Over 500 Killed in India's Monsoon Floods

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:25 PM GMT on June 21, 2013

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Earth's deadliest natural disaster so far in 2013 is the deadly flooding in India's Himalayan Uttarakhand region, where torrential monsoon rains have killed at least 556 people, with hundreds more feared dead. At least 5,000 people are missing. According to the Indian Meteorological Department, Uttarakhand received more than three times (329%) of its normal June rainfall from June 1 - 21, and rainfall was 847% of normal during the week June 13 - 19. Satellite estimates indicate that more than 20" (508 mm) or rain fell in a 7-day period from June 11 - 17 over some regions of Uttarakhand, which lies just to the west of Nepal in the Himalayas. Dehradun, the capital of Uttarakhand, received 14.57" (370 mm) of rain in 24 hours on June 16 - 17. This was the highest 24-hour rainfall in city history, according to an official from the India Meteorological Department. Dr. Dave Petley's Landslide Blog details that the torrential rains triggered a massive landslide that hit Uttarakhand's Hindu shrine in Kedarnath, which lies just a short distance from the snout of two mountain glaciers. The shrine is an important pilgrimage destination this time of year, and was packed with visitors celebrating the char-dham yatra: a pilgrimage to the four holy sites of Gangotri, Kedarnath, Yamnotri and Badrinath. Apparently, heavy rainfall triggered a collapse event on the mountain above Kedarnath, which turned into a debris flow downstream that struck the town. The main temple was heavily damaged, and numerous buildings in the town were demolished. It was Earth's deadliest landslide since the August 2010 Zhouqu landslide in China.

According to Aon Benfield's May Catastrophe Report, Earth's deadliest natural disasters of 2013 so far:

Winter weather, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, 1/1 - 1/20, 329 deaths
Earthquake, China, 4/20, 196 deaths
Flooding, Southern Africa, 1/10 - 2/28, 175 deaths
Flooding, Argentina, 4/2 - 4/4, 70 deaths
Flooding, Kenya, 3/10 - 4/30, 66 deaths


Figure 1. Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) arrive to rescue stranded Sikh devotees from Hemkunt Sahib Gurudwara, a religious Sikh temple, to a safe place in Chamoli district, in northern Indian state of Uttarakhand, India, Monday, June 17, 2013. AP photo.


Figure 2. Satellite-estimated rainfall for the 7-day period June 11 - 17, 2013, from NASA's TRMM satellite exceeded 20 inches (508 mm) over portions of India's Uttarakhand province, leading to catastrophic floods. Image credit: NASA.

A record early arrival of the monsoon
The June 2013 monsoon rains in Uttarakhand were highly unusual, as the monsoon came to the region two weeks earlier than normal. The monsoon started in South India near the normal June 1 arrival date, but then advanced across India in unusually rapid fashion, arriving in Pakistan along the western border of India on June 16, a full month earlier than normal. This was the fastest progression of the monsoon on record. The previous record for fastest monsoon progression occurred in 1961, when all of India was under monsoon conditions by June 21. Reliable monsoon records go back to 1961, and are patchy before then. Fortunately, no more heavy rain is expected in Uttarakhand over the next few days, as the monsoon will be active only in eastern India. Heavy rains are expected again in the region beginning on June 24. Wunderblogger Lee Grenci's post, Summer Monsoon Advances Rapidly across India: Massive Flooding Ensues, has more detail on the meteorology of this year's monsoon. There is criticism from some that the devastating floods were not entirely a natural disaster--human-caused deforestation, dam building, and mining may have contributed. "Large-scale construction of dams and absence of environmental regulations has led to the floods," said Sunita Narian, director general of Delhi based advocacy group Centre for Science and Environment (CSE).


Figure 3. The summer monsoon arrived in southwest India right on schedule (June 1) in South India, but it spread northward much faster than usual, reaching Pakistan a full month earlier than normal. Solid green contours indicate the progress of the 2013 summer monsoon (each contour is labeled with a date). You can compare this year's rapid advance to a "normal" progression, which is represented by the dashed, red contours (also labeled with dates).

