Over 500 Killed in India's Monsoon Floods

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:25 PM GMT on June 21, 2013

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Earth's deadliest natural disaster so far in 2013 is the deadly flooding in India's Himalayan Uttarakhand region, where torrential monsoon rains have killed at least 556 people, with hundreds more feared dead. At least 5,000 people are missing. According to the Indian Meteorological Department, Uttarakhand received more than three times (329%) of its normal June rainfall from June 1 - 21, and rainfall was 847% of normal during the week June 13 - 19. Satellite estimates indicate that more than 20" (508 mm) or rain fell in a 7-day period from June 11 - 17 over some regions of Uttarakhand, which lies just to the west of Nepal in the Himalayas. Dehradun, the capital of Uttarakhand, received 14.57" (370 mm) of rain in 24 hours on June 16 - 17. This was the highest 24-hour rainfall in city history, according to an official from the India Meteorological Department. Dr. Dave Petley's Landslide Blog details that the torrential rains triggered a massive landslide that hit Uttarakhand's Hindu shrine in Kedarnath, which lies just a short distance from the snout of two mountain glaciers. The shrine is an important pilgrimage destination this time of year, and was packed with visitors celebrating the char-dham yatra: a pilgrimage to the four holy sites of Gangotri, Kedarnath, Yamnotri and Badrinath. Apparently, heavy rainfall triggered a collapse event on the mountain above Kedarnath, which turned into a debris flow downstream that struck the town. The main temple was heavily damaged, and numerous buildings in the town were demolished. It was Earth's deadliest landslide since the August 2010 Zhouqu landslide in China.

According to Aon Benfield's May Catastrophe Report, Earth's deadliest natural disasters of 2013 so far:

Winter weather, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, 1/1 - 1/20, 329 deaths
Earthquake, China, 4/20, 196 deaths
Flooding, Southern Africa, 1/10 - 2/28, 175 deaths
Flooding, Argentina, 4/2 - 4/4, 70 deaths
Flooding, Kenya, 3/10 - 4/30, 66 deaths


Figure 1. Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) arrive to rescue stranded Sikh devotees from Hemkunt Sahib Gurudwara, a religious Sikh temple, to a safe place in Chamoli district, in northern Indian state of Uttarakhand, India, Monday, June 17, 2013. AP photo.


Figure 2. Satellite-estimated rainfall for the 7-day period June 11 - 17, 2013, from NASA's TRMM satellite exceeded 20 inches (508 mm) over portions of India's Uttarakhand province, leading to catastrophic floods. Image credit: NASA.

A record early arrival of the monsoon
The June 2013 monsoon rains in Uttarakhand were highly unusual, as the monsoon came to the region two weeks earlier than normal. The monsoon started in South India near the normal June 1 arrival date, but then advanced across India in unusually rapid fashion, arriving in Pakistan along the western border of India on June 16, a full month earlier than normal. This was the fastest progression of the monsoon on record. The previous record for fastest monsoon progression occurred in 1961, when all of India was under monsoon conditions by June 21. Reliable monsoon records go back to 1961, and are patchy before then. Fortunately, no more heavy rain is expected in Uttarakhand over the next few days, as the monsoon will be active only in eastern India. Heavy rains are expected again in the region beginning on June 24. Wunderblogger Lee Grenci's post, Summer Monsoon Advances Rapidly across India: Massive Flooding Ensues, has more detail on the meteorology of this year's monsoon. There is criticism from some that the devastating floods were not entirely a natural disaster--human-caused deforestation, dam building, and mining may have contributed. "Large-scale construction of dams and absence of environmental regulations has led to the floods," said Sunita Narian, director general of Delhi based advocacy group Centre for Science and Environment (CSE).


Figure 3. The summer monsoon arrived in southwest India right on schedule (June 1) in South India, but it spread northward much faster than usual, reaching Pakistan a full month earlier than normal. Solid green contours indicate the progress of the 2013 summer monsoon (each contour is labeled with a date). You can compare this year's rapid advance to a "normal" progression, which is represented by the dashed, red contours (also labeled with dates).

