Tornado Scientist Tim Samaras and Team Killed in Friday's El Reno, OK Tornado

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 5:43 PM GMT on June 02, 2013

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Veteran tornado scientist Tim Samaras, his son, environmental photographer Paul Samaras, 24, and meteorologist Carl Young, 45, died while chasing Friday's EF-3 tornado in El Reno, Oklahoma. The tornado killed at least nine people, in total. "Thank you to everyone for the condolences. It truly is sad that we lost my great brother Tim and his great son, Paul," said the brother of Tim Samaras, Jim Samaras, on Tim's Facebook page. "They all unfortunately passed away but doing what they LOVED." Tim, his son Paul, and Carl Young were all featured chasers on the Discovery Channel’s series, Storm Chasers, and Tim was known throughout the chase community as a conscientious and safety-minded chaser. Carl Young, who holds a Masters degree in meteorology from the University of Nevada, joined Samaras in the field in 2003. According to his Discovery Channel biography, Young and Samaras chased over 125 tornadoes together: "Carl's finest moment came on June 11, 2004 near Storm Lake, Iowa. Working with Tim, they defied the odds and deployed their probes right in the path of a tornado. The six-camera video probe captured amazing footage from multiple angles while the sensor probe recorded data that revealed just how fast wind speeds are close to the ground."


Figure 1. TWC's Mike ‪Bettes‬ crew caught this image of the El Reno, Oklahoma tornado of May 31, 2013 before the tornado caught them and rolled their vehicle. The tornado killed tornado scientists/storm chasers Tim Samaras, Paul Samaras, and Carl Young.


Figure 2. Storm chasers in North Dakota aligned themselves to spell out "T S" in honor of Tim Samaras today. Image credit: spotternetwork.org.

Tornado science loses a pioneer
Tim Samaras had been a tornado scientist for over 25 years. He was the founder of TWISTEX, the Tactical Weather Instrumented Sampling in Tornadoes Experiment, a 2011 field experiment designed to help learn more about tornadoes and increase lead time for warnings, which resulted in many peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. One of Tim Samaras' most widely recognized contributions to tornado science is his placement of an aerodynamically-designed probe in the path of an EF-4 tornado near Manchester, South Dakota on June 24, 2003. The probe measured a world-record pressure fall of 100 mb over a 40 second period.

One of the publications from the TWISTEX program, "Near-Ground Pressure and Wind Measurements in Tornadoes" recounts this close call Tim had in a tornado in 2011: "As the storm approached, the crew noted that the supercell was moving more sharply to the right of its former course, placing them near the projected path of the low-level mesocyclone. The crew drove south on Highway 259, attempting to position south of the low-level mesocyclone before it crossed the highway. With considerable tree cover in this region hampering the visual observation of the storm's features, TWISTEX crews could not position south of the mesocyclone on Highway 259 before the mesocyclone reached this road. Thus, the two mobile mesonet stations, M2 and M3, had an unplanned tornado encounter with a developing tornadic circulation while the mesonet was traveling south on Highway 259."


Figure 3. One of Tim Samaras' most widely recognized contributions to tornado science is his placement of an aerodynamically-designed probe in the path of an EF-4 tornado near Manchester, South Dakota on June 24, 2003. The probe measured a world-record pressure fall of 100 mb over a 40 second period. See the NWS article and conference paper on the event. Thanks to wunderground member Scott Lincoln for this link.

A storm chasers' nightmare
Cars and tornadoes can prove a dangerous mix even for the world's most experienced storm chasers. Driving at high speeds though heavy rain, large hail, and high winds is hazardous. If one is lucky enough to chase down a tornado, even the most experienced chasers can find themselves in a serious life-threatening situation when unexpected events occur. The exact circumstances of the deaths of Tim Samaras and his team are not clear, but the El Reno tornado was an extremely dangerous one to chase. Tornadoes by their nature are unpredictable, and can change course unexpectedly, or pop up suddenly. It's particularly dangerous when a tornado is wrapped in rain, making it hard to see, or if a chaser is operating in a heavily populated area, where roads may suddenly become congested. All four of these conditions occurred Friday during the El Reno tornado. The El Reno tornado was wrapped in rain and difficult to see as it headed west towards Oklahoma City, and suddenly made a jog to the southeast as a Weather Channel team led by Mike Bettes was attempting to get in front of the storm, and the tornado lifted their vehicle off the ground, rolled it multiple times, and hurled it 200 yards into a nearby field. Austin Anderson was driving the Tornado Hunt vehicle, and suffered several broken bones and was hospitalized. Although Austin will have to undergo surgery in the next few days, doctors say he is expected to make a full recovery. StormChasingVideo.com storm chaser Brandon Sullivan and his chase partner Brett Wright got caught in the tornado northwest of Union City, OK and slammed with debris as the tornado hit a barn that exploded in front of them. Meteorologist Emily Sutton and storm chaser Kevin Josefy of local Oklahoma City TV station KFOR also had a very close call with the El Reno tornado Friday afternoon. They got too close to the tornado, and were forced to floor the car in reverse to escape flying debris. With branches of trees crashing around them, Sutton began feeling debris hitting her back, and realized that the rear windshield of the car must have gotten destroyed. Both were uninjured. Reed Timmer's armor-plated "Dominator" chase vehicle had its hood torn off by the tornado. Wunderground member Levi32 was out storm chasing during the El Reno Tornado, and got stuck in traffic on Highway 4 and couldn't move. "We looked up above the car and saw the wall cloud over top of us, with very quick rotation and rising scud indicating the updraft. We were definitely too close."


