Tornadoes Slam 5-State Area, Killing Two; Outbreak Continues Today

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:29 PM GMT on May 20, 2013

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The Midwest U.S. is under the gun again today, as a potent storm system that spawned a preliminary count of 24 tornadoes in five states on Sunday reloads and prepares to dish out another afternoon and evening of atmospheric mayhem. Sunday's tornadoes swept through Oklahoma, Kansas, Iowa, Missouri, and Illinois, with Oklahoma bearing the brunt of the assault. The outbreak's only deadly tornado--preliminarily rated as en EF-5 with 166 - 200 mph winds--hit Shawnee, Oklahoma, a town of 30,000 located 35 miles southeast of Oklahoma City. The twister leveled a trailer park, killing two people, and blew a semi-trailer off of an expressway overpass on I-40. At least 21 people were injured and 300 homes destroyed over the five-state area by the tornadoes. The 24 tornadoes from May 19 make it the biggest day for tornadoes in the U.S. this spring, and the highest number reported in one day since January 30, when 44 tornadoes touched down from Georgia to Indiana.


Figure 1. The Shawnee, Oklahoma tornado at 6:44 pm CDT May 19, 2013, as it passed just NW of Shawnee. The tornado killed two people in a mobile home park in Shawnee. Viewer submitted photo. #okwx pic.twitter.com/UCH9e8o9G8 Matt Mahler@themahler


Figure 2. The Shawnee tornado hurled a semi-trailer off of an expressway overpass at Highway 117 and I-40 in Oklahoma, and toppled another semi. Four people who sheltered under this overpass were injured, one seriously, and taken to the hospital. Highway overpasses can act to amplify a tornado's winds, and are very dangerous places to be during a tornado. According to the NWS in Norman Oklahoma, during the tornado outbreak of May 3, 1999, tornadoes crossed three highway overpasses, and at all three locations, there was a fatality. One of the fatalities occurred from an EF-2 tornado in a rural area, which suggests that a tornado need not be a large, violent tornado with a considerable debris cloud to cause fatal injuries to people seeking shelter from storms under overpasses. In addition to the fatal injuries to three people, there were also many severe, potentially life-threatening and gruesome injuries inflicted upon people underneath the overpasses, that in some cases, has left these people with permanent disabilities. Don't take shelter under a highway overpass from a tornado! Image credit: KFOR.com.


Figure 3. Radar reflectivity image taken at 6:08 pm CDT May 19, 2013 of the supercell thunderstorm that spawned the Shawnee, Oklahoma tornado.


Figure 4. Doppler velocity image taken at 6:08 pm CDT May 19, 2013 of the supercell thunderstorm that spawned the Shawnee, Oklahoma tornado. Note the couplet of dark red colors right next to light blues near the center of the image, showing that the air was moving both towards the radar and away from it within a short distance, indicating a tight rotation of the tornado's parent mesocyclone.

Iowa's record tornado-free streak ends at 359 days
A tornado touched down near Slater, Iowa at 6:10 pm CDT on Sunday, May 19, one of six tornadoes reported in the state that day. Remarkably, it was the first tornado recorded in the state since May 24, 2012 (Fayette County.) The 359-day streak without a tornado was the longest tornado-free period in state history. The previous record was 355 days, set between May 5, 1955, and April 26, 1956. The new streak is far more impressive because digital technology and spotter networks today are so comprehensive, resulting in far fewer missed tornadoes. There was a much higher likelihood back in the 1950s for tornadoes to be missed. The exceptional tornado-free period was due to the combination of the state's dry summer of 2012 (3rd driest on record) and cold spring of 2013 (8th coldest March - April on record). Thunderstorms like heat and moisture to form, and its tough to get a tornado if you're experiencing a top-ten driest or coldest spring or summer.


Figure 5. Radar reflectivity image of the tornado-spawning supercell thunderstorm that dropped an EF-1 tornado just to the southwest of Wichita, Kansas, on May 19, 2013.