Monsoons in India: a primer
Disastrous monsoon floods are common in India and surrounding nations, and 60,000 people--an average of 500 people per year--died in India due to monsoon floods between 1900 - 2012, according to EM-DAT, the International Disaster Database. EM-DAT lists sixteen flood disasters which killed 1,000 or more people in India since records began in 1950. Here are the number of people killed in these events, along with the month and year of occurrence and locales affected:

4892, Jul 1968, Rajasthan, Gujara
3800, Jul 1978, North, Northeast
2001, May - Oct, 1994, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh
2000, Jul 1961, North
1811, Aug 1998, Assam, Arunachal, Bihar
1600, Aug 1980, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar
1591, Jul 28, 1989, Maharashtra, Andhra Prade
1479, Sep 1995, Bihar, Haryana, Punjab
1442, Aug 1997, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal
1200, Jul 24 - Aug 5, 2005 Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh
1200, Aug 1987, Assam, Bihar, West Bengal
1103, Jul 3 - Sep 22, 2007, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh
1063, Jun 11 - Jul 21, 2008 West Bengal, Orissa
1023, Jun 1971, North
1000, Sep 22 - Oct 9, 1988, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh
1000, Oct 1961

The monsoon occurs in summer, when the sun warms up land areas more strongly than ocean areas. This happens because wind and ocean turbulence mix the ocean's absorbed heat into a "mixed layer" approximately 50 meters deep, whereas on land, the sun's heat penetrates at a slow rate to a limited depth. Furthermore, due to its molecular properties, water has the ability to absorb more heat than the solid materials that make up land. As a result of this summertime differential heating of land and ocean, a low pressure region featuring rising air develops over land areas. Moisture-laden ocean winds blow towards the low pressure region and are drawn upwards once over land. The rising air expands and cools, condensing its moisture into some of the heaviest rains on Earth--the monsoon. Monsoons operate via the same principle as the familiar summer afternoon sea breeze, but on a grand scale. Each summer, monsoons affect every continent on Earth except Antarctica, and are responsible for life-giving rains that sustain the lives of billions of people. In India, home for over 1.1 billion people, the monsoon provides 80% of the annual rainfall. The most deadly flooding events usually come from monsoon depressions (also known as monsoon lows.) A monsoon depression is similar to (but larger than) a tropical depression. Both are spinning storms hundreds of kilometers in diameter with sustained winds of 50 - 55 kph (30 - 35 mph), nearly calm winds at their center, and generate very heavy rains. Typically, 6 - 7 monsoon depressions form each summer over the Bay of Bengal and track westwards across India.

The future of monsoons in India
A warming climate loads the dice in favor of heavier extreme precipitation events. This occurs because more water vapor can evaporate into a warmer atmosphere, increasing the chances of record heavy downpours. In a study published in Science in 2006, Goswami et al. found that the level of heavy rainfall activity in the monsoon over India had more than doubled in the 50 years since the 1950s, leading to an increased disaster potential from heavy flooding. Moderate and weak rain events decreased during those 50 years, leaving the total amount of rain deposited by the monsoon roughly constant. The authors commented, "These findings are in tune with model projections and some observations that indicate an increase in heavy rain events and a decrease in weak events under global warming scenarios." We should expect to see an increased number of disastrous monsoon floods in coming decades if the climate continues to warm as expected. Since the population continues to increase at a rapid rate in the region, death tolls from monsoon flooding disasters are likely to climb dramatically in coming decades. However, my greater concern for India is drought. The monsoon rains often fail during El NiƱo years, and more than 4.2 million people died in India due to droughts between 1900 - 2012. Up until the late 1960s, it was common for the failure of the monsoon rains to kill millions of people in India. The drought of 1965 - 1967 killed at least 1.5 million people. However, since the Green Revolution of the late 1960s--a government initiative to improve food self-sufficiency using new technology and high-yield grains--failure of the monsoon rains has not led to mass starvation in India. It is uncertain whether of not the Green Revolution can keep up with India's booming population, and the potential that climate change might bring more severe droughts. Climate models show a wide range of possibilities for the future of the Indian monsoon, and it is unclear at present what the future might hold. However, the fact that one of the worst droughts in India's history occurred in 2009 shows that serious droughts have to be a major concern for the future. The five worst Indian monsoons along with the rainfall deficits for the nation:

1) 1877, -33%
2) 1899, -29%
3) 1918, -25%
4) 1972, -24%
5) 2009, -22%

References
Goswami, et al., 2006, " Increasing Trend of Extreme Rain Events Over India in a Warming Environment", Science, 1 December 2006:Vol. 314. no. 5804, pp. 1442 - 1445 DOI: 10.1126/science.1132027

Wunderground's climate change blogger Dr. Ricky Rood wrote a nice 3-part series about the challenges India faces due to climate change after he completed a 2009 trip there.


