Tropical Storm Chantal: a Likely Harbinger of an Active Atlantic Hurricane Season

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:02 PM GMT on July 08, 2013

Share this Blog
95
+

Tropical Storm Chantal is speeding westwards at 26 mph towards a Tuesday encounter with the Lesser Antilles Islands. Satellite loops show that Chantal has plenty of spin, with several well-developed low-level spiral bands that have gradually increased their heavy thunderstorm activity this morning. However, Chantal is fighting dry air associated with the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). The heavy thunderstorm activity near Chantal's center is rather thin, and there are virtually no heavy thunderstorms on the storm's north side, where upper-level northwesterly winds are creating light to moderate wind shear of 5 - 15 knots, and driving dry air into the storm. This dry air is readily apparent on water vapor satellite loops. Ocean temperatures are fairly warm, though, at 27.5 - 28°C. There have not been any hurricane hunter missions into Chantal yet, but an Air Force hurricane hunter aircraft deployed to St. Croix on Sunday, and is scheduled to investigate Chantal on Monday afternoon.


Figure 1. MODIS image of Chantal taken at approximately 10 am EDT Monday, July 8, 2013. At the time, Chantal had top winds of 45 mph. Image credit: NASA.


Figure 2. U.S. Air Force Master Sgt. Levi Denham, a WC-130J Hercules aircraft weather reconnaissance loadmaster assigned to the 53rd Reconnaissance Squadron (the Hurricane Hunters), performs pre-engine start-up inspections in St. Croix, Virgin Islands, on Sept. 16, 2010. DoD photo by Staff Sgt. Manuel J. Martinez, U.S. Air Force. Thanks go to wunderground member Patrap for pointing out this photo.

Forecast for Chantal
The 8 am EDT Monday forecast from the SHIPS model predicts that Chantal will experience low to moderate shear through Tuesday afternoon as it heads west-northwest at 25 mph towards Hispaniola. With ocean temperatures expected to warm to 28°C during that time, Chantal has the potential to intensify to a 65 mph tropical storm before hitting Hispaniola. Working against intensification will be the fast forward speed of the storm--tropical storms moving faster than 20 mph in the deep tropics usually have trouble intensifying. In addition, the Eastern Caribbean is an area where the trade winds accelerate, helping drive sinking air that discourages tropical storm intensification. Dry air will also slow down the intensification process, and I don't see Chantal making it to hurricane strength before interacting with the mountains of Hispaniola and/or Cuba on Tuesday night and Wednesday. This interaction may be able to destroy the storm, since wind shear is also expected to rise to the high range, 20 - 30 knots, Tuesday night through Thursday. Chantal has the potential to cause big problems for Haiti, which is highly vulnerable to flash flooding due to the lack of vegetation on the deforested mountains. However, there is a lot of dry air to the west of Chantal, which may act to keep rainfall totals in Haiti down to a manageable 2 - 4". Over 300,000 people are still homeless and living in makeshift tent camps in Haiti, three years after the great 2010 earthquake.

Once Chantal crosses Hispaniola and enters the Bahamas late this week, the trough of low pressure pulling the storm to the northwest is expected to lift out. It is unclear at this point whether or not this trough will be strong enough to pull Chantal out to sea, or whether the storm might be forced back to the northwest into the U.S. East Coast by high pressure building in.


Figure 3. There have been only thirteen tropical depressions or tropical storms that have formed July 15 or earlier that have passed through the Lesser Antilles since 1851, an average of one such tropical cyclone every thirteen years. Note that two of these storms, Dennis and Emily, occurred during the notorious Hurricane Season of 2005. There were five other pre-July 16 storms that formed east of the Lesser Antilles Islands, but did not pass through the islands (Bertha of 2009, Barry of 1989, and unnamed tropical depressions in 1967, 1978, and 2001.) Image credit: NOAA's Historical Hurricane Tracks website.

Chantal: an uncommon early-season Cape Verde-type tropical storm
Formation of a tropical storm east of the Lesser Antilles Islands in early July from an African tropical wave is an uncommon occurrence. Since Atlantic hurricane records began in 1851, there have been only thirteen tropical depressions or tropical storms that have formed July 15 or earlier that have passed through the Lesser Antilles, an average of one early-season tropical cyclone every thirteen years. Note that two of these storms, Dennis and Emily, occurred during the notorious Hurricane Season of 2005. There were five other pre-July 16 storms that formed east of the Lesser Antilles Islands, but did not pass through the islands (Bertha of 2009, Barry of 1989, and tropical depressions in 1967, 1978, and 2001 that did not become named storms.)