Wichita gets lucky
At 3:30 pm Sunday, Kansas' largest city, Wichita, got a major scare when a large supercell thunderstorm spawned a half-mile wide tornado to the southwest of the city. The tornado headed directly for the airport and downtown Wichita, prompting the issuance of "Tornado Emergency" for the city. In the wake of the deadly EF-5 tornado that leveled Joplin, Missouri in 2011, the NWS decided to give local NWS offices the option to issue special, strongly worded tornado warnings to let the population know when a particularly dangerous tornado--one that has been confirmed by spotters to be on the ground--is approaching. The NWS issued one of these very strongly-worded tornado warnings on Sunday for Wichita:

Statement as of 3:47 PM CDT on May 19, 2013
... A Tornado Warning remains in effect for southern Sedgwick County until 415 PM CDT...

... Tornado emergency for Wichita...

At 345 PM CDT... a confirmed large... violent and extremely dangerous tornado was located on the southwest side of Wichita... and moving northeast at 30 mph.

This is a particularly dangerous situation.

Hazard... deadly tornado.

Source... weather spotters confirmed tornado.

Impact... you could be killed if not underground or in a tornado shelter. Complete destruction of neighborhoods... businesses and vehicles will occur. Flying debris will be deadly to people and animals.

Locations impacted include...Maize... downtown Wichita... Wichita... Bel Aire... McConnell Air Force Base…east Wichita and Oaklawn.

Precautionary/preparedness actions...

This is an extremely dangerous tornado with complete devastation likely. You could be killed if not underground or in a tornado shelter. Do not delay... seek shelter now! If no underground shelter is available seek shelter in an interior room of the lowest level of a structure... or if time allows... consider moving to an underground shelter elsewhere. Mobile homes and outbuildings will offer no shelter from this tornado.

Tornado... observed
Tornado damage threat... catastrophic
Hail... 2.75in

Wichita TV station KSNW did an excellent job covering the tornado, but were forced to abandon the studio during the height of the storm, as seen on this video clip. You can hear hail pounding the roof as the news crew scrambles for shelter. Station meteorologist J.D. Rudd has this to say: "We are okay. I'll tell you though, it got intense. That thing passed right over our studio. Luckily, it had lifted. But I truly thought the roof of our studio was about to peel off. And the sound of the hail was deafening. What a day. Three hours of coverage with the largest city in the state under a TOR warning for a long time. Weather service called it a Tornado Emergency…'Large, violent tornado on the ground'. Words that gave me chills when I read them." Preliminary damage surveys from the NWS indicate that the Wichita tornado was an EF-1 with a path length 4.6 miles that lifted two miles south of the Wichita airport.


Figure 6. Severe weather outlook for Monday, May 20, calls for a "Moderate Risk" of severe weather over much of Oklahoma, and portions of surrounding states. You can follow today's severe weather outbreak from our Severe Weather page.

Another big severe weather day today in the Midwest
The latest forecasts from NOAA's Storm Prediction Center call for an active severe weather day again on Monday, with a "Moderate Risk" of severe weather over much of Oklahoma, plus portions of Southwest Missouri, Northwest Arkansas, and extreme North Texas. The highest threat for tornadoes will be in Southern Oklahoma and into North Texas. The severe weather outbreak will continue on Tuesday and Wednesday, progressing eastwards into the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes. Only a "Slight Risk" of severe weather is expected those days.


Video 1. Impressive footage (peaking at 4:30 of the video) of the huge tornado that devastated Carney, Oklahoma on May 19, 2013.


Video 2. The "Dominator 3" armored tornado intercept vehicle saw plenty of action on Sunday, as seen in this video, taken just northeast of Edmond, Oklahoma. From the ‪http://tvnweather.com/‬ description of the video: "This tornado was one of the strongest ever intercepted, and we needed all 10,000k pounds of the new Dominator because I have never felt vibration like that before as we were slammed by suction vortices wrapping all around the vehicle. Jim Cantore was on board and he's hooked. All part of #TornadoChasers, Season 2013 coming up this fall on ‪http://tvnweather.com/ondemand‬"

Additional info
Wunderblogger Lee Grenci has an interesting post discussing how last Wednesday's Granbury, Texas tornado was able to form in an atmosphere that seemingly had too little wind shear to get a supercell thunderstorm spinning. The Granbury tornado was an EF-4 with 166 - 200 mph winds that killed six people, and was part of a weather system separate from the one that is generating the current Midwest U.S. tornado outbreak.

news9.com out of Oklahoma City had some excellent live helicopter coverage of Sunday's storms, and will likely be out there again today.

