Dark Snow Project: Crowd-Source Funded Science for Greenland

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 3:03 PM GMT on April 26, 2013

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"There's no place on Earth that is changing faster--and no place where that change matters more--than Greenland." So said 350.org founder Bill McKibben, in a 2012 Rolling Stone magazine interview. As Earth Week 2013 draws to a close, I want to draw your attention to a unique effort to learn more about why Greenland is melting so fast--a crowd-funded research project that anyone can contribute to, which aims to answer the "burning question": How much does wildfire and industrial soot darken the ice, increasing melt? The Dark Snow Project, the first-ever Greenland expedition relying on crowd-source funding, hopes to raise $150,000 to mount a field research campaign to find out. The project is the brainchild of Dr. Jason Box, Professor at the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), and one of the world's leading experts on Greenland's glaciers. He has set up a website called darksnowproject.org to help raise the funds for the field campaign, and has raised about half of the needed amount as of mid-April.


Figure 1. Over the course of several years, turbulent water overflow from a large melt lake carved this 60-foot-deep (18.3 meter-deep) canyon in Greenland's Ice Sheet (note people near left edge for scale). Image credit: Ian Joughin, University of Washington.

2012: Unprecedented melting in Greenland
Watching the weather events of 2012 over Greenland made all seasoned climate watchers a little queasy. The vast ice sheet on the island holds enough water to raise global sea levels by 7.36 meters (24.15 feet) were it all to melt, and the ice melt season of 2012 gave notice that an epic melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet may be underway. According to NOAA's 2012 Arctic Report Card, the duration of melting at the surface of the ice sheet in summer 2012 was the longest since satellite observations began in 1979, and the total amount of summer melting was nearly double the previous record, set in 2010 (satellite records of melting go back to 1979.) A rare, near-ice sheet-wide surface melt event melted 97% of the surface of Greenland's ice sheet on July 11 - 12. While a similar melt event at the summit occurred 1889, but the 1889 event has no basis in the instrumental record from coastal Greenland. It's instead likely that 2012 was Greenland's warmest summer in at least 863 years, since the medieval warm period (see http://www.meltfactor.org/blog/?p=677 and http://www.meltfactor.org/blog/?p=725). The incredibly warm temperatures have been blamed on highly unusual atmospheric circulation and jet stream changes, which were also responsible for 2012's unusually wet summer weather in England. It would not be a surprise if this sort of summer began occurring more often, since temperatures on top of the Greenland Ice Sheet have been rising six times faster than the global average during the past twenty years. A May 2013 Geophysical Research Letters paper by McGrath et al., "Recent warming at Summit, Greenland: Global context and implications", concluded that by 2025, there is a 50% chance of ice sheet-wide melt events happening annually. The ice sheet reached its darkest value on record in 2012. The darkened surface was due to below average summer snow, soot particles from pollution and forest fires, and record melting. A darker ice sheet absorbs more solar energy, in a vicious cycle that raises temperatures, melts more ice, and further darkens the ice sheet. The amount of melting that was caused by soot from forest fires is important to know, since global warming is likely to increase the amount of forest fires in coming decades. However, the amount of forest fire soot landing on the Greenland Ice Sheet is almost completely unknown, which is why Dr. Box is determined to find out, via the Dark Snow Project.


Figure 2. Smoke from a fire in Labrador, Canada wafts over the Greenland ice sheet on June 17, 2012, as seen in this cross-section view of aerosol particles taken by NASA's CALIPSO satellite. Image credit: Dr. Jason Box, Ohio State University.

Greenland causing 25% of global sea level rise
In a landmark study published in November 2012 in Science, 47 researchers from 26 laboratories reported that the amount of ice being lost from Greenland and Antarctica has tripled since the 1990s, with Greenland contributing more than twice as much to global sea level rise than Antarctica. The study, "A Reconciled Estimate of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance", found that the two ice sheets were responsible for 20% of the global sea level rise of 3.1 mm/year during the 20-year period 1992 - 2011. The remainder of the rise was due to expansion of the water due to heating of the oceans, melting of mountain glaciers, and unsustainable pumping of ground water. Said co-author Erik Ivins of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, "The pace of ice loss from Greenland is extraordinary, with nearly a five-fold increase since the mid-1990s." As of 2011, Greenland's contribution to global sea level rise on its own had risen to 20 - 25%, according to an international research group led by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, in an article published in Earth and Planetary Science Letters on 1 June 2012. If the current exponential ice loss trends continue for the next ten years, Greenland's contribution to sea level rise will double to 1.4 mm/yr by 2022, the researchers said. Many sea level rise researchers expect global sea level to rise by about 1 meter (3.3 feet) by 2100. During the 20th century, global sea level rise was about 0.18 meters (7 inches.)