Monsoons in India: a primer
Disastrous monsoon floods are common in India and surrounding nations, and 60,000 people--an average of 500 people per year--died in India due to monsoon floods between 1900 - 2012, according to EM-DAT, the International Disaster Database. EM-DAT lists sixteen flood disasters which killed 1,000 or more people in India since records began in 1950. Here are the number of people killed in these events, along with the month and year of occurrence and locales affected:

4892, Jul 1968, Rajasthan, Gujara
3800, Jul 1978, North, Northeast
2001, May - Oct, 1994, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh
2000, Jul 1961, North
1811, Aug 1998, Assam, Arunachal, Bihar
1600, Aug 1980, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar
1591, Jul 28, 1989, Maharashtra, Andhra Prade
1479, Sep 1995, Bihar, Haryana, Punjab
1442, Aug 1997, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal
1200, Jul 24 - Aug 5, 2005 Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh
1200, Aug 1987, Assam, Bihar, West Bengal
1103, Jul 3 - Sep 22, 2007, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh
1063, Jun 11 - Jul 21, 2008 West Bengal, Orissa
1023, Jun 1971, North
1000, Sep 22 - Oct 9, 1988, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh
1000, Oct 1961

The monsoon occurs in summer, when the sun warms up land areas more strongly than ocean areas. This happens because wind and ocean turbulence mix the ocean's absorbed heat into a "mixed layer" approximately 50 meters deep, whereas on land, the sun's heat penetrates at a slow rate to a limited depth. Furthermore, due to its molecular properties, water has the ability to absorb more heat than the solid materials that make up land. As a result of this summertime differential heating of land and ocean, a low pressure region featuring rising air develops over land areas. Moisture-laden ocean winds blow towards the low pressure region and are drawn upwards once over land. The rising air expands and cools, condensing its moisture into some of the heaviest rains on Earth--the monsoon. Monsoons operate via the same principle as the familiar summer afternoon sea breeze, but on a grand scale. Each summer, monsoons affect every continent on Earth except Antarctica, and are responsible for life-giving rains that sustain the lives of billions of people. In India, home for over 1.1 billion people, the monsoon provides 80% of the annual rainfall. The most deadly flooding events usually come from monsoon depressions (also known as monsoon lows.) A monsoon depression is similar to (but larger than) a tropical depression. Both are spinning storms hundreds of kilometers in diameter with sustained winds of 50 - 55 kph (30 - 35 mph), nearly calm winds at their center, and generate very heavy rains. Typically, 6 - 7 monsoon depressions form each summer over the Bay of Bengal and track westwards across India.

The future of monsoons in India
A warming climate loads the dice in favor of heavier extreme precipitation events. This occurs because more water vapor can evaporate into a warmer atmosphere, increasing the chances of record heavy downpours. In a study published in Science in 2006, Goswami et al. found that the level of heavy rainfall activity in the monsoon over India had more than doubled in the 50 years since the 1950s, leading to an increased disaster potential from heavy flooding. Moderate and weak rain events decreased during those 50 years, leaving the total amount of rain deposited by the monsoon roughly constant. The authors commented, "These findings are in tune with model projections and some observations that indicate an increase in heavy rain events and a decrease in weak events under global warming scenarios." We should expect to see an increased number of disastrous monsoon floods in coming decades if the climate continues to warm as expected. Since the population continues to increase at a rapid rate in the region, death tolls from monsoon flooding disasters are likely to climb dramatically in coming decades. However, my greater concern for India is drought. The monsoon rains often fail during El NiƱo years, and more than 4.2 million people died in India due to droughts between 1900 - 2012. Up until the late 1960s, it was common for the failure of the monsoon rains to kill millions of people in India. The drought of 1965 - 1967 killed at least 1.5 million people. However, since the Green Revolution of the late 1960s--a government initiative to improve food self-sufficiency using new technology and high-yield grains--failure of the monsoon rains has not led to mass starvation in India. It is uncertain whether of not the Green Revolution can keep up with India's booming population, and the potential that climate change might bring more severe droughts. Climate models show a wide range of possibilities for the future of the Indian monsoon, and it is unclear at present what the future might hold. However, the fact that one of the worst droughts in India's history occurred in 2009 shows that serious droughts have to be a major concern for the future. The five worst Indian monsoons along with the rainfall deficits for the nation:

1) 1877, -33%
2) 1899, -29%
3) 1918, -25%
4) 1972, -24%
5) 2009, -22%

References
Goswami, et al., 2006, " Increasing Trend of Extreme Rain Events Over India in a Warming Environment", Science, 1 December 2006:Vol. 314. no. 5804, pp. 1442 - 1445 DOI: 10.1126/science.1132027

Wunderground's climate change blogger Dr. Ricky Rood wrote a nice 3-part series about the challenges India faces due to climate change after he completed a 2009 trip there.