Jeff Masters

Severe Thunderstorm Warned 4 (smyezek)
Outflow dominate storms, interesting to watch especially this wall of water that just pushed east. Lots of wind, heavy rains and even some decent size hail (mainly quarter sized, but may have been slightly larger). Intercepted this storm several miles SW of Coin, Ia (Page County). Wall of Water from an outflow dominate storm.
Severe Thunderstorm Warned 4
Don't Try This At Home (taddarkprince)
No Really....Don't try this at home. Pentax K-5 and Tamron 10-24mm Lens.
Don't Try This At Home
Rozel, KS Stovepipe Tornado! (charlesimages)
My first tornado ever in my chasing career, and it's this massive beast! Awesome! Follow my adventures at facebook.com/CharlesimagesStormedia and cistormedia.com!
Rozel, KS Stovepipe Tornado!
Medford, OK (amy1225)
Medford, OK
After the Storm (ctrmom)
Calm after the storm, with lots of birds singing in the background too!
After the Storm

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Quoting weathermanwannabe:
Good Luck as to Levi's trip and I am sure he will impress them. Might end up in a situation where they are asking HIM questions and for advice like the young man/mathematics genius in Goodwill Hunting......
Or Jesus in the temple at age twelve... respect young genius, I say... :o)

I was just thinking OK is the first step in a full trip to South FL for that young man... air wearing or no air wearing, sooner or later he has to make it there [to NHC].

It is destiny....
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
I'm still waiting for the storms to pop up in my area.

So far the current conditions are:

Few Clouds
76°F
Feels Like: 76°
Wind Chill: 76°
Heat Index: 76°
Dew Point: 57°
Humidity: 52%
Pressure: 29.66"

Ceiling: Unl
Visibility: 10mi
Wind: 12mph
Direction: 190° (S)


I expect storms to roll through about after six or seven.
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Quoting dabirds:
Cluster to west just showing up on Lincoln now ILwthr, think we'll have more from west. Sun blazing at lunch, not sure about gust on site, never felt that much, but.. 81, 29.81",64 dew pt, 6-55? SW. Have a feeling it will get interesting around sunset. Hope most of the precip stays S of 64 for S IL, we've finally been able to get some corn in the ground, but still have a ways to go - .25 to .5 would be much better than the 1 I've seen on the maps. At least they've been able to get some in though, was beginning to wonder if they would.

See you've part of my town's name on your map ILw!


Most of Central Illinois is currently capped and also very little in the way of energy right now. Subsidence is ongoing from early morning convection that rolled through. It will take quite some time for it to recover. I would not all be surprised if the more significant rains stayed well south of 1-70 in the more unstable environment. Anything significant in our area will likely occur overnight, by then it should be just a wind damage threat.





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Getting windy here, and clouds are getting darker by the minute, even though the radar shows nothing.
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Quoting VR46L:
First sign of trouble ?

Cloud tops starting

Goes Cloud tops from Navy site



Look at the moisture ahead of the dryline!
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First storms of day developing in Oklahoma.

Member Since: August 1, 2011 Posts: 28 Comments: 8075
305. VR46L
First sign of trouble ?

Cloud tops starting

Goes Cloud tops from Navy site

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Quoting docrod:


Yes! - I was a few miles away when the old radar blew away. The new place is above a cat 5 flood level.

Also - earlier post - rather than relocating to Montana, Utah has a town named Hurricane!
UT dwellers prolly named it after a horse.
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Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:


Yes. More sunshine = more daytime heating.
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MESOSCALE DISCUSSION 0727
NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER NORMAN OK
0119 PM CDT MON MAY 20 2013

AREAS AFFECTED...CNTRL TX

CONCERNING...SEVERE POTENTIAL...WATCH LIKELY

VALID 201819Z - 202015Z

PROBABILITY OF WATCH ISSUANCE...95 PERCENT

SUMMARY...A FEW SUPERCELLS ARE EXPECTED TO FORM ALONG THE DRYLINE
LATER THIS AFTERNOON...WITH VERY LARGE HAIL LIKELY. AN ISOLATED
TORNADO IS POSSIBLE. A WATCH IS LIKELY BEFORE 20Z.

