Over 500 Killed in India's Monsoon Floods

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:25 PM GMT on June 21, 2013

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Earth's deadliest natural disaster so far in 2013 is the deadly flooding in India's Himalayan Uttarakhand region, where torrential monsoon rains have killed at least 556 people, with hundreds more feared dead. At least 5,000 people are missing. According to the Indian Meteorological Department, Uttarakhand received more than three times (329%) of its normal June rainfall from June 1 - 21, and rainfall was 847% of normal during the week June 13 - 19. Satellite estimates indicate that more than 20" (508 mm) or rain fell in a 7-day period from June 11 - 17 over some regions of Uttarakhand, which lies just to the west of Nepal in the Himalayas. Dehradun, the capital of Uttarakhand, received 14.57" (370 mm) of rain in 24 hours on June 16 - 17. This was the highest 24-hour rainfall in city history, according to an official from the India Meteorological Department. Dr. Dave Petley's Landslide Blog details that the torrential rains triggered a massive landslide that hit Uttarakhand's Hindu shrine in Kedarnath, which lies just a short distance from the snout of two mountain glaciers. The shrine is an important pilgrimage destination this time of year, and was packed with visitors celebrating the char-dham yatra: a pilgrimage to the four holy sites of Gangotri, Kedarnath, Yamnotri and Badrinath. Apparently, heavy rainfall triggered a collapse event on the mountain above Kedarnath, which turned into a debris flow downstream that struck the town. The main temple was heavily damaged, and numerous buildings in the town were demolished. It was Earth's deadliest landslide since the August 2010 Zhouqu landslide in China.

According to Aon Benfield's May Catastrophe Report, Earth's deadliest natural disasters of 2013 so far:

Winter weather, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, 1/1 - 1/20, 329 deaths
Earthquake, China, 4/20, 196 deaths
Flooding, Southern Africa, 1/10 - 2/28, 175 deaths
Flooding, Argentina, 4/2 - 4/4, 70 deaths
Flooding, Kenya, 3/10 - 4/30, 66 deaths


Figure 1. Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) arrive to rescue stranded Sikh devotees from Hemkunt Sahib Gurudwara, a religious Sikh temple, to a safe place in Chamoli district, in northern Indian state of Uttarakhand, India, Monday, June 17, 2013. AP photo.


Figure 2. Satellite-estimated rainfall for the 7-day period June 11 - 17, 2013, from NASA's TRMM satellite exceeded 20 inches (508 mm) over portions of India's Uttarakhand province, leading to catastrophic floods. Image credit: NASA.

A record early arrival of the monsoon
The June 2013 monsoon rains in Uttarakhand were highly unusual, as the monsoon came to the region two weeks earlier than normal. The monsoon started in South India near the normal June 1 arrival date, but then advanced across India in unusually rapid fashion, arriving in Pakistan along the western border of India on June 16, a full month earlier than normal. This was the fastest progression of the monsoon on record. The previous record for fastest monsoon progression occurred in 1961, when all of India was under monsoon conditions by June 21. Reliable monsoon records go back to 1961, and are patchy before then. Fortunately, no more heavy rain is expected in Uttarakhand over the next few days, as the monsoon will be active only in eastern India. Heavy rains are expected again in the region beginning on June 24. Wunderblogger Lee Grenci's post, Summer Monsoon Advances Rapidly across India: Massive Flooding Ensues, has more detail on the meteorology of this year's monsoon. There is criticism from some that the devastating floods were not entirely a natural disaster--human-caused deforestation, dam building, and mining may have contributed. "Large-scale construction of dams and absence of environmental regulations has led to the floods," said Sunita Narian, director general of Delhi based advocacy group Centre for Science and Environment (CSE).


Figure 3. The summer monsoon arrived in southwest India right on schedule (June 1) in South India, but it spread northward much faster than usual, reaching Pakistan a full month earlier than normal. Solid green contours indicate the progress of the 2013 summer monsoon (each contour is labeled with a date). You can compare this year's rapid advance to a "normal" progression, which is represented by the dashed, red contours (also labeled with dates).

