Over 500 Killed in India's Monsoon Floods

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:25 PM GMT on June 21, 2013

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Earth's deadliest natural disaster so far in 2013 is the deadly flooding in India's Himalayan Uttarakhand region, where torrential monsoon rains have killed at least 556 people, with hundreds more feared dead. At least 5,000 people are missing. According to the Indian Meteorological Department, Uttarakhand received more than three times (329%) of its normal June rainfall from June 1 - 21, and rainfall was 847% of normal during the week June 13 - 19. Satellite estimates indicate that more than 20" (508 mm) or rain fell in a 7-day period from June 11 - 17 over some regions of Uttarakhand, which lies just to the west of Nepal in the Himalayas. Dehradun, the capital of Uttarakhand, received 14.57" (370 mm) of rain in 24 hours on June 16 - 17. This was the highest 24-hour rainfall in city history, according to an official from the India Meteorological Department. Dr. Dave Petley's Landslide Blog details that the torrential rains triggered a massive landslide that hit Uttarakhand's Hindu shrine in Kedarnath, which lies just a short distance from the snout of two mountain glaciers. The shrine is an important pilgrimage destination this time of year, and was packed with visitors celebrating the char-dham yatra: a pilgrimage to the four holy sites of Gangotri, Kedarnath, Yamnotri and Badrinath. Apparently, heavy rainfall triggered a collapse event on the mountain above Kedarnath, which turned into a debris flow downstream that struck the town. The main temple was heavily damaged, and numerous buildings in the town were demolished. It was Earth's deadliest landslide since the August 2010 Zhouqu landslide in China.

According to Aon Benfield's May Catastrophe Report, Earth's deadliest natural disasters of 2013 so far:

Winter weather, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, 1/1 - 1/20, 329 deaths
Earthquake, China, 4/20, 196 deaths
Flooding, Southern Africa, 1/10 - 2/28, 175 deaths
Flooding, Argentina, 4/2 - 4/4, 70 deaths
Flooding, Kenya, 3/10 - 4/30, 66 deaths


Figure 1. Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) arrive to rescue stranded Sikh devotees from Hemkunt Sahib Gurudwara, a religious Sikh temple, to a safe place in Chamoli district, in northern Indian state of Uttarakhand, India, Monday, June 17, 2013. AP photo.


Figure 2. Satellite-estimated rainfall for the 7-day period June 11 - 17, 2013, from NASA's TRMM satellite exceeded 20 inches (508 mm) over portions of India's Uttarakhand province, leading to catastrophic floods. Image credit: NASA.

A record early arrival of the monsoon
The June 2013 monsoon rains in Uttarakhand were highly unusual, as the monsoon came to the region two weeks earlier than normal. The monsoon started in South India near the normal June 1 arrival date, but then advanced across India in unusually rapid fashion, arriving in Pakistan along the western border of India on June 16, a full month earlier than normal. This was the fastest progression of the monsoon on record. The previous record for fastest monsoon progression occurred in 1961, when all of India was under monsoon conditions by June 21. Reliable monsoon records go back to 1961, and are patchy before then. Fortunately, no more heavy rain is expected in Uttarakhand over the next few days, as the monsoon will be active only in eastern India. Heavy rains are expected again in the region beginning on June 24. Wunderblogger Lee Grenci's post, Summer Monsoon Advances Rapidly across India: Massive Flooding Ensues, has more detail on the meteorology of this year's monsoon. There is criticism from some that the devastating floods were not entirely a natural disaster--human-caused deforestation, dam building, and mining may have contributed. "Large-scale construction of dams and absence of environmental regulations has led to the floods," said Sunita Narian, director general of Delhi based advocacy group Centre for Science and Environment (CSE).


Figure 3. The summer monsoon arrived in southwest India right on schedule (June 1) in South India, but it spread northward much faster than usual, reaching Pakistan a full month earlier than normal. Solid green contours indicate the progress of the 2013 summer monsoon (each contour is labeled with a date). You can compare this year's rapid advance to a "normal" progression, which is represented by the dashed, red contours (also labeled with dates).