DISCUSSION...STRONG HEATING PERSISTS ACROSS CNTRL/WRN TX WITH VERY
STRONG INSTABILITY IN PLACE E OF THE DRYLINE. VISIBLE IMAGERY SHOWS
TCU INCREASING OVER THROCKMORTON AND YOUNG COUNTIES...WITH
ADDITIONAL CU SW OF SEP. ALTHOUGH WELL S OF THE JET...DEEP LAYER
SHEAR VALUES AND OVERALL HODOGRAPH LENGTH WITH INCREASING UPPER
LEVEL WINDS WILL BE MORE THAN SUFFICIENT FOR SUPERCELLS. AMPLE
MOISTURE AND COLD PROFILES ALOFT WILL RESULT IN VERY LARGE DAMAGING
HAIL.

THIS EVENING...CAPPING WILL INHIBIT EWD PROGRESSION OF THESE
CELLS...LIKELY DYING CLOSE TO I-35 BY 03Z.

..JEWELL/KERR.. 05/20/2013


ATTN...WFO...FWD...OUN...EWX...SJT...

LAT...LON 33819647 32709666 31659704 31139725 30769756 30639825
30799907 31069961 31329984 31849966 32769922 33509866
33829827 33919779 33969706 33819647
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Quoting SouthernIllinois:
Was really amazed not only how powerful the twisters were yesterday, but also how rapidly they formed. I thought for sure the first supercell on the way to Wichita wouldn't have had enough time to get organized to drop a tornado, let alone a VERY wide tornado. And looked what happened.

Still very thankful that thing vaporized when it did!
I think Shawnee tornado took the longest to developed out of these storms yesterday, but I was only paying attention to couple of storms.
Member Since: August 1, 2011 Posts: 28 Comments: 8075
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 178 Comments: 56059
Quoting ncstorm:
12z Euro currently running..96 hour



I think I see a wave starting to come off of Africa.
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Levi will be walking into this

Sutton Place, Norman, Oklahoma (PWS)
Updated: 1:37 PM CDT on May 20, 2013
Mostly Cloudy
85.5 °F
Mostly Cloudy
Humidity: 62%
Dew Point: 71 °F
Wind: 2.0 mph from the SSE
Pressure: 29.72 in (Steady)
Heat Index: 91 °F
Visibility: 10.0 miles
UV: 5.6 out of 16
Pollen: 7.70 out of 12
Clouds:
Scattered Clouds 2800 ft
Scattered Clouds 3200 ft
Mostly Cloudy 4600 ft
(Above Ground Level)
Elevation: 1171 ft
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting ScottLincoln:

On the damage indicators listed for hardwood and softwood trees on the EF-scale, tree debarking is the highest degree of damage available, and the expected wind speeds are 130-140mph:
http://www.spc.noaa.gov/efscale/27.html
http://www.spc.noaa.gov/efscale/28.html

The link I shared several days ago that discussed discriminating between EF4 and EF5 talked about pavement scouring, and it mentioned that there can be other variables at play such that it may not be just EF5 winds that cause pavement removal.

From what I recall, the ground scouring is much more typical of EF5 damage. As with all tornadoes, surveyed damage should be analyzed in the context of surround damage to make sure they are consistent. There certainly could be situations that are exceptions.
Ahh gotcha. According to graphs you just linked to, tree debarking isn't always EF5 damage. I should've check these damage charts before stating the fact. So, you're suggesting that ground scouring is the best proof of tornado being EF5, right?
Member Since: August 1, 2011 Posts: 28 Comments: 8075
292. whitewabit (Mod)
Windy here in Central Illinois this afternoon ..

