage, and almost two thousand deaths, proved the old system of levees was insufficient.

Initial construction on the project started in 2006 and engineers have vastly improved on the reconstructed walls to make them more resilient and effective against the inevitable storms that occur during hurricane season.

Allowing the immense project to move forward as quickly as possible, Congress voted to give all the funding in a lump sum rather than giving the money incrementally. Senior project manager Kevin G. Wagner told the New York Times, "It's truly amazing, starting in 2009, to be where we are today."


Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 424 Comments: 128333
Quoting 963. redwagon:


Interesting strategy... plan a revolution around a major cane... when you have all the mets on your side as the Brits neglected to send any.


Hurricane Greta-Olivia devastated Nicaragua in 1978 and the long-running Sandanista rebellion took advantage to overthrow the government the next year. The independence of Bangladesh was also triggered by the deadliest tropical cyclone in history.
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Quoting 903. ProphetessofDoom:


Hope you know that I did not intend that as an attack against you! More against the "experts" who support their theories by citing either! I lurk here often, and know that you have good stuff! :)


Thank you!
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Quoting 953. spathy:





Very fun to watch LOL
I am sure there have been other Naked swirls that have shocked us when they show up on our doorstep,but this ole brain cant think of one ATM.
Wasnt there a storm that came out of nowhere around 1776 and opened up a channel in Ocean City Maryland? And for the first time allowed the Assawoman Bay to flow into the Atlantic,thus making OC MD a great place with an inlet. (big boost for the town)


Interesting strategy... plan a revolution around a major cane... when you have all the mets on your side as the Brits neglected to send any.
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850mb vort has definitely increased last couple of hours.


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Quoting 928. Patrap:
The Colorado River is the seventh largest river in the U.S., supplying water to over 30 million people. It is also one of the most diverted, silted, and heavily litigated rivers in the world. The farmers and residents of the rapidly growing western states rely on the river for irrigation, drinking water, and electricity. This demand has permanently altered the river's ecology. The Colorado River: Flowing Through Conflict shows us the river's entirety%u2014from its headwaters in the Colorado Rockies to the dry riverbed that once reached the Sea of Cortez%u2014in an oversized, full-color, photo essay format.
I'm going to have to quibble with this one. The headwaters of a river are generally considered to be the point furthest along the river from its mouth. In the case of the Colorado, this is the headwaters of the Green River in the Wind River Range of Wyoming. Up until 1921, the Colorado was formed by the confluence of the Green and Grand Rivers in what is now Canyonlands National Park in Utah. The Grand was renamed the Colorado after some Colorado politicians decided the Colorado River should have its start in Colorado.

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CP, 01, 2013082100, , BEST, 0, 186N, 1718E, 45, 996, XX, 34, NEQ, 65, 55, 50, 60, 1008, 170, 25, 0, 0, C, 0, X, 310, 13, PEWA, M, , , , , , , TCGP EXTRA DATA, CP012013, JTWC, NCEP_TCVITALS,
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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