Monsoons in India: a primer
Disastrous monsoon floods are common in India and surrounding nations, and 60,000 people--an average of 500 people per year--died in India due to monsoon floods between 1900 - 2012, according to EM-DAT, the International Disaster Database. EM-DAT lists sixteen flood disasters which killed 1,000 or more people in India since records began in 1950. Here are the number of people killed in these events, along with the month and year of occurrence and locales affected:

4892, Jul 1968, Rajasthan, Gujara
3800, Jul 1978, North, Northeast
2001, May - Oct, 1994, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh
2000, Jul 1961, North
1811, Aug 1998, Assam, Arunachal, Bihar
1600, Aug 1980, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar
1591, Jul 28, 1989, Maharashtra, Andhra Prade
1479, Sep 1995, Bihar, Haryana, Punjab
1442, Aug 1997, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal
1200, Jul 24 - Aug 5, 2005 Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh
1200, Aug 1987, Assam, Bihar, West Bengal
1103, Jul 3 - Sep 22, 2007, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh
1063, Jun 11 - Jul 21, 2008 West Bengal, Orissa
1023, Jun 1971, North
1000, Sep 22 - Oct 9, 1988, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh
1000, Oct 1961

The monsoon occurs in summer, when the sun warms up land areas more strongly than ocean areas. This happens because wind and ocean turbulence mix the ocean's absorbed heat into a "mixed layer" approximately 50 meters deep, whereas on land, the sun's heat penetrates at a slow rate to a limited depth. Furthermore, due to its molecular properties, water has the ability to absorb more heat than the solid materials that make up land. As a result of this summertime differential heating of land and ocean, a low pressure region featuring rising air develops over land areas. Moisture-laden ocean winds blow towards the low pressure region and are drawn upwards once over land. The rising air expands and cools, condensing its moisture into some of the heaviest rains on Earth--the monsoon. Monsoons operate via the same principle as the familiar summer afternoon sea breeze, but on a grand scale. Each summer, monsoons affect every continent on Earth except Antarctica, and are responsible for life-giving rains that sustain the lives of billions of people. In India, home for over 1.1 billion people, the monsoon provides 80% of the annual rainfall. The most deadly flooding events usually come from monsoon depressions (also known as monsoon lows.) A monsoon depression is similar to (but larger than) a tropical depression. Both are spinning storms hundreds of kilometers in diameter with sustained winds of 50 - 55 kph (30 - 35 mph), nearly calm winds at their center, and generate very heavy rains. Typically, 6 - 7 monsoon depressions form each summer over the Bay of Bengal and track westwards across India.

The future of monsoons in India
A warming climate loads the dice in favor of heavier extreme precipitation events. This occurs because more water vapor can evaporate into a warmer atmosphere, increasing the chances of record heavy downpours. In a study published in Science in 2006, Goswami et al. found that the level of heavy rainfall activity in the monsoon over India had more than doubled in the 50 years since the 1950s, leading to an increased disaster potential from heavy flooding. Moderate and weak rain events decreased during those 50 years, leaving the total amount of rain deposited by the monsoon roughly constant. The authors commented, "These findings are in tune with model projections and some observations that indicate an increase in heavy rain events and a decrease in weak events under global warming scenarios." We should expect to see an increased number of disastrous monsoon floods in coming decades if the climate continues to warm as expected. Since the population continues to increase at a rapid rate in the region, death tolls from monsoon flooding disasters are likely to climb dramatically in coming decades. However, my greater concern for India is drought. The monsoon rains often fail during El NiƱo years, and more than 4.2 million people died in India due to droughts between 1900 - 2012. Up until the late 1960s, it was common for the failure of the monsoon rains to kill millions of people in India. The drought of 1965 - 1967 killed at least 1.5 million people. However, since the Green Revolution of the late 1960s--a government initiative to improve food self-sufficiency using new technology and high-yield grains--failure of the monsoon rains has not led to mass starvation in India. It is uncertain whether of not the Green Revolution can keep up with India's booming population, and the potential that climate change might bring more severe droughts. Climate models show a wide range of possibilities for the future of the Indian monsoon, and it is unclear at present what the future might hold. However, the fact that one of the worst droughts in India's history occurred in 2009 shows that serious droughts have to be a major concern for the future. The five worst Indian monsoons along with the rainfall deficits for the nation:

1) 1877, -33%
2) 1899, -29%
3) 1918, -25%
4) 1972, -24%
5) 2009, -22%

References
Goswami, et al., 2006, " Increasing Trend of Extreme Rain Events Over India in a Warming Environment", Science, 1 December 2006:Vol. 314. no. 5804, pp. 1442 - 1445 DOI: 10.1126/science.1132027

Wunderground's climate change blogger Dr. Ricky Rood wrote a nice 3-part series about the challenges India faces due to climate change after he completed a 2009 trip there.