Monsoons in India: a primer
Disastrous monsoon floods are common in India and surrounding nations, and 60,000 people--an average of 500 people per year--died in India due to monsoon floods between 1900 - 2012, according to EM-DAT, the International Disaster Database. EM-DAT lists sixteen flood disasters which killed 1,000 or more people in India since records began in 1950. Here are the number of people killed in these events, along with the month and year of occurrence and locales affected:

4892, Jul 1968, Rajasthan, Gujara
3800, Jul 1978, North, Northeast
2001, May - Oct, 1994, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh
2000, Jul 1961, North
1811, Aug 1998, Assam, Arunachal, Bihar
1600, Aug 1980, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar
1591, Jul 28, 1989, Maharashtra, Andhra Prade
1479, Sep 1995, Bihar, Haryana, Punjab
1442, Aug 1997, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal
1200, Jul 24 - Aug 5, 2005 Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh
1200, Aug 1987, Assam, Bihar, West Bengal
1103, Jul 3 - Sep 22, 2007, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh
1063, Jun 11 - Jul 21, 2008 West Bengal, Orissa
1023, Jun 1971, North
1000, Sep 22 - Oct 9, 1988, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh
1000, Oct 1961

The monsoon occurs in summer, when the sun warms up land areas more strongly than ocean areas. This happens because wind and ocean turbulence mix the ocean's absorbed heat into a "mixed layer" approximately 50 meters deep, whereas on land, the sun's heat penetrates at a slow rate to a limited depth. Furthermore, due to its molecular properties, water has the ability to absorb more heat than the solid materials that make up land. As a result of this summertime differential heating of land and ocean, a low pressure region featuring rising air develops over land areas. Moisture-laden ocean winds blow towards the low pressure region and are drawn upwards once over land. The rising air expands and cools, condensing its moisture into some of the heaviest rains on Earth--the monsoon. Monsoons operate via the same principle as the familiar summer afternoon sea breeze, but on a grand scale. Each summer, monsoons affect every continent on Earth except Antarctica, and are responsible for life-giving rains that sustain the lives of billions of people. In India, home for over 1.1 billion people, the monsoon provides 80% of the annual rainfall. The most deadly flooding events usually come from monsoon depressions (also known as monsoon lows.) A monsoon depression is similar to (but larger than) a tropical depression. Both are spinning storms hundreds of kilometers in diameter with sustained winds of 50 - 55 kph (30 - 35 mph), nearly calm winds at their center, and generate very heavy rains. Typically, 6 - 7 monsoon depressions form each summer over the Bay of Bengal and track westwards across India.

The future of monsoons in India
A warming climate loads the dice in favor of heavier extreme precipitation events. This occurs because more water vapor can evaporate into a warmer atmosphere, increasing the chances of record heavy downpours. In a study published in Science in 2006, Goswami et al. found that the level of heavy rainfall activity in the monsoon over India had more than doubled in the 50 years since the 1950s, leading to an increased disaster potential from heavy flooding. Moderate and weak rain events decreased during those 50 years, leaving the total amount of rain deposited by the monsoon roughly constant. The authors commented, "These findings are in tune with model projections and some observations that indicate an increase in heavy rain events and a decrease in weak events under global warming scenarios." We should expect to see an increased number of disastrous monsoon floods in coming decades if the climate continues to warm as expected. Since the population continues to increase at a rapid rate in the region, death tolls from monsoon flooding disasters are likely to climb dramatically in coming decades. However, my greater concern for India is drought. The monsoon rains often fail during El Niño years, and more than 4.2 million people died in India due to droughts between 1900 - 2012. Up until the late 1960s, it was common for the failure of the monsoon rains to kill millions of people in India. The drought of 1965 - 1967 killed at least 1.5 million people. However, since the Green Revolution of the late 1960s--a government initiative to improve food self-sufficiency using new technology and high-yield grains--failure of the monsoon rains has not led to mass starvation in India. It is uncertain whether of not the Green Revolution can keep up with India's booming population, and the potential that climate change might bring more severe droughts. Climate models show a wide range of possibilities for the future of the Indian monsoon, and it is unclear at present what the future might hold. However, the fact that one of the worst droughts in India's history occurred in 2009 shows that serious droughts have to be a major concern for the future. The five worst Indian monsoons along with the rainfall deficits for the nation:

1) 1877, -33%
2) 1899, -29%
3) 1918, -25%
4) 1972, -24%
5) 2009, -22%

References
Goswami, et al., 2006, " Increasing Trend of Extreme Rain Events Over India in a Warming Environment", Science, 1 December 2006:Vol. 314. no. 5804, pp. 1442 - 1445 DOI: 10.1126/science.1132027

Wunderground's climate change blogger Dr. Ricky Rood wrote a nice 3-part series about the challenges India faces due to climate change after he completed a 2009 trip there.


