Moore Tornado an EF-5; $2 Billion Damage Estimate: 3rd Costliest Tornado in History

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 3:22 PM GMT on May 22, 2013

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The Moore, Oklahoma tornado of May 20, 2013 is now ranked an EF-5, making it one of only 59 U.S. tornadoes to achieve that distinction since record keeping began in 1950. The National Weather Service in Norman, Oklahoma announced Tuesday that their damage survey teams found an area of EF-5 damage near Briarwood Elementary School, with winds of 200 - 210 mph indicated. There were no EF-5 tornadoes observed in 2012, and the last time the U.S. had an EF-5 was on May 24, 2011, when the Oklahoma towns of Calumet, El Reno, Piedmont, and Guthrie were hit by an EF-5 with 210+ mph winds that killed nine people. The maximum width of the 2013 Moore tornado's damage swath was a huge 1.3 miles. Detailed damage survey information in Google Earth Format provided by the Norman, OK NWS office shows that the typical width of the EF-0 and greater damage swath was about 0.6 miles, and the EF-4 damage area was about 0.1 miles across at its widest. EF-4 damage occurred along approximately 4 miles of the tornado's 17-mile long path. The damage swath from the May 20, 2013 tornado as it cut through the most densely built up portions of Moore was roughly 1.5 times as wide as the one from the May 3, 1999 EF-5 tornado. That tornado was the 4th costliest in history ($1.4 billion 2011 dollars), so it is a good bet that the 2013 Moore tornado will end up being even more expensive. This morning, the Oklahoma Insurance Department said the preliminary tornado damage estimate could top $2 billion. This would make the 2013 Moore tornado the 2nd most expensive tornado in history (as ranked by NOAA/SPC) or 3rd most expensive (as ranked by insurance broker Aon Benfield.) The nine billion-dollar tornadoes (2013 dollars) are:

1) Joplin, Missouri, May 22, 2011, $2.9 billion
2) Tuscaloosa, Alabama, April 27, 2011, $2.3 billion (not in SPC's list)
3) Moore, Oklahoma, May 20, 2013, $2 billion
4) Topeka, Kansas, June 8, 1966, $1.8 billion
5) Lubbock, Texas, May 11, 1970, $1.5 billion
6) Bridge Creek-Moore, Oklahoma, May 3, 1999, $1.4 billion
7) Hackleburg, Alabama, April 27, 2011, $1.3 billion (not in SPC's list)
8) Xenia, Ohio, April 3, 1974, $1.1 billion
9) Omaha, Nebraska, May 6, 1975, $1 billion


Figure 1. The Moore, Oklahoma tornado of May 20, 2013 (AP Photo/Alonzo Adams)


Figure 2. The damage swath of the Moore, Oklahoma tornado of May 20, 2013. EF-4 damage (red colors) occurred along roughly 4 miles of the 17-mile path, and the EF-4 damage swath was up to 0.1 miles wide. The tornado's maximum width of 1.3 miles (EF-0 and greater damage) occurred over a relatively small portion of the path, before the storm reached Moore. Image credit: NWS Norman.


Figure 3. On May 20, 2013, a supercell thunderstorm in central Oklahoma spawned a destructive tornado that passed just south of Oklahoma City. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite acquired this natural-color image of the storm system at 2:40 p.m. Central Daylight Time (19:40 Universal Time), just minutes before the devastating twister began. The red line on the image depicts the tornado’s track. Image credit: NASA Earth Observatory.

There have been bigger tornadoes
The 1.3 mile maximum width of the 2013 Moore tornado's damage swath was not a record. Wikipedia documents that the EF-3 Edmonson, Texas tornado of May 31, 1968 had a damage path width between 2 and 3 miles (3.2 and 4.8 km) wide. The EF-4 Wilber - Hallam, Nebraska tornado on May 22, 2004 was of similar size, with a damage path up to 2.5 miles wide. Doppler radar measurements indicate that the May 4, 1999 Mulhall, Oklahoma EF-4 tornado--which thankfully passed mostly over farmland--would have caused damage over a path 4 miles wide at its peak size, had it encountered a built-up area. The EF-5 tornado that devastated Greensburg, Kansas on May 4, 2007 was 1.7 miles wide.