Video 1. Flood waters claim a multi-story apartment building in Uttarakhand province, India, on June 17, 2013.

Historic flooding in Calgary, Alberta
Torrential rainfall on Wednesday night and Thursday has resulted in the most extensive flooding in Alberta Province, Canada in at least 8 years, with some 100,000 people facing evacuations in the city of Calgary. Wunderblogger Christopher C. Burt has a look at the disaster in his latest post. The floods are due, in part to the "stuck" jet stream pattern that brought record heat to Alaska this week.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting daddyjames:


Hey Gro - that was in 2009. And once before in 1944. I knw, to you it only seems like yesterday . . . My how time flies :D


Well, I had to edit my comment, I honestly didn't mean it they way it originally read.. But I do remember the hurricane in 1948 in Fort Lauderdale.
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The 18z GFS had a very potent tropical wave or tropical depression over the southern Cape Verde Islands at the end of its run, likely in response to the MJO expected to enter the region around that time.

Just FYI.

Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32046
Quoting Grothar:


What a nice compliment. I don't we ever hit 100 until last year. I think the hottest I can ever remember was 98 years ago.

It must be really wonderful to remember that far back......

heheheheh
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Quoting Grothar:



After I reread this, I honestly didn't mean 98 years ago. I meant it hit 98, many years ago. I wasn't trying to be funny this time.


Fruedian slip?
Member Since: March 10, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 10291
Quoting BaltimoreBrian:
If the dew point was 80 degrees in 129 degree heat and the humidity was 23% would it still feel dry?

I can't imagine how terrible a dewpoint of 80 would feel in Death Valley. I had a buddy who was the resident CHP officer in the Valley back in the mid-70's. I did several ride-alongs with him, including one in August. He and the park ranger traded off reading the instruments and sending a teletype to the NWS with four readings a day, 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2330.

The first day I was there in August, we had a high of 124. As I remember, the dewpoint at 1200 was 9 degrees. The office was kept bearable by evaporative coolers, and the dewpoint was low enough so the pads would sometimes ice up. We had to wear gloves at all times when we were out, since touching anything metal resulted in second degree burns otherwise. When the monsoons came in, the temperature would "drop" into the 105-110 range, but the dewpoint would go up in the 20's and low 30's. He said it was the hottest he'd ever been in his life, and he'd much rather have 125 with a dewpoint of 10. He and his family stayed at that post for over five years. I have no idea why, but he said he liked the fact that there wasn't a supervisor within 250 miles. :-)
Member Since: October 2, 2004 Posts: 0 Comments: 15190
Quoting TomTaylor:
Uh yeah, that would be a heat index of 387 degrees lol


I could make french fries outside then... Problem is that I would be fried as well.

Quoting daddyjames:


LOL - is that After Dinosaurs or Before Cambrian?

We shouldn't be picking on Grothar . . .


LOL -- Yes - we should let Grothar recover without picking on him. Even though he knows we care about him.
Member Since: March 10, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 10291
Quoting Grothar:


What a nice compliment. I don't we ever hit 100 until last year. I think the hottest I can ever remember was 98, many years ago.




i saw it 1st
Member Since: May 21, 2006 Posts: 5091 Comments: 115104
Quoting Grothar:



What a nice compliment. I don't we ever hit 100 until last year. I think the hottest I can ever remember was 98, many years ago.



After I reread this, I honestly didn't mean 98 years ago. I meant it hit 98, many years ago. I wasn't trying to be funny this time.
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Quoting TomTaylor:
Extreme heat is coming to the west next weekend. Highs could reach 130 degrees and lows will be in the triple digits in Death Valley. Below is next Saturday's NWS point forecast for a select spot near Death Valley:




Yes, you are reading that correctly, a high five degrees from the highest accepted temperature ever recorded (134F recorded at Death Valley) and a "low" of 100 degrees. The NWS point forecast doesn't go out past Saturday, but Sunday could be even warmer...