Video 1. Flood waters claim a multi-story apartment building in Uttarakhand province, India, on June 17, 2013.

Historic flooding in Calgary, Alberta
Torrential rainfall on Wednesday night and Thursday has resulted in the most extensive flooding in Alberta Province, Canada in at least 8 years, with some 100,000 people facing evacuations in the city of Calgary. Wunderblogger Christopher C. Burt has a look at the disaster in his latest post. The floods are due, in part to the "stuck" jet stream pattern that brought record heat to Alaska this week.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting mikatnight:


34 kilometers...is that considered deep?

Relatively deep. 10km ^ is considered shallow.
Member Since: September 30, 2007 Posts: 9 Comments: 15938
How is everyone doing tonight on the blog?
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I spy with my little eye something beginning with L.

Member Since: September 30, 2007 Posts: 9 Comments: 15938
00z GFS 81 hrs. Twin Tropical Storms in the EPAC 995 mb. and 1000 mb. respectively.



Absorbed at 120 hrs. into one system.

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Quoting mikatnight:
I added a link on post #330.

More strange numbers from the report that generated the graph in #330. For example, if you drill down into heat related deaths for 2012, we find Alabama had 8, while next door in Mississippi, they had 1. Across the border in Florida, there were none. The entire state for Texas reported 3 while Oklahoma reported none.
Alabama has about 4.8 million people while Mississippi has about 3 million. Generally, we don't go over to MS to cool off, so it's hard to believe the levels of heat were much different, and population differences are not enough to explain the differences. Texas is pretty darned hot, and has lots of people, yet over twice as many people died of heat in Alabama as Texas? I've also never known Oklahoma to be a mountain resort in the summer either, yet no one died of heat there. Obviously, there are major differences in how weather related deaths are reported by states. I've often thought these death and damage estimates are not reliable and, from what I've seen in these reports, I still have no reason to think otherwise.
Member Since: October 2, 2004 Posts: 0 Comments: 16023
Quoting Civicane49:
4.5 quake north of Molokai earlier today. I didn't really feel it on Oahu.



34 kilometers...is that considered deep?
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4.5 quake north of Molokai earlier today. I didn't really feel it on Oahu.

Member Since: July 21, 2011 Posts: 83 Comments: 7167
Goodnight guys.
Member Since: June 11, 2013 Posts: 20 Comments: 3212
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Area off the east coast..

Frank Strait Fan Club: It's over some warm water so we gotta watch it carefully. I don't expect it to explode or anything but critters like this tend to surprise people.
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#344 - Are you saying the government is bad with money?

Oh, that's right, this is the same organization that sent a billion dollars in cash on a pallet to Iraq.
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Quoting GTcooliebai:
Thanks for clearing that up, was not sure if there was any credence into that at all. Anyways while searching through the NHC website tonight I came across this chart.



WOW
3 Category 5 Hurricanes
7 Category 4 Hurricanes
34 Category 3 Hurricanes
22 Category 2 Hurricanes
40 Category 1 Hurricanes

That's a very big jump from Category 3 to 4.
Just goes to show CONUS is more than likely to be hit by a Category 1-3 than a 4-5.
Member Since: September 30, 2007 Posts: 9 Comments: 15938
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Quoting mikatnight:


This is a higher resolution, but don't know if it'll be any better...


Here's the PDF on it:
Billion-Dollar U.S. Weather/Climate Disasters 1980-2012
National Climatic Data Center Asheville, NC

http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/billions/
The U.S. has sustained 144 weather/climate disasters since 1980 in which overall
damages/costs reached or exceeded $1 billion. Values in parentheses represent the
2013 Consumer Price Index (CPI) cost adjusted value (if different than original value).
The total cost of these 144 events exceeds $1 trillion
...