Video 1. Severe storm researcher and engineer Tim Samaras talks about his view on tornadoes and what remains to be understood in this interview posted on May 21, 2013.


Video 2. A tornado passes over one of Tim Samaras' specially designed six-camera video probes on June 11, 2004 near Storm Lake, Iowa.

Tornadoes and cars: a dangerous mix
A vehicle is about the worst place you can be in a tornado, as the tornado's winds can easily roll a car. (The only place less safe is probably a mobile home, as a tornado's winds can roll mobile homes almost as readily, and mobile homes don't come with seat belts and air bags.) At least five of the deaths in Friday's El Reno tornado occurred in vehicles. There was one local TV station that urged residents without underground shelters to get in their cars and "get south" in advance of the tornado that was approaching Oklahoma City, since chasers were reporting that the El Reno tornado may have been so strong that only an underground shelter would have provided adequate protection. This terrible piece of advice likely contributed to the incredible traffic jams that we saw on I-35, I-40, I-44, and other local roads Friday night. Thousands of cars were bumper-to-bumper on the roads as a dangerous tornado approached them. Had the El Reno tornado plowed directly down one of these car-choked interstates, the death toll could have easily exceeded 500. If you are located in a metro area and don't have an underground shelter, the best thing to do it to take shelter in an interior windowless room or hallway, with protective furniture over your body. Getting in a car and attempting to flee the tornado is the worst thing you can do in an urban area. You may not be able to see the tornado if it is dark or the tornado is wrapped in rain. You are likely to encounter hazardous winds, rain, and hail, run into unexpected traffic, or flooded or debris-blocked roads that will put you directly in the path of the tornado. Even without an underground shelter, most people will be able to survive a dangerous EF-4 tornado. Case in point: during the Mannsford, Oklahoma EF- 4 tornado of 1984, a packed church received a direct hit, and everyone in the church survived. The only fatality was a man who drove to the church to get his wife. It is often better to abandon your vehicle and take shelter in a ditch, if you are caught in a car during a tornado. However, if there is already flying debris in the air, leaving your car and exposing yourself to the debris in order to get to a ditch may be more hazardous than staying in your car. Furthermore, ditches are prone to flash floods. Four deaths during the El Reno tornado were from a family of seven that sheltered in a drainage ditch, and were washed into the Deep Fork River by a flash flood. Searchers are still looking for the other three bodies. A 2002 research paper, "UNSAFE AT ANY (WIND) SPEED? Testing the Stability of Motor Vehicles in Severe Winds" found that: "The stability and superior safety of being in a vehicle in severe winds, relative to occupying a mobile home or being outdoors, should be considered." Also, TWC's severe weather expert, Dr. Greg Forbes, commented on the pros and cons of abandoning one's vehicle for a ditch in a 2009 blog post, "Tornado Safety - Cars Versus Ditches: A Controversy." His personal take on what he would do if his car was being overtaken by a tornado, and no sturdy buildings were nearby to take shelter in: "I can't see myself getting out of the vehicle. I'd try first to drive away from the tornado. Both the NWS and the American Red Cross actually also advocate this. If you can determine which way the tornado is moving toward, face your body toward that direction and then go to the right, as shown in the diagram below. That is usually toward the south or southeast. The reason that it's best to head this way is that if you went to the left you would normally get into the region where largest hail and blinding rain occur in the kind of supercell, rotating thunderstorms that often spawn tornadoes. If I had no such driving option and I did feel the urge to get out of my car, I'd try to get into a building, and into a ditch well away from the car as the last resort."