Figure 4. Damage swath of the Wilber - Hallam, Nebraska EF-4 tornado of May 22, 2004 was up to 2.5 miles wide, making it one of the largest tornadoes on record.


Figure 5. Severe weather outlook for Wednesday, May 22, calls for a "Slight Risk" of severe weather over portions of the Ohio Valley and Northeast U.S. You can follow today's severe weather from our Severe Weather page.

No tornadoes reported on Tuesday; "Slight Risk" of severe weather on Wednesday
The severe weather outbreak of May 18 - 22 peaked on Sunday and Monday. We did not record any tornadoes on Tuesday, though there were many reports of large hail and damaging winds, including three thunderstorms with wind gusts over 74 mph. Tuesday was the first day since May 14 that no tornadoes were recorded in the U.S. And after issuing four consecutive "Moderate Risk" outlooks for severe weather, NOAA's Storm Prediction Center (SPC) is going with only a "Slight Risk" for severe weather on Wednesday in the U.S., with the main severe weather action expected to affect portions of the Ohio Valley and Northeast U.S. The primary threat will be straight-line wind damage and large hail, though we can't rule out a few tornadoes. During the three-day period May 18 - May 20, 70 tornadoes (preliminary) were recorded by SPC.


Video 1. Charles Cook caught the birth of the May 20, 2013 tornado at Newcastle, OK. It moved from there to Moore where it caused catastrophic devastation.


Video 2. NOAA's GOES-East satellite collected this view of the storm system that spawned a deadly tornado over Moore, Oklahoma on May 20, 2013. The animation runs from 10:45 a.m. through 6:45 p.m., Central Daylight Time. Images courtesy NASA GOES Project Science: ‪http://goes.gsfc.nasa.gov/‬

The Norman, OK NWS office has an excellent page with detailed info on the Moore tornado.

I did a 10-minute Skype interview with democracynow.org on Tuesday morning, discussing the Moore tornado.

I greatly appreciate all the valuable links members of the WU community have posted here, and I have used many of them in my posts over the past day. Keep up the great work!

How to help
Portlight Strategies, an organization that supports disaster victims with disabilities, will be working with shelter operators and disability stakeholder organizations in Oklahoma to serve the needs of people with disabilities. Further information and how to offer additional support can be found on their website.

Donations can be made to American Red Cross disaster relief at redcross.org/weather or by texting WEATHER to 90999 to donate $10.

Donations can be made on The Salvation Army's website or by texting STORM to 80888 to donate $10. You can also call to make donations of other monetary amounts at (800) 725-2769.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting Levi32:


This morning was unbelievable. It brought me right out of bed. I had lightning strike 1/4 mile away on a light pole right in front of my face. I've never really seen cloud-to-ground before. Amazing. We've had copious rainfall as well. It looked like a literal shower out there before sunrise. The mesonet is reporting over 2 inches of rain in some spots, and convection is still redeveloping over OKC. This is terrible for Moore.


Welcome to the lower 48, Levi.

During heavy thunderstorms, there are sometimes two bolts every second, strong winds, and rain so heavy you cant make out the features on the house across the street!
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Quoting RitaEvac:


No religion is allowed in schools anymore Nea


I think RitaEvac is having an 'unclear on the concept' kind of a day.
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Quoting ncstorm:


why do eastern NC have a torcon index of 3 but we are not in slight risk for the SPC?



No idea, it makes no sense to me either. I copied the stuff right off the website.
Member Since: April 30, 2013 Posts: 5 Comments: 4316
Quoting RitaEvac:


No religion is allowed in schools anymore Nea


No "state-sanctioned" religion is allowed, but let me tell you, everyone was praying to their respective God that day. Even those of us not directly involved.
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Quoting FunnelVortex:


I just checked the GFS, and the development it is showing is at 200 HRS.

We all know 200 HRS and beyond is lala land.