Thanks for the PDF link. As I thought, the 1991 fire is the Oakland Hills firestorm. According to the PDF, the damage in 1991 dollars is $2.5 billion and 2013 dollars as $4.3 billion, neither on of which matches the map. The $2.5 billion is $1 billion overestimated based on what was actually paid, at any rate.

Ah, I see the small print at the end:

Caveat for economic loss estimates:
These statistics were taken from a wide variety of sources and represent, to the best of our ability, the estimated total costs of these events -- that is, the costs in terms of dollars that would not have been incurred had the event not taken place. Insured and uninsured losses are included in damage
estimates.


This seems to be a bizarre way to estimate damage. How does one estimate costs which would not have been incurred? For an event in 1991, the total cost is already known, which is about $1.5 billion. I really have no clue where the extra $1 billion could have come from.
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I added a link on post #330.
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Where is my cookie?? I have been posting about the potential set up off our coast for a minute..

Frank Strait ‏@AccuFrank 1h

An interesting little swirl has formed off of Cape Fear ... #ncwx #scwx pic.twitter.com/VmXO7jCOM3

Frank Strait ‏@AccuFrank 4m

Houston, we have a problem. Well, maybe it's Wilmington or Myrtle Beach or Miami that has the problem. pic.twitter.com/4mNxuQ8ZFP
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Quoting HurricaneAndre:
Will ya'll stop hiding ya'll comments.

Darn it, he caught us!
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Quoting Patrap:
do I see a spin there
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Quoting HurricaneAndre:
Will ya'll stop hiding ya'll comments.

Check that you have "show all" selected in filter dropdown
Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted Filter: Show All
Member Since: February 2, 2011 Posts: 3 Comments: 904
Will ya'll stop hiding ya'll comments.
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Quoting sar2401:

It's kind of hard to read those numbers. Even at the URL in the post, I still can't read them well. I would really like to know exactly where some of those figures came from though. It appears the northern California 1991 fire event must have been the Oakland Hills Firestorm. It appears that the damage figure is $3.6 billion. If that's what it's supposed to represent, that figure is wildly inflated. The highest estimates at the time were about $1.8 billion, and the actual cost was about $1.5 billion.


This is a higher resolution, but don't know if it'll be any better...


Here's the PDF on it:
Billion-Dollar U.S. Weather/Climate Disasters 1980-2012
National Climatic Data Center Asheville, NC

http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/billions/
The U.S. has sustained 144 weather/climate disasters since 1980 in which overall
damages/costs reached or exceeded $1 billion. Values in parentheses represent the
2013 Consumer Price Index (CPI) cost adjusted value (if different than original value).
The total cost of these 144 events exceeds $1 trillion
...
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That low off the Carolina's looks impressive on Wilmington radar. Pretty surprised it doesn't have an invest tag at least.
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12Z CMC at 240HR and 18Z GFS at 228HR in the Caribbean

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Quoting mikatnight:

It's kind of hard to read those numbers. Even at the URL in the post, I still can't read them well. I would really like to know exactly where some of those figures came from though. It appears the northern California 1991 fire event must have been the Oakland Hills Firestorm. It appears that the damage figure is $3.6 billion. If that's what it's supposed to represent, that figure is wildly inflated. The highest estimates at the time were about $1.8 billion, and the actual cost was about $1.5 billion.
Member Since: October 2, 2004 Posts: 0 Comments: 16023


LINK
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329. LBAR
Y'all watching that swirl off of Cape Fear, NC? Looks interesting on RADAR
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Toll now 556 in Uttarakhand; after rain, hunger begins to kill

HT Correspondents, Agencies Dehradun/Haridwar/New Delhi, June 21, 2013

First Published: 12:28 IST(21/6/2013)


It truly is a Himalayan tragedy, the scale of which is unfolding as rescuers begin to reach areas that had remained inaccessible so far. But as Uttarakhand comes to terms with one calamity, another tragedy seems to be in the making - there are reports of flood victims dying of hunger.

As feared the death toll in the flash floods and landslides that ravaged the Himalayan state on June 16 went up on Friday. Official figures put the dead at 556.

As many as 48 bodies were found floating on the Ganges in Haridwar district.