My condolences and prayers go to all of the family and friends of Tim Samaras, Paul Samaras, and Carl Young. Their deaths are a terrible shock to the meteorological community, and a great loss for tornado science. I hope that their deaths will lead towards safer tornado chasing, and help spur efforts to use emerging drone technology to take measurements in dangerous storms such as tornadoes and hurricanes.

Jeff Masters

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Well guys its almost that time... :) Next comment will be my last on this account ;) BitterSweet.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting wunderkidcayman:

what was a circulation there is now an open trof with good curvature


I just love curvature!
Member Since: September 18, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 5243
Meh, I think I'll just pay the $10 a month to use Huffman's site. Not a big deal.
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Quoting FunnelVortex:
With the death of Tim Samarras and his son, as well as Mike Bettes' close call, I am thinking stormchasers are being a bit reckless this year.


Or maybe weather's just capricious. I heard of a couple chasers getting pinned to a garage wall during Charley in 2004. These things happen, it's a chance you take.
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Quoting washingtonian115:
Depends on if I'm not in a lazy mood.

Please try not to spam the blog..
I read all the comments before I post and the blog only when it interest me.
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597. beell
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

That appears to be the case, unfortunately. Guess I'll be finding another site to look at model data.


You should drop him a note of thanks for the free ride and wish him well.

:-)

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting HurricaneHunterJoe:

what was a circulation there is now an open trof with good curvature
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Quoting galvestonhurricane:


Here is my blog/web site. http://www.stormw.com/

I was permanently banned three years ago, but I have been using this handle to lurk.


haha
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Member Since: September 18, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 5243
Quoting Dakster:


I ams sure there are alot of high school graduates here. I graduated in the early 1990's, Grothar graduated before the calendar was invented...

I didn't major in Meteorology in College though, sorry.


I'm not planning on majoring in meteorology - I don't even think UT Austin has a meteorology program.
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Quoting HurricaneDean07:


Anybody care to tackle this...?


http://www.stormw.com/

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Quoting Walshy:
Where is StormW?


Edit
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Quoting Walshy:
Where is StormW?


Anybody care to tackle this...?
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Quoting auburn:
I have a question..

what determins how wide a tornado can become?


Ice cream and Oreos, baby.
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Quoting Hurricanes101:


He will be losing a lot of traffic on his site, too bad
just took the site off my bookmarks
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587. auburn (Mod)
I have a question..

what determins how wide a tornado can become?
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Quoting tropicalnewbee:


Gro didn't graduate! He stopped going to school to help dad plow the fields and bring in the mud harvest!
By then they had those fancy 1 room schoolhouses and he has been learning ever since! :)


He did mention having to runaway or fend off Dino's on the way to school.
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Good Night Peeps - Stay Safe - Stay Warm - Stay Dry - Hang Loose
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584. Skyepony (Mod)
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Member Since: September 18, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 5243
Where is StormW?
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Quoting HurricaneDean07:

Its not like Im leaving! Im just using my ACTUAL name... Besides, If I were to get an internship with NASA next summer, I'd like to have proof of the blogs I make being from me and not some "RANDOM" username that could be "Anyone"

Be careful what you wish for, it might come true.
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Quoting stormchaser19:
Wow, this shows you how strong the wind shear will be for 91L
Quite Impressive.
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Quoting stormchaser19:
Wow, this shows you how strong the wind shear will be for 91L

Wow those models are just going overboard!!!

I think I will wait until July to get my hopes up for an invest
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With the death of Tim Samarras and his son, as well as Mike Bettes' close call, I am thinking stormchasers are being a bit reckless this year.
Member Since: October 20, 2012 Posts: 7 Comments: 2882
577. DDR
Quoting Tropicsweatherpr:


Hi pottery and DDR. Look what is approaching you.


Always welcomed,thanks Tropics
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HD07... how long till u can post w/ your new handle?
Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22682
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

That appears to be the case, unfortunately. Guess I'll be finding another site to look at model data.


He will be losing a lot of traffic on his site, too bad
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Dakster:


I ams sure there are alot of high school graduates here. I graduated in the early 1990's, Grothar graduated before the calendar was invented...

I didn't major in Meteorology in College though, sorry.


Gro didn't graduate! He stopped going to school to help dad plow the fields and bring in the mud harvest!
By then they had those fancy 1 room schoolhouses and he has been learning ever since! :)
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Quoting Tropicsweatherpr:


Hi pottery and DDR. Look what is approaching you.