Chantal: a likely harbinger of an active Atlantic hurricane season
Chantal's formation on July 8 is an usually early date for formation of the season's third storm, which usually occurs on August 13. A large number of early-season named storms is not necessarily a harbinger of an active season, unless one or more of these storms form in the deep tropics, south of 23.5°N. According to Phil Klotzbach and Bill Gray, leaders of Colorado State's seasonal hurricane forecasting team,

"Most years do not have named storm formations in June and July in the tropical Atlantic (south of 23.5°N); however, if tropical formations do occur, it indicates that a very active hurricane season is likely. For example, the seven years with the most named storm days in the deep tropics in June and July (since 1949) are 1966, 1969, 1995, 1996, 1998, 2005, and 2008. All seven of these seasons were very active. When storms form in the deep tropics in the early part of the hurricane season, it indicates that conditions are already very favorable for TC development. In general, the start of the hurricane season is restricted by thermodynamics (warm SSTs, unstable lapse rates), and therefore deep tropical activity early in the hurricane season implies that the thermodynamics are already quite favorable for tropical cyclone (TC) development."

Two of this season's three storms have formed in the deep tropics--Tropical Storm Barry, which formed in the Gulf of Mexico's Bay of Campeche at a latitude of 19.6°N, and now Tropical Storm Chantal, which formed at a latitude of 9.8°N. With recent runs of the GFS model predicting formation of yet another tropical storm southwest of the Cape Verde Islands early next week, it appears that the Atlantic is primed for an active hurricane season in 2013.

Jeff Masters

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 3333 - 3283

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70Blog Index

Recon is going in for another center fix.
Member Since: July 7, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 5682
3332. Grothar
Quoting 3328. StormPro:

I usually pop in every morning Gro, Most of the time I'm lurkin' or working. How are you my friend?


perkin'
Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 26137
3331. Grothar
126 hours


Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 26137
3330. bwi
Barbados radar presentation impressive. No eyewall, but you can see the outlines of where it would like to set up -- cruising along 14n
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 3321. HurricaneAndre:

pretty good winds in there and might even be safe to say the winds and Tropical Storm Chantal will have winds of 60MPH and pressure down to 1003MB

Taco :o)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 3316. Grothar:


Hey, Pro. Where you've been hiding yourself? They only let you out on "Storm Week"?

I usually pop in every morning Gro, Most of the time I'm lurkin' or working. How are you my friend?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
8am Models are in...... Models shifted a little south... Bringing Chantal in near Stuart....
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
NWS Office Charleston is finally paying close attention:

MAIN FORECAST CHALLENGE THIS PERIOD IS WHAT HAPPENS TO TROPICAL
STORM CHANTAL. LATEST GFS...ECMWF AND CANADIAN MODELS ALL OVER THE
PLACE WITH TRACK AND INTENSITY BEYOND DAY 5 SO CONFIDENCE IN THIS
PERIOD IS UNUSUALLY LOW. FEEL A KEY PLAYER IN THE EVENTUAL TRACK OF
CHANTAL IS WHAT HAPPENS TO THE UPPER LEVEL WEAKNESS THAT IS EXPECTED
TO BE PREVALENT ALONG THE EAST COAST THIS WEEKEND. WITH THE 00Z/09
CANADIAN SOLUTION OF CHANTAL MAKING LANDFALL IN OUR COUNTY WARNING
AREA AND QUITE A FEW GFS ENSEMBLE MEMBERS TRACKING THE SYSTEM ACROSS
THE CWA OR JUST SOUTH OF THE AREA INTO FAR SOUTHEAST GEORGIA OR FAR
NORTH FLORIDA NOW IS NOT THE TIME TO LET OUR GUARD DOWN. THE CHANCE
OF THE SYSTEM DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY IMPACTING THE SOUTHEAST COAST
AND POSSIBLY OUR CWA IS INCREASING WITH TIME AND CERTAINLY NEEDS TO
BE CLOSELY WATCHED.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3325. hydrus
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 3311. washingtonian115:
GFS says to hell with Florida?.That model sure has it out for you guys.
Chantal looks angry in that pic.If it tracks over the flat part then watch out Florida!.

BahaHurican
Tole ya Chantal is a full time drama queen...