Survivors are bringing with them tales of horror and desperation. Lalit Pant, a football coach from Meerut who with his family trekked through a dense forest for six days, said there were around 1,000 corpses lying along the jungle route from Kedarnath to Ukhimath. Most of them, he said, had died of hunger and dehydration.

"We too would've met the same fate had we been late even by a few hours in reaching here", the 47-year-old told HT over the phone from Ukhimath in Rudraprayag district.

Pant said he was forced to push 300 corpses into the swollen Mandakini along his route as the bodies had begun to decay and there was a fear of epidemic. As many as 15,000-20,000 people are still stranded in the Kedar valley.

Speaking to HT, SSP Rajeev Swaroop said, "In all about 48 bodies have been traced at different locations in Ganga. We have recovered 15 bodies so far including one of a woman and the process of recovering bodies is still on. These have been kept at Rishikul ayurvedic college morchery. Identification of these bodies is a challenge since they are swollen up, and badly damaged."

Chief minister Vijay Bahuguna, who gave the updated death toll, said 556 bodies were recovered from under the debris. He told CNN-IBN "556 bodies have been recovered and there were reports that more could be buried under the debris."

He also said it would take another 15 days to complete the evacuation, adding "this kind of disaster has never happened in the Himalayan history".

Earlier, the Union home minister Sushilkumar Shinde put the official death count at 207 and expressed fears that the figure might go up as the army carried on clearing the debris.


A survivor pleads with a soldier to allow him to board a helicopter Badrinath in Uttarakhand. (Reuters)


So far, the agencies have rescued 34,000 people, Shine said and announced appointment of former Union home secretary VK Duggal as the nodal officer to coordinate relief and rescue operations.

About 50,000-odd people are still trapped, he said. Rescuing them is the biggest challenge in the face of apprehensions that there could be another bout of nonstop rain anytime, sources said.

The number of dead is suspected to be much higher. Locals and those involved in rescue say many thousands of people remain unaccounted for. More than 32,000 people are still stranded.

Thirteen more Indian Air Force helicopters joined the rescue operations on Friday, taking to 43 the number of choppers rescuing people. Ten private helicopters are also in use.

Air Marshal SB Deo, Director General Air (Operations), said in Delhi that they were stepping up rescue and relief operations as there were indications of inclement weather after next 48 hours.

"We have a window of 48 hours to do rescue and relief work," he said.
While admitting that difficult terrain was posing a challenge, the Centre said IAF choppers had conducted 241 sorties so far.

After a briefing by the group of ministers (GoM) in the afternoon, government's chief spokesperson Neelam Kapur held a second briefing in the evening to give an update on rescue operations.

The IAF has moved to forward bases, including Guptkashi and Pitthoragarh, to evacuate stranded people while the Border Roads Organization had also stepped up efforts to restore access to some of the worst-affected regions.

The IAF deployed 13 more aircraft for relief and rescue work, taking to 43 the total number of planes in operation.

The aircraft including IAF's heavylift Mi-26 helicopters -- the world's largest chopper -- for transporting fuel and heavy equipment required by the Border Roads Organisation (BRO) to clear roads closed due to landslide and also set up an airbridge in one affected area to pull out stranded persons.
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327. Skyepony (Mod)
Flash Flood in India on Monday, 17 June, 2013 at 07:30 (07:30 AM) UTC.