Peoria, Illinois (Airport)

Updated: 39 min 14 sec ago


Clear
82 °F

Clear


Humidity: 51%
Dew Point: 62 °F
Wind: 20 mph from the SW


Wind Gust: 25 mph
Pressure: 29.79 in (Rising)
Heat Index: 83 °F
Visibility: 10.0 miles
UV: 11 out of 16
Pollen: 10.20 out of 12
Pollen Forecast new!
Clouds:
Clear -

(Above Ground Level

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
The Euro might be starting to hint at some trouble in the extreme SW Caribbean, near Panama, in the long term. On this Day 10 frame, it shows a perturbed area of the monsoon trough from the extreme Eastern Pacific over into the Caribbean. This will be an interesting setup because it might be one of those times where the Pacific and Caribbean duke it out to see which one can concentrate the main area of low pressure. With that trough hanging off the East Coast of the US, I'm a little inclined to believe that it will feel enough tug to make it over into the Caribbean. We'll see as this is just speculation for now.

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Good Luck as to Levi's trip and I am sure he will impress them. Might end up in a situation where they are asking HIM questions and for advice like the young man/mathematics genius in Goodwill Hunting......
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Quoting ncstorm:




Hi ncstorm. To another topic,what does CMC and ECMWF have at 12z?
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Quoting VR46L:


That is probably why they are there... it makes sense to have the severe specialists where the severe weather occours ...
Like having NHC in Miami, and the volcanologists in Hawaii... lol

I like to think this is the way to keep the various specialists "honest"; if u know a poor forecast could mean YOU and yours fall under the gun, u might not be too quick to slack off.... lol [taking tongue out of cheek]
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Toronto Pearson Int'l Airport
Date: 2:00 PM EDT Monday 20 May 2013
Condition:Mainly Sunny
Pressure:30.0 inches
Tendency:falling
Visibility:15 miles
Temperature:79.0°F
Dewpoint:66.7°F
Humidity:66%
Wind:S 10 mph
Humidex: 92
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 178 Comments: 56059
fire in the hole

Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 178 Comments: 56059
MesoWest Jurupa Valley CA US SGXWFO, Riverside, California (PWS)
Updated: 10:49 AM PDT on May 20, 2013
Partly Cloudy
82 °F
Partly Cloudy
Humidity: 35%
Dew Point: 52 °F
Wind: 1 mph Variable
Wind Gust: 6.0 mph
Pressure: 29.88 in (Falling)
Heat Index: 81 °F
Visibility: 10.0 miles
UV: 9 out of 16
Pollen: 5.10 out of 12
Pollen Forecast new!
Clouds:
Few 20000 ft
(Above Ground Level)
Elevation: 794 ft

Airport is 85F
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Bluestorm5:
I'm having trouble finding University of Oklahoma's history with tornadoes, so I'm assuming either they've been hit by numerous of weak tornadoes or never been struck directly on campus. I'm assuming numerous of weak tornadoes.


On April 28, 1956 at 2:20 p.m. an F1 went through the heart of campus.
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Quoting charlesimages:
Thank you Dr. Jeff Masters for featuring my stovepipe tornado image from Rozel. I have video of this tornado, and the others that formed after that particular one died as well. Here are a few clips.



It was an amazing chase day!

I was just about to go to your facebook page to let you know that Dr. Masters put one of your photos in his blog, but it looks like you found out for yourself already. Great shots, congrats on the awesome intercepts!
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Quoting nrtiwlnvragn:


Actually Miami Dade recently developed new evacuation maps and NHC is now in an evacuation zone.


Link


Amazing - I did not know that. That is a long ways inland but flat of course.

My evac shelter (Fl Keys) is located there!
Member Since: April 21, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 841
Quoting docrod:


Yes! - I was a few miles away when the old radar blew away. The new place is above a cat 5 flood level.

Also - earlier post - rather than relocating to Montana, Utah has a town named Hurricane!


Actually Miami Dade recently developed new evacuation maps and NHC is now in an evacuation zone.


Link
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SEL1

URGENT - IMMEDIATE BROADCAST REQUESTED
TORNADO WATCH NUMBER 191
NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER NORMAN OK
110 PM CDT MON MAY 20 2013

THE NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER HAS ISSUED A

* TORNADO WATCH FOR PORTIONS OF
NORTHWEST ARKANSAS
CENTRAL AND EASTERN OKLAHOMA
NORTHWEST TEXAS

* EFFECTIVE THIS MONDAY AFTERNOON AND EVENING FROM 110 PM UNTIL
1000 PM CDT.