The show is interesting to watch indeed.
LOL... agreed... much more interesting here than the discussion the last 2 wks before Chantal... ;o)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 3315. MAweatherboy1:
This could change, but right now shear is low and decreasing off the east coast of FL in the Bahamas region, that could allow for some pretty fast strengthening in that area if it survives to get there. The farther north it goes, the better it should do:

Shear continues to decrease in the Ecab just in time for Chantal as it is going to pass that part today and tomorrow.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3322. SLU
Winds in St. Lucia are variable at 5mph with light rain. No sign of a strong TS on our doorstep ...... yet.
Member Since: July 13, 2006 Posts: 12 Comments: 5145
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 3286. pottery:

Good to see you.
Keep an eye east. Stuff is coming in....


Thanks. Yup, I see what is coming off the coast of Africa.

Looks for an interesting while ahead.

Take Care.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 3310. Grothar:



They've been a little gray on that one.


Very nice!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 3304. StormPro:

But first it will hit DC LOL
Good morning all from NOLA
80 this morning with 93% humidity....sticky sticky
Not if it comes in perpendicular to the east coast :).
Member Since: August 14, 2010 Posts: 10 Comments: 16971

Quoting 3296. FIUStormChaser:
Models still have that sharp turn West,  The models really reminds me of Frances in 2004.
If it turn that far east then the west turn back will be even faster putting Central/South Florida more at risk thus this is going to slow down to a drift as the High builds over it as Hydrus mentioned a pattern very favorable for fast development. Not to mention if it becomes a hurricane and dont weaken as much by the land interaction. That will be the worse case scenario. Watch this storm carefully.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3316. Grothar
Quoting 3304. StormPro:

But first it will hit DC LOL
Good morning all from NOLA
80 this morning with 93% humidity....sticky sticky


Hey, Pro. Where you've been hiding yourself? They only let you out on "Storm Week"?
Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 26137
This could change, but right now shear is low and decreasing off the east coast of FL in the Bahamas region, that could allow for some pretty fast strengthening in that area if it survives to get there. The farther north it goes, the better it should do:

Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 83 Comments: 7782
3314. Skyepony (Mod)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 3301. BahaHurican:
Agreed. I'm more concerned about it as the harbinger of "worser" things to come.



It may be even more worserer than you think. :)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 3282. bajelayman2:
Hi All,

Hey pottery, Baha etc...

Rain here in Barbados, authorities were very prepared last night, after the lesson from Tomas.

But looks like Chantal is having a bit of a time. Possibly a rain event for folks down the road, could cause some flooding.

The one behind, about four days off Barbados, is what I would worry about more, although one should never discount a storm, so Chantal could still spring a surprise.

Awaiting all clear to get to work.

Have a good day.
Unfortunately for us, looks like lots more stuff headed our way. And given this high setup, Chantal may not be out of the ordinary trackwise for the season... :o/
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 3277. Grothar:
120 hours



276 hours

GFS says to hell with Florida?.That model sure has it out for you guys.
Quoting 3295. hydrus:
Florida may have a significant storm on there hands if not weakened much from land interaction. The trough that is forecast to lift Chantal north is a fast mover. High pressure that is already strong will build in rapidly as the trough lifts out. This set up would also favor fairly rapid intensification.


Chantal looks angry in that pic.If it tracks over the flat part then watch out Florida!.

BahaHurican
Tole ya Chantal is a full time drama queen...

The show is interesting to watch indeed.
Member Since: August 14, 2010 Posts: 10 Comments: 16971
3310. Grothar
Quoting 3307. GeoffreyWPB:
Are the models still spinning up a future Dorian?




They've been a little gray on that one.
Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 26137
Cuba and Hispanola have always been the equivalent of "barrier islands" for Florida bound storms taking these kinds of tracks. The models have been upgraded over the years to try and account for land interaction issues but a wobble or two around a mountainous area can make a big difference in the survival of the circulation.

Thursday and Friday will be pretty exciting times with lots of last minute adjustments and increased recon flights.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Are the models still spinning up a future Dorian?

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
When are da models saying the next "storm" will form?
Member Since: October 15, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 420
Last hurricane to hit Florida was in 2005. It's been a while.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 3272. washingtonian115:
This is going to become a cat 7 and cause unthinkable destruction in NYC and New England as a whole?.What'chu taking about?.lol.