Video 1. Flood waters claim a multi-story apartment building in Uttarakhand province, India, on June 17, 2013.

Historic flooding in Calgary, Alberta
Torrential rainfall on Wednesday night and Thursday has resulted in the most extensive flooding in Alberta Province, Canada in at least 8 years, with some 100,000 people facing evacuations in the city of Calgary. Wunderblogger Christopher C. Burt has a look at the disaster in his latest post. The floods are due, in part to the "stuck" jet stream pattern that brought record heat to Alaska this week.

Jeff Masters

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The western part of the eye of David passed over northern Palm Beach County near Jupiter.
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This map shows the tracks of all Tropical cyclones from 1950 to 1974 with effects in Florida.
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Quoting TampaBayStormChaser:

Sorry but my demographics have no bearing upon the argument I am making.
Nope. Over 25, been through several hurricanes, inside several stroms/tornadoes/straight line wind events with winds well above 100 mph, have stared right down the barrel of a twister. I do own property, pay my bills, and know full well the risk of living here.

People DECIDED to live in a hurricane prone area, that's their choice.

I am aware that some people due to circumstances are not in a place by choice. That would be a terrible situation. For those people, yes a hurricane would be a terrible tragedy.

But listen- deep down inside most people on this forum want to experience some weather action. The adrenaline rush, etc. Most people do want it. Sure, the aftermath sucks but that doesn't stop the perverse desire for a storm
The thrill is gone after 48 hours with no power, and years of aftermath paying thousands extra in homeowner's insurance. These folks who perversely want a storm...I sorta' question whether they're the one writing the check for the hurricane insurance or if it's another family member who's payin' the bills.
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Don't miss the super moon tonight....



EarthSky

Tonight's the night! Don't miss the most super supermoon of the year! http://bit.ly/138TAOY

Here it is shining over the Basilica of Superga (Turin, Italy.)
Photo by our friend Stefano de Rosa. Thank you Stefano!
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, I don't have to shovel sunshine off my porch

TA DA DA BOOM!!!!!!!


ahem dak.....it's my job to come up with the one liners....no competition allowed
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Quoting TampaBayStormChaser:


Here's my question. I'm serious, not trolling or anything. Why would anyone live on the gulf coast in the first place if you really hate canes? I know they are destructive, I know they kill people, but people need to exercise some common sense. We know hurricanes have been around for thousands of years.

People choose to live in hurricane prone areas, and then get all upset when one hits. Guess what? They decided to live there.


First, being able to deal with it and understanding the risk has nothing to do with WANTING one to hit. You WANT one to hit - that is 'way different' to quote my kids.

To answer your question, I was born here -- and I got a really good job that I really enjoy here. It doesn't transfer out of the area well. When I was making those career decisions I didn't really pay much attention to the weather. I was also born/raised during the quiet time of no landfalling storms.

Besides, I don't have to shovel sunshine off my porch during the winter months. Almost every area has its own unique challenges.
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yes...we definitely need poker on here...

tamps raised the pot with this line

inside several stroms/tornadoes/straight line wind events

ric lifts the corner of his cards.....thinks...inside a tornado?....smiles as he states....ALL IN.....
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Quoting BaltimoreBrian:


Not wise, grasshopper. Past hurricanes or lack thereof do not influence the odds in subsequent seasons.
Florida is a natural point of landfall for hurricanes. I wont worry myself with the possibility of Florida never being hit again as long as Earth exists.I mentioned in post 769 that I was not even factoring in the length of time that Florida received a major hurricane, but the current predictions and patterns.
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Quoting TampaBayStormChaser:


Here's my question. I'm serious, not trolling or anything. Why would anyone live on the gulf coast in the first place if you really hate canes? I know they are destructive, I know they kill people, but people need to exercise some common sense. We know hurricanes have been around for thousands of years.

Oh, little things like jobs, family, owning a bbusiness. Do you think people live in some place like North Dakota because they love blizzards? Do you think people who live in North Dakota sit around wishing for a blizard to EXPLODE because they're bored? Common sense is something you need to study up on.
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Quoting Bluestorm5:
Very deserving username! You seem to know your facts :)
Thank you!
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Quoting BaltimoreBrian:


No. David (1979) and Floyd (1987) spring to mind.
David did NOT hit South Florida. It came in just North of Palm Beach County so it does not count. You may be correct about Hurricane Floyd of 1987 but that storm was so weak and disorganized I really would not count that as a true hit. If you were in the Florida Keys during Floyd you would have been hard pressed to experience any winds over gale force.
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Quoting TampaBayStormChaser:


Bring it on man. I'm not afraid of anything. What's the point of living life in fear? I can take it.