No. Beyond 240-300 hours Is lala land. 200 hours is only 8 days from now which, considering that, even our normal forecasts go out to 7 days, so really it's believable that anything within 10 days is broadly accurate.
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Quoting Torito:
NE TORCON INDEX

Isolated severe thunderstorms with spotty damaging winds and hail in ME, VT, NH, east and southeast NY, CT, RI, east PA, central and east MD, DE, DC, central and east VA, east NC, east SC. TORCON - 3 or less



why does eastern NC have a torcon index of 3 but we are not in slight risk for the SPC?

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Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
dice are loaded expect a wild a wacky summer and early fall weather patterns global wide

I hope whoever is in charge does not have those dice loaded at us.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 20489
Quoting FunnelVortex:
Hey, Levi.

The huge, wind, rain, and constant lightning-producing storms here in the lower 48 are quite different than the low-topped storms that only emit a few rumbles of thunder that you are used to. Am I right?


This morning was unbelievable. It brought me right out of bed. I had lightning strike 1/4 mile away on a light pole right in front of my face. I've never really seen cloud-to-ground before. Amazing. We've had copious rainfall as well. It looked like a literal shower out there before sunrise. The mesonet is reporting over 2 inches of rain in some spots, and convection is still redeveloping over OKC. This is terrible for Moore.
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Quoting Neapolitan:
If so, I wish that whoever was in the driver's seat would have steered away from the two elementary schools full of kids and hit the church instead...


No religion is allowed in schools anymore Nea
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Quoting Neapolitan:
If so, I wish that whoever was in the driver's seat would have steered away from the two elementary schools full of kids and hit the church instead...


Nea, I usually don't agree with you. But this post is too true!
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Quoting Neapolitan:
If so, I wish that whoever was in the driver's seat would have steered away from the two elementary schools full of kids and hit the church instead...


...what?
Member Since: April 30, 2013 Posts: 5 Comments: 4316
Tornado risk that has been recorded so far this month:

Member Since: April 30, 2013 Posts: 5 Comments: 4316
Quoting yonzabam:
Divine intervention?
If so, I wish that whoever was in the driver's seat would have steered away from the two elementary schools full of kids and hit the church instead... :/
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Quoting Patrap:





Pavlof Volcano From Station

Astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) photographed this striking view of Pavlof Volcano on May 18, 2013. The oblique perspective from the ISS reveals the three dimensional structure of the ash plume, which is often obscured by the top-down view of most remote sensing satellites.

Situated in the Aleutian Arc about 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) southwest of Anchorage, Pavlof began erupting on May 13, 2013. The volcano jetted lava into the air and spewed an ash cloud 20,000 feet (6,000 meters) high. When photograph ISS036-E-2105 (top) was taken, the space station was about 475 miles south-southeast of the volcano (49.1° North latitude, 157.4° West longitude). The volcanic plume extended southeastward over the North Pacific Ocean.
Awesome picture Pat..Thank you for posting it.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 20489
000
WUUS54 KOUN 231459
SVROUN
OKC005-013-069-095-231545-
/O.NEW.KOUN.SV.W.0385.130523T1459Z-130523T1545Z/

BULLETIN - IMMEDIATE BROADCAST REQUESTED
SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WARNING
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE NORMAN OK
959 AM CDT THU MAY 23 2013

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN NORMAN HAS ISSUED A

* SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WARNING FOR...
SOUTHWESTERN ATOKA COUNTY IN SOUTHEAST OKLAHOMA...
BRYAN COUNTY IN SOUTHEAST OKLAHOMA...
SOUTHEASTERN JOHNSTON COUNTY IN SOUTHEAST OKLAHOMA...
EASTERN MARSHALL COUNTY IN SOUTHEAST OKLAHOMA...

* UNTIL 1045 AM CDT

* AT 956 AM CDT...NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE METEOROLOGISTS DETECTED
SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS LOCATED ALONG A LINE EXTENDING FROM MILBURN TO
FILLMORE TO SILO TO 3 MILES SOUTH OF LAKE TEXOMA...MOVING EAST AT
25 MPH.

HAZARDS IN THE WARNING INCLUDE...
DESTRUCTIVE WINDS IN EXCESS OF 70 MPH...
LARGE HAIL UP TO PING PONG BALL SIZE...
MINOR FLOODING IN AREAS OF POOR DRAINAGE...