But first it will hit DC LOL
Good morning all from NOLA
80 this morning with 93% humidity....sticky sticky
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Time: 12:30:00Z
Coordinates: 14.3N 59.8167W
Acft. Static Air Press: 958.8 mb (~ 28.31 inHg)
Acft. Geopotential Hgt: 491 meters (~ 1,611 feet)
Extrap. Sfc. Press: 1014.7 mb (~ 29.96 inHg)
D-value: -
Flt. Lvl. Wind (30s): From 131° at 59 knots (From the SE at ~ 67.8 mph)
Air Temp: 19.8°C (~ 67.6°F)
Dew Pt: 19.8°C (~ 67.6°F)
Peak (10s) Flt. Lvl. Wind: 62 knots (~ 71.3 mph)
SFMR Peak (10s) Sfc. Wind: 49 knots (~ 56.3 mph)
SFMR Rain Rate: 15 mm/hr (~ 0.59 in/hr)
(*) Denotes suspect data
Member Since: October 15, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 420
Quoting 3285. rmbjoe1954:


The pictures are not downloading for me. Why the 'yikes'?


Barbados radar.

Link
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 3268. presslord:
since weathermanwannabe has already broken the rules about realism here...I'll offer up my two cents worth: This ain't exactly gonna be the Storm of the Century...or the Decade...or even the Year...
Agreed. I'm more concerned about it as the harbinger of "worser" things to come.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Member Since: July 7, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 5682
Starting to get some serious thunder here... so of course, on the day I don't have to leave before 10 a.m., the wx is going to wait right until then to pour... lol...

Quoting 3259. washingtonian115:
Chantal has been trolling hard these last few days.Just when people think it's the end for her she comes back and laughs in our faces playing pick-a-boo.Shows that we still have a lot to learn in terms of developing cyclones.
Tole ya Chantal is a full time drama queen...

Quoting 3265. Waltanater:
Maybe it is a sign we will be in for it! Time to blow away 2005 numbers and stats!
Let's not. Let's not even say we did.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3298. gator23
Beryl 2012 hit in May ;-)

Quoting 3179. JrWeathermanFL:
Good Morning all! I wouldn't mind if Chantal hit FL. It's about time we get a non-june storm to hit us. The last was Bonne in 2010. Not that we need the rain, but still fun nevertheless to be in a TS.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 3294. Waltanater:
I don't think anyone has really written her off (maybe one person)...she is definitely relentless.
I like that word, "relentless."
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Models still have that sharp turn West,  The models really reminds me of Frances in 2004.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3295. hydrus
Florida may have a significant storm on there hands if not weakened much from land interaction. The trough that is forecast to lift Chantal north is a fast mover. High pressure that is already strong will build in rapidly as the trough lifts out. This set up would also favor fairly rapid intensification.


Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 3259. washingtonian115:
Chantal has been trolling hard these last few days.Just when people think it's the end for her she comes back and laughs in our faces playing pick-a-boo.Shows that we still have a lot to learn in terms of developing cyclones.
I don't think anyone has really written her off (maybe one person)...she is definitely relentless.
Member Since: May 16, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1472
Product: Air Force Vortex Message (URNT12 KNHC)
Transmitted: 9th day of the month at 12:18Z
Aircraft: Air Force Aircraft (Last 3 digits of the tail number are 302)
Storm Number & Year: 03L in 2013
Storm Name: Chantal (flight in the North Atlantic basin)
Mission Number: 2
Observation Number: 03
A. Time of Center Fix: 9th day of the month at 12:04:10Z
B. Center Fix Coordinates: 13°52'N 60°19'W (13.8667N 60.3167W)
B. Center Fix Location: 46 miles (74 km) to the ESE (102°) from Castries, Saint Lucia.
C. Minimum Height at Standard Level: Not Available
D. Estimated (by SFMR or visually) Maximum Surface Wind: 52kts (~ 59.8mph)
E. Location of the Estimated Maximum Surface Wind: 25 nautical miles (29 statute miles) to the N (356°) of center fix
F. Maximum Flight Level Wind Inbound: From 80° at 64kts (From the E at ~ 73.6mph)
G. Location of Maximum Flight Level Wind Inbound: 25 nautical miles (29 statute miles) to the N (358°) of center fix
H. Minimum Sea Level Pressure: 1003mb (29.62 inHg) - Extrapolated
I. Maximum Flight Level Temp & Pressure Altitude Outside Eye: 21°C (70°F) at a pressure alt. of 391m (1,283ft)
J. Maximum Flight Level Temp & Pressure Altitude Inside Eye: 23°C (73°F) at a pressure alt. of 363m (1,191ft)
K. Dewpoint Temp (collected at same location as temp inside eye): 23°C (73°F)
K. Sea Surface Temp (collected at same location as temp inside eye): Not Available
L. Eye Character: Not Available
M. Eye Shape: Not Available
N. Fix Determined By: Penetration, Wind and Temperature
N. Fix Level: 1,500 feet
O. Navigational Fix Accuracy: 0.02 nautical miles
O. Meteorological Accuracy: 2 nautical miles
Remarks Section:
Maximum Flight Level Wind: 64kts (~ 73.6mph) which was observed 25 nautical miles (29 statute miles) to the N (358°) from the flight level center at 11:52:00Z
Sea Level Pressure Extrapolation From: Below 1,500 feet
Maximum Flight Level Temp: 24°C (75°F) which was observed 7 nautical miles to the NNE/NE (34°) from the flight level center
Member Since: October 15, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 420
Several more 50-58mph winds just reported by recon.
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 83 Comments: 7782
Looks like recon supports 60 mph at 11 am.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3290. Grothar
Quoting 3275. weatherh98:


Surface circulation on the Bahamas system

Gro I see a blobcon being raised in the near future


OK, BlobCon 2 on this one.

Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 26137
3289. Skyepony (Mod)
Product: Air Force Vortex Message (URNT12 KNHC)
Transmitted: 9th day of the month at 12:18Z
Aircraft: Air Force Aircraft (Last 3 digits of the tail number are 302)
Storm Number & Year: 03L in 2013
Storm Name: Chantal (flight in the North Atlantic basin)
Mission Number: 2
Observation Number: 03
A. Time of Center Fix: 9th day of the month at 12:04:10Z
B. Center Fix Coordinates: 13°52'N 60°19'W (13.8667N 60.3167W) (View map)
B. Center Fix Location: 46 miles (74 km) to the ESE (102°) from Castries, Saint Lucia.
C. Minimum Height at Standard Level: Not Available
D. Estimated (by SFMR or visually) Maximum Surface Wind: 52kts (~ 59.8mph)
E. Location of the Estimated Maximum Surface Wind: 25 nautical miles (29 statute miles) to the N (356°) of center fix
F. Maximum Flight Level Wind Inbound: From 80° at 64kts (From the E at ~ 73.6mph)
G. Location of Maximum Flight Level Wind Inbound: 25 nautical miles (29 statute miles) to the N (358°) of center fix
H. Minimum Sea Level Pressure: 1003mb (29.62 inHg) - Extrapolated
I. Maximum Flight Level Temp & Pressure Altitude Outside Eye: 21°C (70°F) at a pressure alt. of 391m (1,283ft)
J. Maximum Flight Level Temp & Pressure Altitude Inside Eye: 23°C (73°F) at a pressure alt. of 363m (1,191ft)
K. Dewpoint Temp (collected at same location as temp inside eye): 23°C (73°F)
K. Sea Surface Temp (collected at same location as temp inside eye): Not Available
L. Eye Character: Not Available
M. Eye Shape: Not Available
N. Fix Determined By: Penetration, Wind and Temperature
N. Fix Level: 1,500 feet
O. Navigational Fix Accuracy: 0.02 nautical miles
O. Meteorological Accuracy: 2 nautical miles
Remarks Section:
Maximum Flight Level Wind: 64kts (~ 73.6mph) which was observed 25 nautical miles (29 statute miles) to the N (358°) from the flight level center at 11:52:00Z
Sea Level Pressure Extrapolation From: Below 1,500 feet
Maximum Flight Level Temp: 24°C (75°F) which was observed 7 nautical miles to the NNE/NE (34°) from the flight level center
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
I have seen many storm that look very organized but it is not producing even a breeze. This on the other hand continues to strengthen regardless of satellite appearance which brings up the point that Recon is the best source of meteorology for TC. As man as got a lot to learn about the system. Given that at anytime the system can fire off more convection and rapidly intensify so for now dont judge the storm based only on satellite or you will be wrong. 
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3286. pottery
Quoting bajelayman2:
Hi All,

Hey pottery, Baha etc...

Rain here in Barbados, authorities were very prepared last night, after the lesson from Tomas.

But looks like Chantal is having a bit of a time. Possibly a rain event for folks down the road, could cause some flooding.

The one behind, about four days off Barbados, is what I would worry about more, although one should never discount a storm, so Chantal could still spring a surprise.

Awaiting all clear to get to work.

Have a good day.

Good to see you.
Keep an eye east. Stuff is coming in....
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 3278. Tropicsweatherpr:
Yikes!



The pictures are not downloading for me. Why the 'yikes'?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 3249. GetReal:



Amazingly Chantal satellite presentation is not as impressive as it was yesterday at this time, but RECON is finding lower pressure and stronger winds.
Maybe recon flew into the wrong system!? O_o
Member Since: May 16, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1472
Looks like she is passing between St. Lucia and Martinique right now!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Viewing: 3333 - 3283

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.