"But it's a dry heat."

;-)
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Quoting Dakster:


Not quite sure a residential AC would work in those kind of conditions. At least not well.

I think 130F and 80% humidity would be worse though.
Uh yeah, that would be a heat index of 387 degrees lol
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Quoting Dakster:


AD or BC?


LOL - is that After Dinosaurs or Before Cambrian?

We shouldn't be picking on Grothar . . .
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Quoting mitthbevnuruodo:


I would say, higher the temp, lower the humidity needs to be to feel dry still..based on personal experience.

When I was a kid by Palm Springs...was hot...110 at least most the summer. But was dry and bearable in the pool at least! When I moved back when I was about 23, they had built SO many golf courses etc, was very humid....and just awful! But on TWC, the humidity was only showing round 20-30 percent...but that was incomparison to the 8% or so when I was a kid, and what a difference! Horrible!!!

Anyway, just one opinion from experience, so hardly scientific!
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Quoting daddyjames:


Hey Gro - that was in 2009. And once before in 1944. I knw, to you it only seems like yesterday . . . My how time flies :D


AD or BC?
Member Since: March 10, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 10291
Quoting Grothar:


What a nice compliment. I don't we ever hit 100 until last year. I think the hottest I can ever remember was 98 years ago.


Hey Gro - that was in 2009. And once before in 1944. I knw, to you it only seems like yesterday . . . My how time flies :D
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Quoting PedleyCA:

That would be a loud NO, run like hell for the AC, would fell like 157F....


Not quite sure a residential AC would work in those kind of conditions. At least not well.

I think 130F and 80% humidity would be worse though.
Member Since: March 10, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 10291
Quoting BaltimoreBrian:
If the dew point was 80 degrees in 129 degree heat and the humidity was 23% would it still feel dry?


I would say, higher the temp, lower the humidity needs to be to feel dry still..based on personal experience.

When I was a kid by Palm Springs...was hot...110 at least most the summer. But was dry and bearable in the pool at least! When I moved back when I was about 23, they had built SO many golf courses etc, was very humid....and just awful! But on TWC, the humidity was only showing round 20-30 percent...but that was incomparison to the 8% or so when I was a kind, and what a difference! Horrible!!!

Anyway, just one opinion from experience, so hardly scientific!
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Just ordered two set of radar data from 2011 Super Outbreak on April 27, 2011 from Columbus AFB, MS site and Birmingham, AL site. Should be interesting to view on GR2A...
Member Since: August 1, 2011 Posts: 28 Comments: 8009
Quoting barbamz:


ROFL, Gro, you are such a nice troll :) I hope Lauderdale wouldn't see 120 soon ...


What a nice compliment. I don't we ever hit 100 until last year. I think the hottest I can ever remember was 98, many years ago.
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Quoting JrWeathermanFL:
3 things

1. I always make the season seem like a storm competition between the ATL and EPAC and so far the EPAC looks to be winning :/

2. It seems like I've seen a TC hit anywhere in the ATL but I've never tracked one into South America

3. I see the South Car. is moist again

Tropical storms are rare in South America, but the Venezuelan and Columbian coasts are sometimes affected by Atlantic hurricanes passing very far south. Ivan in 2004 was an example of an Atlantic storm that came within about 50 miles of making landfall on the Venezuelan coast. Tropical Storm Bret (1993) did actually make landfall in Venezuela and tracked across the northern half of that country and Columbia. Further south, there are no hurricanes as we classify them, but Brazil get some really mean storms that are hurricanes except for having a relatively cold core. One subtropical cyclone that would have been rated as a cat 2 hurricane struck Brazil in 2004.
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Quoting Grothar:



I'll never know. I would have passed out before it hit 120.


ROFL, Gro, you are such a nice troll :) I hope Lauderdale wouldn't see 120 soon ...
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Quoting BaltimoreBrian:
If the dew point was 80 degrees in 129 degree heat and the humidity was 23% would it still feel dry?