* LOCATIONS IMPACTED INCLUDE...
DURANT...CALERA...COLBERT...CADDO...BOKCHITO...ACH ILLE...TUSHKA...
MILBURN...SILO...CANEY...KENEFIC...KEMP...ARMSTRON G...MEAD...
HENDRIX...WOODVILLE...FILLMORE...LAKE TEXOMA...LITTLE CITY AND
COLEMAN.

PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS...

MOVE INSIDE A STURDY BUILDING UNTIL THE STORM HAS PASSED.

HEAVY RAIN WILL QUICKLY FLOOD CREEKS... DITCHES AND UNDERPASSES. DO
NOT CROSS FLOODED ROADWAYS. TURN AROUND DON`T DROWN.
&&

LAT...LON 3378 9643 3377 9650 3382 9653 3385 9663
3389 9659 3392 9666 3384 9670 3382 9676
3401 9665 3422 9661 3431 9665 3439 9617
3423 9611 3403 9610 3372 9637
TIME...MOT...LOC 1459Z 279DEG 23KT 3425 9653 3425 9653 3403 9651 3383
9668

$$
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Quoting Torito:
severe weather for me, finally. Might be able to chase something today!



Glad I found someone else here on the blog who enjoys severe weather. I thought I was alone!
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Member Since: April 30, 2013 Posts: 5 Comments: 4316
This was a pic of storms building yesterday afternoon in Downtown Orlando.

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Quoting ScottLincoln:

Tornado paths wobble and change directions all of the time. I'm not sure what you are implying, but the direction changes of the Moore Tornado (2013) are not unusual, not even close.


Definitely not unusual, but this one was phenomenal.
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Quoting HurricaneDean07:

Correct. The models are showing something 10 days down the road, which is shown as a low by the NAVGEM and EURO currently being that their models runs don't go passed 10 days, but the GFS, the one that ultimately sniffed this out has still continued to show development. Still a wait and see situation.


I just checked the GFS, and the development it is showing is at 200 HRS.

We all know 200 HRS and beyond is lala land.
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Upper level environment still too hostile, but appears more settled than a few weeks ago.
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NE TORCON INDEX

Isolated severe thunderstorms with spotty damaging winds and hail in ME, VT, NH, east and southeast NY, CT, RI, east PA, central and east MD, DE, DC, central and east VA, east NC, east SC. TORCON - 3 or less

Member Since: April 30, 2013 Posts: 5 Comments: 4316
Quoting Patrap:



Preseason anomalies mean nothing. It all comes down to what's present during the season. 2005 produced the exact kind of dramatic warming that were seeing currently in the gulf.
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severe weather for me, finally. Might be able to chase something today!

Member Since: April 30, 2013 Posts: 5 Comments: 4316
Quoting ScottLincoln:

Tornado paths wobble and change directions all of the time. I'm not sure what you are implying, but the direction changes of the Moore Tornado (2013) are not unusual, not even close.


Divine intervention?
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Hey, Levi.

The huge, wind, rain, and constant lightning-producing storms here in the lower 48 are quite different than the low-topped storms that only emit a few rumbles of thunder that you are used to. Am I right?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting FunnelVortex:


A 1008 MB is not even a TS.

Correct. The models are showing something 10 days down the road, which is shown as a low by the NAVGEM and EURO currently being that their models runs don't go passed 10 days, but the GFS, the one that ultimately sniffed this out has still continued to show development. Still a wait and see situation.
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Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 420 Comments: 127536
Quoting RitaEvac:
After looking at aerials on Google map of the damage, one thing stood out the most. The tornado was moving on a NE direction and where there is the Central church of Christ along I-35 the tornado literally changed to an ESE direction going opposite of the church. There is no way the tornado should of turned like that. That is by far the most stunning event I've ever seen, and the evidence of the track change is evident.