Video 1. Flood waters claim a multi-story apartment building in Uttarakhand province, India, on June 17, 2013.

Historic flooding in Calgary, Alberta
Torrential rainfall on Wednesday night and Thursday has resulted in the most extensive flooding in Alberta Province, Canada in at least 8 years, with some 100,000 people facing evacuations in the city of Calgary. Wunderblogger Christopher C. Burt has a look at the disaster in his latest post. The floods are due, in part to the "stuck" jet stream pattern that brought record heat to Alaska this week.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting help4u:
Has been 8 years since the last major hurricane hit United States longest period in history.Very quiet time for tropical weather.

I think only quiet in the sense that there has been no majors since then...
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Quoting help4u:
Has been 8 years since the last major hurricane hit United States longest period in history.Very quiet time for tropical weather.
did you see how bad hurricane sandy was its was not major hurricane!!
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DATE TIME LAT LON CLASSIFICATION ID NAME
20130622 1745 34.6 78.6 Overland IN1 INVEST
20130622 1145 33.8 78.5 T1.0/1.0 IN1 INVEST
20130622 0545 33.7 78.0 T1.0/1.0 IN1 INVEST
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Has been 8 years since the last major hurricane hit United States longest period in history.Very quiet time for tropical weather.
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Hi there.
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Quoting opal92nwf:

Why do you think Florida is not "due to be hit" this year? It has been 8 years since Wilma, and parts of S. Florida see a hurricane every 6 or 7 years.



I would consider each season independent of each other, they have no bearing on whether or not Florida will get hit. "Due" to me means the average span between events has passed. But in hurricane seasons, there are so many factors, that I don't think one can apply anything as being past due.
Member Since: July 2, 2012 Posts: 101 Comments: 10327
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Quoting Neapolitan:
True. And you can also win an awful lot playing a machine that just hit and thus won't be "due" again for a long while. (Personal experience talking.)

I don't think at all that Florida is "due" to be hit. But it is nevertheless a state that juts awkwardly from the rest of the US and into the path of what have surely been thousands--perhaps tens of thousands--of tropical cyclones over the past millennia. And if it's happened that many times in the past, logic and the laws of probability say it will happen again. And this year is just as good as any...

yowza

Why do you think Florida is not "due to be hit" this year? It has been 8 years since Wilma, and parts of S. Florida see a hurricane every 6 or 7 years.

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Quoting yonzabam:


If that's from Arte Johnson in 'Rowan and Martin's Laugh In', you're showing your age.

Very interesting, but also stupid


But I'm young at heart!

"And if you should survive to 105,
Look at all you'll derive out of being alive!
And here is the best part, you have a head start
If you are among the very young at heart."
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Quoting wunderkidcayman:


hey stormpetrol and nigel

my vacation in jamaica is good got plenty of thunderstorms and rain though it eased up past day or so be back to cayman monday

and darn I was to be on HMS Lancaster today but I had to be in Ja for business plus light vaca that sucks

Hey wunderkid!
Yeah, i saw the wet weather over western Jamaica, but it has been mostly dry elsewhere.
It's sad to say, but i've not been in that section of the island since 2007. How's life it that end of Jamaica?
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CATL is carrying a low centre as can be seen by recent ASCAT
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Quoting mikatnight:
Hey, how come you can LIKE a wunderalertbot comment, but you can't DISLIKE? veeery innnteresting...
Most popular phrase in the not too distant future, "!!*#@$^ robots!"


If that's from Arte Johnson in 'Rowan and Martin's Laugh In', you're showing your age.