* PRIMARY THREATS INCLUDE...
SEVERAL TORNADOES POSSIBLE
NUMEROUS LARGE HAIL EVENTS LIKELY WITH A FEW VERY LARGE HAIL
EVENTS TO 4 INCHES IN DIAMETER POSSIBLE
NUMEROUS DAMAGING WIND GUSTS TO 70 MPH LIKELY

THE TORNADO WATCH AREA IS APPROXIMATELY ALONG AND 115 STATUTE
MILES EAST AND WEST OF A LINE FROM 30 MILES NORTHWEST OF GROVE
OKLAHOMA TO 40 MILES EAST OF WICHITA FALLS TEXAS. FOR A COMPLETE
DEPICTION OF THE WATCH SEE THE ASSOCIATED WATCH OUTLINE UPDATE
(WOUS64 KWNS WOU1).

PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS...

REMEMBER...A TORNADO WATCH MEANS CONDITIONS ARE FAVORABLE FOR
TORNADOES AND SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS IN AND CLOSE TO THE WATCH
AREA. PERSONS IN THESE AREAS SHOULD BE ON THE LOOKOUT FOR
THREATENING WEATHER CONDITIONS AND LISTEN FOR LATER STATEMENTS
AND POSSIBLE WARNINGS.

&&

OTHER WATCH INFORMATION...CONTINUE...WW 189...WW 190...

DISCUSSION...RAPID INTENSE STORM DEVELOPMENT IS EXPECTED DURING THE
NEXT FEW HOURS...BOTH NEAR A STALLED SURFACE FRONT ROUGHLY WEST OF
THE I-35 CORRIDOR...AND NEAR THE PRE-FRONTAL DRYLINE NOSING
NORTHEASTWARD INTO SOUTH CENTRAL OKLAHOMA BY LATE AFTERNOON.
ISOLATED SUPERCELLS ARE LIKELY ALONG THE DRYLINE...WITH THE MOST
PROMINENT TORNADO THREAT...WHICH PROBABLY WILL INCREASE BY EARLY
EVENING AS THE SOUTHERLY LOW-LEVEL JET STRENGTHENS AND ENLARGES
LOW-LEVEL HODOGRAPHS. ONE OR TWO STRONG TORNADOES MAY NOT BE OUT OF
THE QUESTION. OTHERWISE...LARGE HAIL IS LIKELY...SOME VERY LARGE...
WITH INCREASING DAMAGING WIND POTENTIAL ACROSS EASTERN OKLAHOMA AS
CONVECTION CONSOLIDATES AND EVOLVES INTO AN ORGANIZED CLUSTER.

AVIATION...TORNADOES AND A FEW SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS WITH HAIL
SURFACE AND ALOFT TO 4 INCHES. EXTREME TURBULENCE AND SURFACE
WIND GUSTS TO 60 KNOTS. A FEW CUMULONIMBI WITH MAXIMUM TOPS TO
600. MEAN STORM MOTION VECTOR 25035.


...KERR
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Quoting RitaEvac:


He will be in shock, now he'll know what fuel feels like in the air around him.


He'll know what it feels like to wear...air.
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We have ignition

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Quoting Bluestorm5:
and NWS office in Raleigh is very well built building as well on NC State campus. NC State is known for building well built brick buildings. I'm sure NWS forecasters will be safe inside that building, although you don't take chances ever. They did had to run for cover when EF-3 came to downtown Raleigh on April 16, 2011 (they told me the story week later that they all ran down the stairs to basement).


Same story here in Tallahassee.....NWS in the Love Building on the campus of Florida State....An older but strong all brick structure and not too many windows in the NWS office. Also, the main forecasting stations and computers are in the middle of the room away from the exterior windows.
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Quoting weathermanwannabe:


NHC has a nice reinforced concrete building in Miami near FIU Campus. Not underground but very sturdy looking........This was done in the years following Andrew in 1992 (they used to be in regular office building across the street from UM......Andrew blew their roof-top doppler off the roof).


Yes! - I was a few miles away when the old radar blew away. The new place is above a cat 5 flood level.