Tornado paths wobble and change directions all of the time. I'm not sure what you are implying, but the direction changes of the Moore Tornado (2013) are not unusual, not even close.
Member Since: September 28, 2002 Posts: 5 Comments: 3167
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:


event detected
C3.9... Link
Member Since: October 27, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 2026
Oh no....
The National Weather Service in Norman has extended the

* Flash Flood Warning for...
western McClain County in central Oklahoma...
Oklahoma County in central Oklahoma...
central Kingfisher County in central Oklahoma...
northeastern Grady County in central Oklahoma...
Cleveland County in central Oklahoma...
eastern Canadian County in central Oklahoma...
southwestern Logan County in central Oklahoma...

* until 1245 PM CDT

* thunderstorms producing heavy rainfall continue from eastern parts
of Canadian County into Oklahoma and Cleveland counties. Flooding
is already in progress from very heavy rain earlier this morning.
Creeks and small streams in the area are flooding or running
bankfull and some roadways are blocked by high water. Additional
heavy rain is likely in the next hour or so as showers and
thunderstorms continue to move through the area.

* Some locations that will experience flooding include Oklahoma
City... Norman... Edmond... Midwest City... Moore... del City... El
Reno... Kingfisher... Stella... Yukon... Bethany... Concho...
Mustang... the Village... Warr Acres... Choctaw... Purcell...
Newcastle... Noble... Tuttle... Nichols Hills... Spencer... Piedmont...
Slaughterville... Nicoma Park... Lexington... Goldsby... Okarche...
Cashion and Washington.

Precautionary/preparedness actions...

Excessive runoff from heavy rainfall will cause flooding of small
creeks and streams... urban areas... highways... streets and underpasses
as well as other drainage areas and low lying spots.

Most flood deaths occur in automobiles. Never drive your vehicle into
areas where the water covers the roadway. Flood waters are usually
deeper than they appear. Just one foot of flowing water is powerful
enough to sweep vehicles off the Road. When encountering flooded
roads make the smart choice... turn around... dont drown.


Lat... Lon 3539 9716 3487 9717 3524 9779 3587 9818
3601 9774

Member Since: April 30, 2013 Posts: 5 Comments: 4316
Quoting Patrap:Post# 868





Pavlof Volcano From Station

Astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) photographed this striking view of Pavlof Volcano on May 18, 2013. The oblique perspective from the ISS reveals the three dimensional structure of the ash plume, which is often obscured by the top-down view of most remote sensing satellites.

Situated in the Aleutian Arc about 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) southwest of Anchorage, Pavlof began erupting on May 13, 2013. The volcano jetted lava into the air and spewed an ash cloud 20,000 feet (6,000 meters) high. When photograph ISS036-E-2105 (top) was taken, the space station was about 475 miles south-southeast of the volcano (49.1 North latitude, 157.4 West longitude). The volcanic plume extended southeastward over the North Pacific Ocean.


Mornin' Pat..
Just an aside..
Post #509 in my blog has the rest of the pics ect..
Pretty cool.. :)
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Quoting Tropicsweatherpr:


Best wishes to you that all goes well. Will you do Tropical Tidbits in that period?


I'll make time if there's activity, even if I don't normally have time.
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Quoting HurricaneDean07:
Gulf warming up nicely
Link


broken link. xD
Member Since: April 30, 2013 Posts: 5 Comments: 4316
Gulf warming up nicely
Link
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This one is up to date, and hi aussie!

Member Since: April 30, 2013 Posts: 5 Comments: 4316
Quoting Levi32:


I am here for 10 weeks to do a research project. It's an REU program. I'm one of 10 students in it this year. So far with the Moore tornado and now the activity today they have been too busy to get me started yet. It's unbelievable being in here. It's all glass walls, so I can see into SPC and HWT from where I'm sitting in the WFO. Surreal.
You'll have to update us on your research project. I'm interested to hear what you're doing for research project!

Quoting Xulonn:
Bluestorm, congrats on your upcoming graduation. Your good writing and communication skills are noticeable, even in the short comment above that I quoted. Communication is an area where many young folks who are your contemporaries are lacking. They often don't seem to be concerned about it, and are touchy when criticized about it.

Good communication skills can make a big difference in your success in the world of science, business, or almost any field besides manual labor. And even in fields like construction, good communication skills can take you to higher levels of employment - supervision, sales and planning - or even becoming independent and running your own business.