Figure 3. Monthly smoothed (purple) and unsmoothed (blue) values of the total mass lost from the Greenland Ice Sheet (in Gigatons, Gt) from measurements by the GRACE satellites between March 2002-September 2012. An approximate equivalent global sea level rise figure is on the right axis. Note that the decline in ice mass lost from Greenland is not a straight line--it is exponential, meaning that more ice loss is lost each year than in the previous year. Image credit: 2012 Arctic Report Card.

Will Antarctica be more important than Greenland for sea level rise?
Although melting from Greenland is currently raising global sea level by about a factor of two more than Antarctica melting is, that situation may change later this century. A 2013 study by Dahl-Jensen et al. looked at a new ice core drilled from the bottom-most depths of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The core suggests that the ice in Greenland may have partially survived the warm Eemian period before the Ice Age, approximately 118,000 - 126,000 years ago, when Greenland temperatures were 5- 8°C warmer than present-day temperatures. Global sea level during the Eemian was 4 - 8 meters (13 - 26 ft) higher than the present sea level, and the scientists estimated that melting from Greenland was responsible for 2 meters (6.6 ft) of this sea level rise. This implies that Antarctica was responsible for 50 - 75% of global sea level rise during the Eemian, and thus we might expect Antarctica to take over as the dominant source of sea level rise later this century, when global temperatures may to rise to levels similar to those experienced during the Eemian.

Related posts
Greenland experiences melting over 97% of its area in mid-July (July 25, 2012)
Record warmth at the top of the Greenland Ice Sheet (July 18, 2012)
Unprecedented May heat in Greenland; update on 2011 Greenland ice melt (May, 2012)
Greenland update for 2010: record melting and a massive calving event

Dr. Jason Box's blog on Greenland and the Dark Snow Project is at http://www.meltfactor.org.

The http://www.greenlandmelting.com/ website looks like a great resource for following this year's melt progression in Greenland.


Video 1. Glaciologist Dr. Jason Box and 350.org founder Bill McKibben plug the Darksnow project in this January 2013 video by Peter Sinclair. There's some impressive footage of the record Greenland snow melt of summer 2012 sweeping away a 20-ton tractor that was attempting to repair a bridge washed out by the raging Watson River on July 11, 2012 in Kangerlussauaq, Greenland. The driver escaped unharmed.

Support the Dark Snow Project
One of Dr. Box's collaborators, photographer James Balog, who created the amazing time-lapse Greenland glacier footage in the fantastic 2012 "Chasing Ice" movie, puts it like this: "Working in Greenland these past years has left me with a profound feeling of being in the middle of a decisive historic moment--the kind of moment, at least in geologic terms, that marks the grand tidal changes of history." On that note, I encourage you all to support the Dark Snow Project. Have a great weekend, everyone!

Dark Snow Project Expedition Plan 2013
Prepare and gather science equipment including a field spectrometer, snow and ice coring device, and snow metrics kit.

Travel to Iqualuit, on Baffin Island, Nunavut from home locales in California, Ohio, Michigan, Vermont and rendezvous with Dash-6 "Twin Otter" ski-equipped airplane and flight crew.

Organize cold weather survival kit.

Ferry team from Iqualuit to Kangerlussuaq, Greenland.

Fly to and land at sampling sites high on the inland ice sheet.

At each site collect snow samples from a snow pit and obtain snow cores to a minimum depth of the previous year's snow surface, and record snow properties.

Transport of team and snow samples to Greenland's capital Nuuk, where the team will rest after hustling at field sites.

Return to Iqualuit, then to respective home locales to start the data analysis and reporting phase of campaign.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

Many think this will be an East Coast year. If that high pressure system that has been positioned off the coast for several weeks doesn't move though, tracks may be more concentrated towards the Gulf Coast.

I highly doubt it stays though.