I'll never know. I would have passed out before it hit 120.
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Quoting TampaBayStormChaser:
I will keep an eye on the MJO. It certainly looks like the eastern Pacific may see some cyclone activity based on the posts of other people here regarding 95E such as the analysis by tropicalanalystwx13



Thank you very much! Yes I see a doctor...a lot of these internal impulses for a thrill of a "monster Hurricane" can be tempered by reminding myself of the consequences of the "thrill". I suppose the existence of such morally repulsive ideas within the mind is not itself catastrophic, as long as they are recognized as lacking in empathy so that an individual does not act upon them or attempt to justify insensitive statements made on the basis of such notions.

Such notions are not limited to weather. The same thing happens in anger, greed, or intense desire. These three notions bring about morally repulsive ideas that while existing within and sometimes tormenting the mind, will not lead to harm to others so long as the individual retains a capacity to reason that such notions, while tempting from a selfish point of view, may bring unnecessary harm or inconvenience to others.

We experience daily a battle between the selfish desires and the conscience. I think that one of the goals of life is to tip that scale in favor of the latter.

I'm happy to read you're seeing a doctor. It sounds like you've gained some good insights into your disorder. My degree is in psychology. That and five bucks buys me a cup of coffee at Starbucks. :-) I did do a fair bit of counseling before I decided that psycholgy was not my life's dream career, and I specialized in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The one thing I'd encourage you to think about is the idea that your disorder results in morally repulsive thoughts. If you were planning on wiping out a shopping mall, I would probably agree, but it seems like your thoughts are sometimes socially unacceptable rather than morally repulsive. As you say, we all have different people living inside of us, and you understand the need to control some of the impulses you feel, as well as make a sincere apology when you slip. That shows a pretty high moral standard. I no longer practice but I do try to keep up with new things in the field. There are some new meds that are coming online in the next couple of years that show great promise in treating people with OCD. I hope they will be of help to you, and that you continue to make progress. You sound like a decent guy, so try not forget that.
Member Since: October 2, 2004 Posts: 0 Comments: 15190
3 things

1. I always make the season seem like a storm competition between the ATL and EPAC and so far the EPAC looks to be winning :/

2. It seems like I've seen a TC hit anywhere in the ATL but I've never tracked one into South America

3. I see the South Car. is moist again
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Quoting TomTaylor:
Yeah, Alaska has been having some interesting weather lately. A few days ago someone put together some images from the Bethel, Alaska, webcam. The loop shows rather impressive thunderstorms bow out and develop a shelf cloud. Very impressive for Alaska.




For those wondering, here's Bethel, Alaska, on a map.



Levy should go back to Alaska soon to study this kind of weather. No need to go further south, lol.
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Quoting Neapolitan:
That is incredible. FWIW, the entire western US will be toasty next week, including Alaska, which climbs back into the oven:

fairbanks

Should be interesting. As usual...

cpc
Yeah, Alaska has been having some interesting weather lately. A few days ago someone put together some images from the Bethel, Alaska, webcam. The loop shows rather impressive thunderstorms bow out and develop a shelf cloud. Rather unusual for Alaska, though not unheard of during the summer months.




For those wondering, here's Bethel, Alaska, on a map...

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Quoting BaltimoreBrian:
If the dew point was 80 degrees in 129 degree heat and the humidity was 23% would it still feel dry?

That would be a loud NO, run like hell for the AC, would fell like 157F....
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Quoting Neapolitan:
The Elbow River--the one that overflowed and flooded Calgary--flows into the Bow River, which merges with the Oldman River to become the South Saskatchewan River, which flows into Hudson Bay, which is part of the North Atlantic.



Source to enlarge Couldn't find a better map to visualize.

Edit: Ahh, maybe this one is better:

Source
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???
Member Since: March 12, 2013 Posts: 17 Comments: 32471
Thanks Nea and BB

I just wasn't sure where this went.
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If the dew point was 80 degrees in 129 degree heat and the humidity was 23% would it still feel dry?
Member Since: August 9, 2011 Posts: 26 Comments: 8605
Quoting CaicosRetiredSailor:
Could someone with better geographical knowledge than I, explain where the rivers flooding Calgary drain to? Do they cross into Montana or North Dakota? Where is this crest heading?