Also - earlier post - rather than relocating to Montana, Utah has a town named Hurricane!
Member Since: April 21, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 841
Quoting MississippiWx:
Saw where Levi posted on twitter that he's coming to the Lower 48 today for the first time. He's headed to Norman to do something at the SPC. Great opportunity for him and I'd love to know what he thinks about the heat. While Oklahoma isn't as humid as the Gulf states, I'd venture to say it's more humid than Alaska.


He will be in shock, now he'll know what fuel feels like in the air around him.
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Quoting weathermanwannabe:


NHC has a nice reinforced concrete building in Miami near FIU Campus. Not underground but very sturdy looking........This was done in the years following Andrew in 1992 (they used to be in regular office building across the street from UM......Andrew blew their roof-top doppler off the roof).
and NWS office in Raleigh is very well built building as well on NC State campus. NC State is known for building well built brick buildings. I'm sure NWS forecasters will be safe inside that building, although you don't take chances ever. They did had to run for cover when EF-3 came to downtown Raleigh on April 16, 2011 (they told me the story week later that they all ran down the stairs to basement).
Member Since: August 1, 2011 Posts: 28 Comments: 8075
Quoting Bluestorm5:
I believe ground scouring is only for EF5. Pavement being peeled and trees getting debarked completely is another example of EF5 damage. In El Reno tornado, most of support for EF5 damage came from trees being debarked, pavement being peeled, and ground scouring. Couple of well-built buildings also suffered EF5 damage as well, but it was the tree, pavement, and ground that supported EF5 damage the most.


On the damage indicators listed for hardwood and softwood trees on the EF-scale, tree debarking is the highest degree of damage available, and the expected wind speeds are 130-140mph:
http://www.spc.noaa.gov/efscale/27.html
http://www.spc.noaa.gov/efscale/28.html

The link I shared several days ago that discussed discriminating between EF4 and EF5 talked about pavement scouring, and it mentioned that there can be other variables at play such that it may not be just EF5 winds that cause pavement removal.

From what I recall, the ground scouring is much more typical of EF5 damage. As with all tornadoes, surveyed damage should be analyzed in the context of surround damage to make sure they are consistent. There certainly could be situations that are exceptions.
Member Since: September 28, 2002 Posts: 5 Comments: 3325
Saw where Levi posted on twitter that he's coming to the Lower 48 today for the first time. He's headed to Norman to do something at the SPC. Great opportunity for him and I'd love to know what he thinks about the heat. While Oklahoma isn't as humid as the Gulf states, I'd venture to say it's more humid than Alaska.
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Quoting weathermanwannabe:


NHC has a nice reinforced concrete building in Miami near FIU Campus. Not underground but very sturdy looking........This was done in the years following Andrew in 1992 (they used to be in regular office building across the street from UM......Andrew blew their roof-top doppler off the roof).


Perfect to throw your laptop at! >.>
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Quoting GeorgiaStormz:
I actually think places like the SPC or NWS offices in often affected areas should move to primarily underground and concrete reinforced buildings with their own backup power supplies and saftey features.


NHC has a nice reinforced concrete building in Miami near FIU Campus. Not underground but very sturdy looking........This was done in the years following Andrew in 1992 (they used to be in regular office building across the street from UM......Andrew blew their roof-top doppler off the roof).
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I'm having trouble finding University of Oklahoma's history with tornadoes, so I'm assuming either they've been hit by numerous of weak tornadoes or never been struck directly on campus. I'm assuming numerous of weak tornadoes.
Member Since: August 1, 2011 Posts: 28 Comments: 8075
265. VR46L
Quoting SouthernIllinois:
I just heard that the NHC is relocating to Montana...


LOL !!!!!!!!!

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Quoting MississippiWx:


Lol. The logical thing is to take the warning of the virus as truth and throw your computer as hard as you can onto concrete outside because it's done for anyway. :-)


IKR?!?!
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Quoting Bielle:


Sophos says it is clear.


Lol. The logical thing is to take the warning of the virus as truth and throw your computer as hard as you can onto concrete outside because it's done for anyway. :-)
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

JeffMasters's Recent Photos

Lake Effort Snow Shower Over Windsor, Ontario
Sunset on Dunham Lake
Pictured Rocks Sunset
Sunset on Lake Huron