Very interesting, but also stupid
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Quoting stormpetrol:
Quoting nigel20:

Hey storm!
What's the like in Cayman at the moment?
It has been pretty hot and dry here in Jamaica since 93L/Barry.


hey stormpetrol and nigel

my vacation in jamaica is good got plenty of thunderstorms and rain though it eased up past day or so be back to cayman monday

and darn I was to be on HMS Lancaster today but I had to be in Ja for business plus light vaca that sucks
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Hey, how come you can LIKE a wunderalertbot comment, but you can't DISLIKE? veeery innnteresting...
Most popular phrase in the not too distant future, "!!*#@$^ robots!"
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@accuweather
Central Virginia saw 27" of rain today in 1972 from Hurricane Agnes
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Quoting Neapolitan:
That's because it is snow. That image, taken from a mountaintop in the Ukraine, was the winner of a 2010 National Geographic photo contest.

Very nice...


Man, you're good...
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Quoting Tornado6042008X:
That looks like snow falling from underneath those clouds.
That's because it is snow. That image, taken from a mountaintop in the Ukraine, was the winner of a 2010 National Geographic photo contest.

Very nice...
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638. MPI88
Quoting sar2401:


While I realize the number of hurricanes isn't random, it might as well be from our limited understanding and ability to predict. Given the geography of Florida, it's likely it will be hit by more hurricanes than other parts of the US, but how many and how big for any particular year is still beyond our ability to confidently predict. As you say, this year is as good as any...or next year...or next year. :-)


Hurricanes are not truly random. They do follow favorable weather patterns.

You're right about next year, we cannot say much about next years weather patterns. In addition the total hurricane activity undergoes a multi-decadal cycle, although it doesn't say much about landfall probability (maybe the average pattern is more favorable during low number years).

However given this years weather pattern, it might increase the odds for Florida. Its like receiving 3 / 5 of your royal flush on the flop, it increases the odds ;).
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Quoting stormpetrol:

Hey storm!
What's the like in Cayman at the moment?
It has been pretty hot and dry here in Jamaica since 93L/Barry.
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it may well be possible that the catl wave could become 94L
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Quoting mikatnight:

Awesome pic, mik!
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Quoting mikatnight:
That looks like snow falling from underneath those clouds.
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95E is looking good.



A little less organization with 94E, but still not bad.

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Quoting JLPR2:
Hiya!



TW around 5N, 38W is looking slightly interesting, I'm guessing this was the TW the GFS showed crossing the Central Lesser Antilles.

Yep...that's the TW the GFS showed. However...upper winds over the open tropical Atlantic are gonna get less favorable in the next 72 hrs...but become favorable over the W Caribbean/Florida region thru the week. So mabye we'll keep an eye on this wave when it gets into the W Caribbean area later on....
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a very strong tropical wave is expected to be near the central windward islands sometime on Tuesday 25th. the GFS has been showing this wave on it:s 00Z,06Z, AND 12Z runs. also the CMC in it's 12z run. shear is forecast to be within conducive limits ahead of this disturbance. again a weak ulac is expected to move in tandem with this disturbance. at the moment the system is at a low latitude but the stering currents ahead of the system should take on a w to wnw track the next two days. a very interesting wave for this time of year in the deep tropics. however I don't expect too much from this system but it is something to keep your eye on
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Quoting Jedkins01:


The models have been performing terribly with rainfall forecasts down here lately, rainfall has been much more widespread and heavier than the models have been depicting. I guess I shouldn't be too surprised though. Global models or anyone who doesn't know Florida weather is typically pretty bad and at accurately depicting just how much rain we get in this pattern.

We often get a lot more rainfall from this pattern then we do from the supposed big rain events. When models show big bullseye QPF totals, usually some places will see that much, but the nature of rainfall distribution never takes on bullseye structures like the models show.

Yet often we can get 2 to 4 inches or more over the course of a week when model QPF is 0.50 to 0.75 over the area, lol.


I've noticed this as well. A really robust rainy season pattern can provide 3-5" per week (sometimes more) for weeks at a time. Also, during "big rain fall" events such as tropical systems and other lows/fronts during the rainy season, the rain received during the rain event often/usually preempts or substitutes for our normal rainy season pattern. So, for example, a tropical Gulf low that controls an area's weather for 5 days and provides 6 inches of rain to an area only creates the following surplus (total rainfall from rain event duration minus average rainfall from same time period equals rainfall surplus/deficit).
Also, these types of rain events during the rainy season can prove very beneficial during times of drought/below normal rainfall but can also make it more difficult for the normal rainy season pattern to set in or re-establish.
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Yeah, Mississippiwx, the STJ has been screaming thru the carib.
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626. JLPR2
Quoting MississippiWx:


Yep. GFS shows a very strong wave until it enters the Eastern Caribbean. After that, I'm thinking shear rips it to shreds. The STJ has been screaming through the Caribbean recently.