I don't live in fear, but I do have a survival instinct that kicks in. Until I went thru Andrew in South Florida in 1992 I thought the same thing.

Also notice that this last Tornado outbreak killed 'Amatuer' and 'Professional' weather chaser/enthusiasts alike.

I also don't like dealing with the aftermath. Having said that, if a storm has to hit, let us have ample warning and this time just take the whole darn house. This 'damaged' part is tougher to deal with, then coming back to a cement foundation only.
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Well, your username includes storm chaser right?


umm...that would be no......screen name sounds good though doesn't it?......however....we all know...a screen name needs nothing but typing skills
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22 June New Orleans

Moon Rise 7:23 PM CDT Set 5:08 AM CDT

Full moon falls on June 23, 2013 at 11:32 UTC (6:32 a.m. CDT in the U.S.).

At United States time zones, the moon will turn full on June 23 at 7:32 a.m. EDT, 6:32 a.m. CDT, 5:32 a.m. MDT and 4:32 a.m. PDT.

Thus, for many, the moon appears about as full in the June 22 evening sky as it does on the evening of June 23. This full moon is not only the closest and largest full moon of the year. It also presents the moon's closest encounter with Earth for all of 2013. The moon will not be so close again until August, 2014. In other words, it's not just a supermoon. It's the closest supermoon of 2013.




Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 428 Comments: 129772
Quoting TampaBayStormChaser:


Here's my question. I'm serious, not trolling or anything. Why would anyone live on the gulf coast in the first place if you really hate canes? I know they are destructive, I know they kill people, but people need to exercise some common sense. We know hurricanes have been around for thousands of years.
Most people don't have choice where they move. They GOT to have a job no matter where, especially with this economy.
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Here's my question. I'm serious, not trolling or anything. Why would anyone live on the gulf coast in the first place if you really hate canes?



work....family.....societal circumstances...
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Quoting Dakster:


Depends. Is it a republican penny or a democrat penny?
Independent.:)
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Quoting TampaBayStormChaser:


Bring it on man. I'm not afraid of anything. What's the point of living life in fear? I can take it.

Let me guess. You're under 25, don't own any real estate in a hurricane prone area, and you've never lived through a major hurricane in your life. When any or all of those things change, let us know how you feel about a hurricane coming right at you in the future.
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Quoting TampaBayStormChaser:
Man I hope the wave going into the Caribbean in a few days EXPLODES. I would love to see some good action, a Dennis repeat would be awesome. It has been so boring since 2005. And Dennis only gave us TS Winds. I wanna see some hurricane winds.

I'm tired of all these boring seasons. Ugh.
Well, your username includes storm chaser right? I assume you chases the storms so you would be saying that. Almost everybody would think the opposite of you as they don't want to lose anything they own. For me, Category 1 winds up to 80 mph is the maximum I want to see while at home. I really love storms and going through, but despite never going through a hurricane, I've seen what 70+ mph gusts can do (especially last week) and I can't imagine 70 mph or more sustained for hours.
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Bring it on man. I'm not afraid of anything. What's the point of living life in fear? I can take it.



obviously someone who has not experienced weeks on end power failure during a florida august
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Quoting TampaBayStormChaser:


Bring it on man. I'm not afraid of anything. What's the point of living life in fear? I can take it.

"I can take it"...said while the winds reduce your home to pieces and storm surge sweeps it away.
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Anyone knows that the more time that goes by without it happening increases the chance of Florida finally being hit,