That is the Twave I was mentioning earlier... should be through to the central / western CAR by midweek...
Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22682
Quoting SouthDadeFish:
Unsurprisingly, convection is not organized:


Its starting to get affected by DMIN as well.
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Quoting BahaHurican:
Yeah, I know that... I'm thinking more like Kid Curry, a badman of the Wild Bunch fame... lol... u know, a famous Old West gunslinger...


lol


looking at radars from Cancun and Cuba the spin that was seen on sat and radar has now fizz out (not talking about first spin I'm talking second spin)

looking at Belize radar I do see a weak signature of a circulation and it building slowly I expect it to quicken once it moves further away from land
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Unsurprisingly, convection is not organized:

Member Since: August 12, 2007 Posts: 11 Comments: 2448
Quoting pottery:

Not sure if DDR is still here...

But yeah, ITCZ is surely here.
Some heavy stuff last week and over the w/e.


Hi pottery and DDR. Look what is approaching you.

Member Since: April 29, 2009 Posts: 75 Comments: 14764
567. DDR
Quoting pottery:

Not sure if DDR is still here...

But yeah, ITCZ is surely here.
Some heavy stuff last week and over the w/e.

I'm here pottery,how you doing?
Its been pouring up here since 8pm.
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Quoting Bluestorm5:
First year I planned to attempt at forecasting hurricanes and Allan decided to updates his website and make you pay for it. Great. There's other sites so... oh well.


Well,only product that I was interested in this page was the EURO...:(
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565. Skyepony (Mod)
Tribute Video To Twistex Team of Tim Samaras, Paul Samaras, and Carl Young.
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564. DDR
Quoting BahaHurican:
Hey, DDR... guess this means the ITCZ is in your area?

Hey Baha
Yes itcz coupled with a wave,i'm loving it.
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Quoting BahaHurican:
Hey, DDR... guess this means the ITCZ is in your area?

Not sure if DDR is still here...

But yeah, ITCZ is surely here.
Some heavy stuff last week and over the w/e.
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Quoting DDR:
Good evening
Raining by the buckets in parts of north Trinidad,expecting about 3-4 inches by this time tomorrow.
Hey, DDR... guess this means the ITCZ is in your area?
Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22682
Quoting wunderkidcayman:

hey Baha just to let you know I'm not a kid a matter of fact haven't been one for a few years :)
Yeah, I know that... I'm thinking more like Kid Curry, a badman of the Wild Bunch fame... lol... u know, a famous Old West gunslinger...

Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22682
First year I planned to attempt at forecasting hurricanes and Allan decided to updates his website and make you pay for it. Great. There's other sites so... oh well.
Member Since: August 1, 2011 Posts: 28 Comments: 8046
Quoting wunderkidcayman:

thanks Baha


hey Kman spoke with the boss the Radar should be up this week coming the boss was pretty angry that it was not up by the 1st but he said it should be up in the week
[darkly] Don't make me regret it...

lol

Actually I was thinking earlier today about how the models were starting with something closer to Panama last month... with the isthmus crossing Barbara added to the mix, I think that did change the focus somewhat. I think when this thing does tighten up it's more likely to do so near the N end of the Yucatan, but we shall see. I am also curious what is going to happen with the energy from the Twave currently approaching the islands... is it going to die off? or survive into the WCar and EPac?
Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22682
Quoting GTcooliebai:
No don't go Dean! Don't change your handle, keep it, I think a lot of us agree we like this one.
Quoting washingtonian115:
Yeah I like HurricaneDean07.It was a beautiful hurricane to track..until it ran into Mexico..

Its not like Im leaving! Im just using my ACTUAL name... Besides, If I were to get an internship with NASA next summer, I'd like to have proof of the blogs I make being from me and not some "RANDOM" username that could be "Anyone"
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Quoting HurricaneDean07:

... Do-what? LOL
Well we know its not your fault HurricaneDean07.The real hurricane was a beast on steroids.If memory serves me correctly it hit cat 5 two times.
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Quoting HurricaneDean07:

... Do-what? LOL

lol
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Quoting galvestonhurricane:
Any high school graduates on here? And, are you going to major in meteorology?


I ams sure there are alot of high school graduates here. I graduated in the early 1990's, Grothar graduated before the calendar was invented...

I didn't major in Meteorology in College though, sorry.
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Alright, don't fret.

You can find ecmwf data on FSU site and other models onLevi's site as well.

Unless you want to pay....
Member Since: June 17, 2011 Posts: 11 Comments: 6539
Quoting washingtonian115:
Yeah I like HurricaneDean07.It was a beautiful hurricane to track..until it ran into Mexico..

... Do-what? LOL
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Quoting HurricaneHunterJoe:
Looking at satellite loops....looks like the just north of cancun circulation blew itself out/ and a new and larger circulation has got some spin/turning SSE of Cancun?

there is one in the gulf of honduras as well as I said earlier its a trof of low pressures plus monsoon trof so there is likely to be several spin ups
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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