Back
Updated: Friday, 21 June, 2013 at 17:55 UTC
Description
Evacuation of all people stranded in the affected areas of Uttarakhand may take many days considering the scale of devastation and any number of helicopters for rescue job is not enough, a senior Army officer said on Friday. "I would say we should engage all the mechanism and equipment at our disposal in the evacuation of stranded pilgrims and people. Massive damage has been caused with vast stretches of roads totally washed away," GOC-In-Chief Central Command Lt Gen Anil Chaith told reporters here. He said the victims can only be airlifted in choppers which on an average have a capacity to accommodate only 20--25 people whereas thousands still are stranded and the Army urgently needs more choppers. Pointing out that the calamity has wreaked havoc in a 4,00,000 sq km area, the Lt Gen said the Central Command has been entrusted with the task of evacuating pilgrims from Badrinath Dham where around 8,000 people are still stranded. He said 1,000 people are struck in Harshil, 500 in Gangotri and 300 in Bhairavghati of whom the old and ailing are being evacuated on a priority. More helicopters are needed because most places are accessible only through the air route, he said, adding villagers in affected areas should be more sensitive towards the stranded pilgrims and should ferry them free of cost from places like Gaurikund and Sonprayag. Though refusing to specify a time frame for evacuating people, the Army officer said it may take days but added the force will ensure that no more lives are lost and work till the last survivor is evacuated from affected areas.
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326. Skyepony (Mod)
Tornado in Orangeburg,SC on Friday, 21 June, 2013 at 10:33 (10:33 AM) UTC.
Description
The National Weather Service said Wednesday afternoon that there were two tornadoes that touched down in Orangeburg County on Tuesday. The storm had prompted a tornado warning in Orangeburg and Dorchester counties Tuesday afternoon. According to the NWS, the first tornado initially touched down five miles east of Bowman around 3:39 p.m. and traveled southeast out of Orangeburg County and into Dorchester County. Damage assessors tracked the storm's path as crossing Interstate 96 just north of Duncan Chapel Road bridge and headed southeast across Pinebreak, Weathers Farm and Hinkle roads before lifting back into the sky near Highway 15 and Duncan Chapel Road. The tornado's path was 3.12 miles long and 0.15 miles wide, the NWS said. The tornado caused damage to corn crops and a number of trees along its path. One house sustained minor roof damage and a tree fell through a mobile home, officials said. Hail stones the size of golf balls were also seen during the tornado, officials said. The second tornado touched down two minutes later with sustained winds of 90 mph, the NWS said. Damage assessors tracked its path from Duncan Chapel Road southeast across I-95 south of the Duncan Chapel Road bridge before lifting in an open field off of Quail Ridge Road. The second tornado's path was 2.06 miles long and one-tenth of a mile wide, according to officials.
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Quoting Slamguitar:
The heat lovers will be happy in Alaska and the western third of the States.


40% probabilty of below average temperatures in SE Alabama...in July. Yeah, right, I'll believe that when I see it. It's never below average here in July. Heck, if just get to our average of 93, it feels below average to us. :-)
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Quoting Slamguitar:
The heat lovers will be happy in Alaska and the western third of the States.



NO, don't wreck my perfect weather........
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Quoting BaltimoreBrian:
1007 mb is pretty deep for an invest, isn't it tropicalanalyst?
Pressures are generally lower in the epac so 1007mb isn't that low for that basin. In the Atlantic, outside of the west Caribbean where pressures are generally a little lower, you would be correct to say that 1007mb is a bit low for an invest.

It's all relative...
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Quoting CaribBoy:
I've just sent an email to the T-Wave at 30W to let her know that I need 4 inches of rain! Lol

Let me guess...something like twave30n@hoping4lotsarain.com? :-) If it works, give us the e-mail addresses for other storms also.
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The heat lovers will be happy in Alaska and the western third of the States.

Member Since: July 2, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 1183
So, do we anticipate a Chantal wannabe that wants to be like Barry?

Hi Grothar!
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Quoting Grothar:
did I see 70% in red!!
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314. Murko
Meanwhile, in Switzerland...

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-23005974
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Quoting Slamguitar:


Is there any time period associated with this?


The Outlook for the day today and early tomorrow. ..

12 hrs ago to 12 hours into the future.
Or 12 pm today to 12 pm tomorrow
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
Quoting RTLSNK:
There is no Dr. Bongevine's McTavish Numbers, and
there is no Planfalf Model. That was fake information
that was downloaded here years ago by some trolls that
were perma-banned from this website.

Downloading fake information during hurricane season
like that will result in the same result for anyone
that tries it again.
Thanks for clearing that up, was not sure if there was any credence into that at all. Anyways while searching through the NHC website tonight I came across this chart.

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Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:
I just pulled this together. .a new one


Is there any time period associated with this?
Member Since: July 2, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 1183
I just pulled this together. .a new one
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Quoting BaltimoreBrian:
1007 mb is pretty deep for an invest, isn't it tropicalanalyst?

1007 is ok...
I can answer that question. ..although I wasn't asked.
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
Quoting zoomiami:


Hey! I know you....

No, you really don't!
He's traded ribeye steaks for carrot sticks!

Totally different person!

LOL

Hey Zoo!

-Nite folks!
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About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.