Whichever path you choose, work hard, and I wish you success!
Thank you for the kind words, sir. I had gone a long way since my childhood because of my deafness. I'm still working on communication skills, but hopefully I'll be a good at communicating with others. I still got a lot to learn, but I'm very pleased I had overcome my disability to graduate from high school in few weeks. When I was just a kindergarten, Wake County educators told my parents I was never going to make it through elementary school because of my deafness so my parents put me in a private school in Missouri. I will have proven so many people wrong by graduating in few weeks. I'm so excited to start a new chapter in Asheville.
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Quoting Levi32:


I am here for 10 weeks to do a research project. It's an REU program. I'm one of 10 students in it this year. So far with the Moore tornado and now the activity today they have been too busy to get me started yet. It's unbelievable being in here. It's all glass walls, so I can see into SPC and HWT from where I'm sitting in the WFO. Surreal.

And the building you are in is designed to withstand terrorist attacks and strong tornadoes.
Member Since: September 28, 2002 Posts: 5 Comments: 3167
Quoting Torito:


Probs a few hours old, but still pretty accurate.

All of it's moving towards the boom storm on the far right, freaky, LOL

Night❤❤
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Quoting StormTrackerScott:
Models beginning to show development in the Western Caribbean next week.



A 1008 MB is not even a TS.
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event detected
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 169 Comments: 53296


Probs a few hours old, but still pretty accurate.
Member Since: April 30, 2013 Posts: 5 Comments: 4316
91E looking nice.

Member Since: April 30, 2013 Posts: 5 Comments: 4316
Night all. Raining pretty good here again yet nothing on RADAR, nice sleeping weather.



24 hour rain totals.
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Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 169 Comments: 53296
Quoting Levi32:


I am here for 10 weeks to do a research project. It's an REU program. I'm one of 10 students in it this year. So far with the Moore tornado and now the activity today they have been too busy to get me started yet. It's unbelievable being in here. It's all glass walls, so I can see into SPC and HWT from where I'm sitting in the WFO. Surreal.


Best wishes to you that all goes well. Will you do Tropical Tidbits in that period?
Member Since: April 29, 2009 Posts: 75 Comments: 13995
Quoting daddyjames:



Welcome to our neck of the woods - enjoy this weather as much as you can - once June/July hits, you'll have plenty of time to get things accomplished (as the heat will literally drive you indoors).

Absolutely thrilled for you! Have followed you for years, and learned a lot from you. Miss the tropical posts, but understand that you'll be busy. Best to you, and if you are to give any presentations - open to the public - would love to be in attendance.


Gosh, do I sound like a Levi groupie or what? :D
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Pavlof Volcano From Station

Astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) photographed this striking view of Pavlof Volcano on May 18, 2013. The oblique perspective from the ISS reveals the three dimensional structure of the ash plume, which is often obscured by the top-down view of most remote sensing satellites.

Situated in the Aleutian Arc about 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) southwest of Anchorage, Pavlof began erupting on May 13, 2013. The volcano jetted lava into the air and spewed an ash cloud 20,000 feet (6,000 meters) high. When photograph ISS036-E-2105 (top) was taken, the space station was about 475 miles south-southeast of the volcano (49.1° North latitude, 157.4° West longitude). The volcanic plume extended southeastward over the North Pacific Ocean.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 420 Comments: 127536
Quoting Levi32:


I am here for 10 weeks to do a research project. It's an REU program. I'm one of 10 students in it this year. So far with the Moore tornado and now the activity today they have been too busy to get me started yet. It's unbelievable being in here. It's all glass walls, so I can see into SPC and HWT from where I'm sitting in the WFO. Surreal.


Welcome to our neck of the woods - enjoy this weather as much as you can - once June/July hits, you'll have plenty of time to get things accomplished (as the heat will literally drive you indoors).

Absolutely thrilled for you! Have followed you for years, and learned a lot from you. Miss the tropical posts, but understand that you'll be busy. Best to you, and if you are to give any presentations - open to the public - would love to be in attendance.
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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