Quoting Tornado6042008X:
It seems to have a weak upper level high over it. Its worth watching.


I wonder if the TW will pull a 92L and develop a nice LLC before meeting its end.
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Quoting hurricanes2018:
here we go!!

We must watch everything.
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Has anyone ever quoted the wunderalertbot? if so, have you gotten banned?
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here we go!!
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Quoting MississippiWx:


Sub-tropical Jet.



Link

Silly me! Why didn't i guess?!?!
Quoting sar2401:

Subtropical Jet.

Silly me! Why didn't i guess?!?!
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Quoting 62901IL:

What does STJ mean?


Sub-tropical Jet.



Link
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Good afternoon friends!

Latest Southern Oscillation Index values
SOI values for 22 Jun 2013

Average for last 30 days: 8.9
Average for last 90 days: 6.6
Daily contribution to SOI calculation: 4.4
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Quoting 62901IL:

What does STJ mean?

Subtropical Jet.
Member Since: October 2, 2004 Posts: 0 Comments: 15997
Quoting MississippiWx:


I see. Thanks for clearing that up, Taz. That's what I get for taking the blog's word for it, huh? ;-)



your welcome
Member Since: May 21, 2006 Posts: 5091 Comments: 115234
Good afternoon people!
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Quoting JLPR2:
Hiya!



TW around 5N, 38W is looking slightly interesting, I'm guessing this was the TW the GFS showed crossing the Central Lesser Antilles.
It seems to have a weak upper level high over it. Its worth watching.
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Quoting Neapolitan:
True. And you can also win an awful lot playing a machine that just hit and thus won't be "due" again for a long while. (Personal experience talking.)

I don't think at all that Florida is "due" to be hit. But it is nevertheless a state that juts awkwardly from the rest of the US and into the path of what have surely been thousands--perhaps tens of thousands--of tropical cyclones over the past millennia. And if it's happened that many times in the past, logic and the laws of probability say it will happen again. And this year is just as good as any...

yowza

LOL. My game is video poker, and you should hit a royal flush about every 48,000 hands. I used to play a lot, and had to keep really good records for the IRS. Over an eight year period, my average was indeed about every 48,000 hands, based upon 1.2 million hands played. Within that nice bell curve, however, I went from almost 290,000 hands without a royal to hitting three in one night...on the same machine. Since it's all done by a pseudo-random number generator, you have exactly the same chance of royal with every draw, regardless of what happened the last hand. As the saying goes, the machine has no memory.

While I realize the number of hurricanes isn't random, it might as well be from our limited understanding and ability to predict. Given the geography of Florida, it's likely it will be hit by more hurricanes than other parts of the US, but how many and how big for any particular year is still beyond our ability to confidently predict. As you say, this year is as good as any...or next year...or next year. :-)
Member Since: October 2, 2004 Posts: 0 Comments: 15997
Quoting Patrap:
Historical Hurricane Tracks


Unfortunately, NOAA has yet to update storm info as per the HURDAT results - at least on the ones I looked at, most notably, the '28 Okeechobee Hurricane (HURDAT completed in 2010).
I keep looking for a site that actually updates these maps to reflect the changes, but so far, no luck.
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Quoting MississippiWx:


Yep. GFS shows a very strong wave until it enters the Eastern Caribbean. After that, I'm thinking shear rips it to shreds. The STJ has been screaming through the Caribbean recently.

What does STJ mean?
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Quoting JLPR2:
Hiya!



TW around 5N, 38W is looking slightly interesting, I'm guessing this was the TW the GFS showed crossing the Central Lesser Antilles.