The Bow River is connected to the South Saskatchewan River
The South Saskatchewan River is connected to the Saskatchewan River
The Saskatchewan River is connected to Lake Winnipeg
Lake Winnipeg is connected to the Nelson River
The Nelson River is connected to Hudson's Bay.
Member Since: August 9, 2011 Posts: 26 Comments: 8605
Member Since: March 12, 2013 Posts: 17 Comments: 32471
Quoting CaicosRetiredSailor:
Could someone with better geographical knowledge than I, explain where the rivers flooding Calgary drain to? Do they cross into Montana or North Dakota? Where is this crest heading?

The Elbow River--the one that overflowed and flooded Calgary--flows into the Bow River, which merges with the Oldman River to become the South Saskatchewan River, which flows into Hudson Bay, which is part of the North Atlantic.
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Quoting Neapolitan:
Well, if you know the "secret' code it can... ;-)

world

Pretty wild, indeed...


Lol, okay, as a screen shot or separate upload it works. I must admit, sometimes I'm just too lazy to do it ;-) I'll try to improve myself.
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Friday Sunny and hot, with a high near 126.
Friday Night Mostly clear, with a low around 100.
Saturday Sunny and hot, with a high near 129.

But its a dry heat..... lol
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40 west will be the next invest coming in the next fours day from now.
Member Since: March 12, 2013 Posts: 17 Comments: 32471
Could someone with better geographical knowledge than I, explain where the rivers flooding Calgary drain to? Do they cross into Montana or North Dakota? Where is this crest heading?

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Quoting TomTaylor:
Extreme heat is coming to the west next weekend. Highs could reach 130 degrees and lows will be in the triple digits in Death Valley. Below is next Saturday's NWS point forecast for a select spot near Death Valley:




Yes you are reading that correctly, a high five degrees from the highest accepted temperature ever recorded (134F recorded at Death Valley) and a "low" of 100 degrees. The NWS point forecast doesn't go out past Saturday, but Sunday could be even warmer...

Thanks for that post. Death Valley, along with Mt. Washington and a few other select locations are always cool places to keep track of weather-wise.
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Quoting stormpetrol:

nice spin at 40 west
Member Since: March 12, 2013 Posts: 17 Comments: 32471
and judging from the charts I saw yesterday, looks to be a pretty strong pulse. Get ready everyone, especially the sw Caribbean. Not that it'll be doomsday, but don't be surprised if in the next two weeks or so...
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916. yoboi
Quoting Neapolitan:
That is incredible. FWIW, the entire western US will be toasty next week, including Alaska, which climbs back into the oven:

fairbanks

Should be interesting. As usual...

cpc


Thanks for the daily summer alaska reports......I hope you will continue during the winter.....)
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looks like mjo is creeping into our basin, the Atlantic that is.
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Quoting BaltimoreBrian:
Tom the hottest forecast high is 118 when you click on your link.
Intellicast is a bit more bullish:

dv
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94E:



95E:

Member Since: July 21, 2011 Posts: 83 Comments: 7167

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Quoting TomTaylor:
Extreme heat is coming to the west next weekend. Highs could reach 130 degrees and lows will be in the triple digits in Death Valley. Below is next Saturday's NWS point forecast for a select spot near Death Valley:




Yes you are reading that correctly, a high five degrees from the highest accepted temperature ever recorded (134F recorded at Death Valley) and a "low" of 100 degrees. The NWS point forecast only goes out to Saturday but according to the models, Sunday looks to be even warmer...
That is incredible. FWIW, the entire western US will be toasty next week, including Alaska, which climbs back into the oven:

fairbanks

Should be interesting. As usual...

cpc
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No change in strength for 95E.

EP, 95, 2013062300, , BEST, 0, 142N, 1149W, 25, 1008, DB,
Member Since: July 21, 2011 Posts: 83 Comments: 7167
That's too hot for me Tom.
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94E is getting close being a TD. 0z ATCF update has the pressure down a mb to 1006 and more importantly winds up to 30kts.

EP, 94, 2013062300, , BEST, 0, 120N, 1030W, 30, 1006, LO

Maybe a renumber tomorrow late morning/afternoon.
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.