BOOOOINNNNNKKKKKKK....that would be incorrect....nice try son...now move along...you're bothering kid...move along :-)
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Quoting Hurrihistory:
Remember, after Hurricane Inez in October of 1966, South Florida went from 1967 thru 1991 (25-years) without being hit by a single Hurricane. Of Course Hurricane Andrew broke the dry spell in 1992. So some of you may think that South Florida is overdue for a Hurricane. And I'm only talking about South Florida here, not the state of Florida as a whole. Yes, it's been (7-years) since Wilma, but this only goes to show that there are no rules when it comes to the frequency of Hurricanes hitting a specific region of any State along the Hurricane Belt. We may go another ten years without getting hit or we could be hit by two or three Hurricanes this year. Only the man upstairs knows what's going to occur. One more thing, South Florida got hit by a Hurricane in 1945, two in 1947, two in 1948, one in 1949 and one (Hurricane King) in 1950. So it's anybody's guess.
Very deserving username! You seem to know your facts :)
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781. Relix
That wave.... around 35W... looks very interesting. Even the local NWS is mentioning it here in PR.
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Quoting TampaBayStormChaser:
Man I hope the wave going into the Caribbean in a few days EXPLODES. I would love to see some good action, a Dennis repeat would be awesome. It has been so boring since 2005.

Those of us in the Panhandle, Alabama, and Georgia would beg to differ. It's never a good thing to wish a killer hurricane would "explode" because you need to be amused this month.
Member Since: October 2, 2004 Posts: 0 Comments: 17311
Quoting TampaBayStormChaser:
Man I hope the wave going into the Caribbean in a few days EXPLODES. I would love to see some good action, a Dennis repeat would be awesome. It has been so boring since 2005. And Dennis only gave us TS Winds. I wanna see some hurricane winds.

I'm tired of all these boring seasons. Ugh.


You say that until a Cat 5 comes directly over you.
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Quoting Hurrihistory:
Remember, after Hurricane Inez in October of 1966, South Florida went from 1967 thru 1991 (25-years) without being hit by a single Hurricane. Of Course Hurricane Andrew broke the dry spell in 1992. So some of you may think that South Florida is overdue for a Hurricane. And I'm only talking about South Florida here, not the state of Florida as a whole. Yes, it's been (7-years) since Wilma, but this only goes to show that there are no rules when it comes to the frequency of Hurricanes hitting a specific region of any State along the Hurricane Belt. We may go another ten years without getting hit or we could be hit by two or three Hurricanes this year. Only the man upstairs knows what's going to occur. One more thing, South Florida got hit by a Hurricane in 1945, two in 1947, two in 1948, one in 1949 and one (Hurricane King) in 1950. So it's anybody's guess.


No. David (1979) and Floyd (1987) spring to mind.
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Quoting Grothar:


What are the odds of it landing on it's side?


Depends. Is it a republican penny or a democrat penny?
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Quoting hydrus:
I was not factoring in that Florida has not been hit with a major hurricane in 7 years, just the pattern and expected number of storms. Anyone knows that the more time that goes by without it happening increases the chance of Florida finally being hit, so yeah, the fact it has been seven years is a factor, but not why I posted what I did....If I saw a forecast with the Bermuda High centered over Florida for the the next three months, I would have said Florida has little if any chance of experiencing a strike.


Not wise, grasshopper. Past hurricanes or lack thereof do not influence the odds in subsequent seasons.
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Remember, after Hurricane Inez in October of 1966, South Florida went from 1967 thru 1991 (25-years) without being hit by a single Hurricane. Of Course Hurricane Andrew broke the dry spell in 1992. So some of you may think that South Florida is overdue for a Hurricane. And I'm only talking about South Florida here, not the state of Florida as a whole. Yes, it's been (7-years) since Wilma, but this only goes to show that there are no rules when it comes to the frequency of Hurricanes hitting a specific region of any State along the Hurricane Belt. We may go another ten years without getting hit or we could be hit by two or three Hurricanes this year. Only the man upstairs knows what's going to occur. One more thing, South Florida got hit by a Hurricane in 1945, two in 1947, two in 1948, one in 1949 and one (Hurricane King) in 1950. So it's anybody's guess.
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The Northern Lesser Antilles are enjoying a nice break out of the SAL!!!!
Member Since: October 6, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 6455
Quoting BaltimoreBrian:



_________________________________________________



The answer is E. 80%

Assuming the coin is uncirculated and has the Lincoln Memorial on the back. A wheat cent, one of the newer pennies that doesn't have the Lincoln Memorial on the back, or a circulated coin that has dirt buildup may give completely different results. It's the very slight addition weight caused by the amount of relief in the Lincoln Memorial compared to the bust of Lincoln on the obverse side that makes this trick work. On top of that, you only have until late this year to get uncirculated pennies from the Mint without paying a premium. The current schedule is for the last circulating pennies to be produced sometime in December.
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Quoting BaltimoreBrian:


Well of course. The odds of a major hurricane hitting Florida in the last 7 years are zero since it didn't happen! So the odds of a major hurricane hitting Florida this year must be higher.
I was not factoring in that Florida has not been hit with a major hurricane in 7 years, just the pattern and expected number of storms. Anyone knows that the more time that goes by without it happening increases the chance of Florida finally being hit, so yeah, the fact it has been seven years is a factor, but not why I posted what I did....If I saw a forecast with the Bermuda High centered over Florida for the the next three months, I would have said Florida has little if any chance of experiencing a strike.
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I said 40% I meant 70%. Heavier side will tend to fall first when spinning it.
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MOISTURE
DECREASES ONLY SOMEWHAT TUESDAY...THEN THE STRONGEST WAVE OF THE
WEEK WILL PASS ON WEDNESDAY AND THURSDAY MORNING. MOISTURE WAS TO
PASS MAINLY SOUTH...BUT LATEST MODELS NOW SHOW A DOUBLE MAXIMUM
AHEAD AND AFTER THE WAVE.
THUNDERSTORMS WITH SOME GUSTY WINDS ARE
MOSTLY LIKELY TO ACCOMPANY THIS WAVE. NO FEATURES ARE DEPICTED IN
THE LOWER LEVEL EASTERLY FLOW AFTER THIS WAVE THROUGH MONDAY OF
NEXT WEEK.

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Quoting BaltimoreBrian:
What are the odds that spinning a penny will lead to tails side up?

A. 40%
B. 50%
C. 60%
D. 70%
E. 80%


I will provide the answer in a few minutes.
The answer is supposedly E...80%, but as a coin collector/dealer I question that answer. I've spent too many hours at 4 day long coin shows with other dealers bored to tears trying to find some coin or even some medallion that's overly weighted to obverse or reverse.
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I feel like the head side of the penny will tend to fall more frequently than the tails so I will go with the lower percent 40%.
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Quoting TampaWeatherBuff:


Why do you think that?
I believe the Bermuda High will ridge further west and stay that way by Mid July. The troughs that do come down will not be strong enough to erode the western periphery of the high, i.e. no trough lingering just off the Eastern Seaboard to recurve them. Therefore most storms that are south of 20 degrees and west of 60 degrees will either make it in to the gulf or into the N.W.Bahama,s. This would be good news for the folks on the west side of the U.S. because it may bring them at least a somewhat better chance for rain.
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Quoting sar2401:

Also that we're 100% glad to see Gro still alive and kicking. I think the odds of that statement being incorrect would have too many zeros. :-)


Aw shucks, sar. I take back almost everything I ever said about you. :)
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Quoting Grothar:


E. Just to be contrary.



You are wise old grasshopper.
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Quoting ricderr:
sar...to a point i would agree...however....what sets apart a tropical storm from any other storm....sans cold core/warm core to most extents is wind speed....as a great example...this blog itself...flood waters...non hurricane storm...kills 500.....as another example...i live in el paso now.....never has it seen a tropical system besides remnants.....however we've had this year alone....about a dozen times of tropical force winds and half that of hurricane force gusts...however we have not have a named storm event

True, and it's an important distinction if we're studying the science of hurricanes compared to something like monsoons or large non-tropical lows. From the standpoint of impact on humans and society, however, we really don't have much of a way to classify storms. We can all say that a category 5 hurricane would be bad. Hurricanes and typhoons are something even non-weather geeks know aren't likely to be good. A 'large, deep, and moist non-tropical low" just doesn't inspire the same kind of respect, even though the floods in India will probably kill more people than all the hurricanes we have in the US over the next five years. Even the storms and massive flooding in Europe, while the damage may exceed 95% of all hurricanes, still gets relegated to second page news because it's hard for the public to understand and classify. It almost seems like we should have two parallel systems, one of which measures the science of a storm, and another of which measures the human impact.
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if i lived in s fl. i:d be ready. no one knows for sure
Member Since: September 11, 2010 Posts: 1 Comments: 4999
Quoting BaltimoreBrian:
What are the odds that spinning a penny will lead to tails side up?

A. 40%
B. 50%
C. 60%
D. 70%
E. 80%


I will provide the answer in a few minutes.



_________________________________________________



The answer is E. 80%
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Quoting BaltimoreBrian:
What are the odds that spinning a penny will lead to tails side up?

A. 40%
B. 50%
C. 60%
D. 70%
E. 80%


I will provide the answer in a few minutes.


E. Just to be contrary.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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