Yep. GFS shows a very strong wave until it enters the Eastern Caribbean. After that, I'm thinking shear rips it to shreds. The STJ has been screaming through the Caribbean recently.
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(Fires Flare in Central Siberia As Temperatures Near 90 Degrees. Image source: Lance-Modis)

The Arctic Heatwave Hits Central Siberia Pushing Temperatures to 90 Degrees and Sparking Tundra Fires

Today, a heatwave circling the Arctic set its sights on central Siberia. Temperatures soared into the upper 80s to near 90 degrees over a vast region of Siberian tundra, setting off pop-corn thunderstorms and sparking large, ominous fires reminiscent of the blazes that roared through this region during late June of 2012. Those fires were so large they sent a plume of smoke over the Pacific Ocean and blanketed valleys in western Canada.

Each individual fire in the above image hosts a plume of smoke about a hundred miles long. The fire to the far left, hosts a very long smoke plume of at least 350 miles in length.

You can see these soaring Siberian temperatures and related fires on the Arctic weather map below. Note the instances of 32 degrees Celsius temperatures (which is 89.6 degrees on the Fahrenheit scale).



If you look to the right side of the above map, you'll see a large swath of pink spanning the Arctic from Norway all the way to the Pacific coastal region of Siberia. The most intense heat is located directly in the center of this zone where sporadic readings of 90 degree temperatures start to pop up. Fires are also shown on this weather map, indicated by a vertical black bar with a squiggly black line at the top.

Heatwave conditions also appear to have re-flared in Scandinavia where numerous instances of 80 degree weather appear.

Alaska is in its cool night-time phase. But even now, some locations in the interior are showing lows of 70 degrees which is hotter than usual highs for this time of year in that region.

Looking at the Jet Stream map for today, we see three anomalous pulses rising up over each of these regions.


(Image source: California Regional Weather Service)

The Siberian pulse rises just to the edge of the Arctic Ocean. The Scandinavian pulse hits the top of Norway and Sweden. Meanwhile, the Alaskan pulse rides all the way up into the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas.

Jet Stream waves should not penetrate so far into the Arctic. It is a situation facilitated both by eroding sea ice and by loss of snow cover during spring and summer. As of May, both sea ice volume and Northern Hemisphere snow cover were the third lowest on record. Back in September of 2012, Arctic sea ice hit a record low volume that was 80% below levels seen in the early 1980s.

This mangling of the Jet Stream has also been implicated in a number of severe weather events (spawned by blocking patterns associated with large waves in the Jet Stream) including the extreme European Winter and Spring of 2013, the US Drought of 2012-2013, Hurricane Sandy, and, now, various heat-waves striking the Arctic.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128632
610. JLPR2
Hiya!



TW around 5N, 38W is looking slightly interesting, I'm guessing this was the TW the GFS showed crossing the Central Lesser Antilles.
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Quoting Tazmanian:




there is no 94L

if we did had 94L it would show up here

Link




but noaa made it INVEST

22/1145 UTC 33.8N 78.5W T1.0/1.0 INVEST -- Atlanti



we may see that a few times this year where noaa would make it a INVEST but not have it show up on the atcf site



so we did not really have 94L but noaa did make it a invest


I see. Thanks for clearing that up, Taz. That's what I get for taking the blog's word for it, huh? ;-)
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Quoting mikatnight:


Hi Sar!

I tried 3 different stints at living there, but the cold, DRY air, and the no ocean thing - most I could handle was 2 years. To your point, I remember hearing that lightning was frequent in the mountains of Boulder. That could (if true) exacerbate the potential?

Good day, Mik. My son lived went to CU and lived in Boulder for 15 years, and I visited him often. When the weather is nice, it's a beautiful place. Unfortunately, for me, the weather often wasn't nice. Between the heat in the summer, the cold in the winter, the wind storms, and the constant lack of humidity, I also would not choose it as a place to live. The Front Range does have a lot of dry lighting in the summer, which is the chief cause, in general, for wildfires in Colorado. In the Boulder area, the move of more and more people into the canyons west of town has caused a marked increase in human sparked fires. Sparks from lawn mowers and heat from catalytic converters seem to be two common causes. 70 years ago, the trees were healthy, and most wildfires burned themselves out before ever getting to places of habitation. Now we have large numbers of pine trees standing dead or dying, and the fires are being started right where people live. We all pick our poison when it comes to places to live. If you like the beach, you know there's a chance a hurricane is coming. If it's Boulder, it's a wildfire or windstorm.
Member Since: October 2, 2004 Posts: 0 Comments: 15997

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.