There's a reason I included 1996 as a possible analog. Really, it could go either way (or we may just end up with more recurvature).
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780. beell
Quoting KoritheMan:
The GFS seems less enthusiastic about development of the east coast surface low this evening (actually since 12z). Instead of showing a concentrated area of low pressure, it instead shows an elongated and unfocused area of lower-tropospheric vorticity. Some of the runs (not just of the GFS) showed the system originating from the tail end of the frontal trough in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. It then moves across peninsular Florida and enters the western Atlantic, giving it more time over water than if it originated off the southeast US coastline. Upper-level winds are still highly unfavorable for development, but the forecast mid-level flow remains light, and would support the possibility of subtropical cyclogenesis, or at least some warming of the lower troposphere. The amplitude and orientation of the upper low driving the front will also be critical in determining the amount of wind shear, dry air, and cold air advection that enters the circulation, all of which are critical to the development of a named cyclone, subtropical or not.


As it turns out, gulf cyclogenesis is tied to a southern stream disturbance in the models. Currently ashore over the Baja.



But true enough, it is initially a separate entity from the mid-level cut-off. And it may or may not remain as such.


04/28 00Z GFS 500mb vort-Valid @72hrs



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Quoting wxchaser97:

How do you know it struck exactly 0.2 miles away? :)


Father has a lightning tracker thingy on his smartphone. Plus, the old counting the seconds after seeing the flash and converting that into miles.

Quoting originalLT:
To answer post #775, probably because he heard the thunder one second after seeing the lightning.


Right-o.
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Quoting KoritheMan:
500 mb pressure anomaly for the period April 1 April 25:



If this pattern holds, expect a lot of US landfalls this year.

However, as I've said before, the synoptic pattern is very fickle, and one can go farther back during the winter and find some variability. In general though, the pattern does look similar to some classic US mega years, such as 1996, 2004, and 2005.

It'll be highly interesting to see if this continues.

Many think this will be an East Coast year. If that high pressure system that has been positioned off the coast for several weeks doesn't move though, tracks may be more concentrated towards the Gulf Coast.

I highly doubt it stays though.

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To answer post #775, probably because he heard the thunder one second after seeing the lightning.
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The GFS seems less enthusiastic about development of the east coast surface low this evening (actually since 12z). Instead of showing a concentrated area of low pressure, it instead shows an elongated and unfocused area of lower-tropospheric vorticity. Some of the runs (not just of the GFS) showed the system originating from the tail end of the frontal trough in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. It then moves across peninsular Florida and enters the western Atlantic, giving it more time over water than if it originated off the southeast US coastline. Upper-level winds are still highly unfavorable for development, but the forecast mid-level flow remains light, and would support the possibility of subtropical cyclogenesis, or at least some warming of the lower troposphere. The amplitude and orientation of the upper low driving the front will also be critical in determining the amount of wind shear, dry air, and cold air advection that enters the circulation, all of which are critical to the development of a named cyclone, subtropical or not.
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Quoting Astrometeor:


Sorry Taz, I am having it right now, including a bolt of lightning that struck 0.2 miles away. Big and loud.

How do you know it struck exactly 0.2 miles away? :)
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Quoting KoritheMan:
500 mb pressure anomaly for the period April 1 April 25:



If this pattern holds, expect a lot of US landfalls this year.

However, as I've said before, the synoptic pattern is very fickle, and one can go farther back during the winter and find some variability. In general though, the pattern does look similar to some classic US mega years, such as 1996, 2004, and 2005.

It'll be highly interesting to see if this continues.

My local weather is similar to the year of...2005...
Similar in that there is cooler than normal temps and some late season snow. The large scale pattern is also similar, like you said. We'll see.
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Quoting Tazmanian:



BOO you cant have it


Sorry Taz, I am having it right now, including a bolt of lightning that struck 0.2 miles away. Big and loud.
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Quoting 1900hurricane:
After living in the Houston area for most of my life, flooding there really doesn't ever surprise me anymore.


Unusual for the last couple of years but pretty normal for the long term.
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500 mb pressure anomaly for the period April 1 April 25:



If this pattern holds, expect a lot of US landfalls this year.

However, as I've said before, the synoptic pattern is very fickle, and one can go farther back during the winter and find some variability. In general though, the pattern does look similar to some classic US mega years, such as 1996, 2004, and 2005.

It'll be highly interesting to see if this continues.
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Quoting Astrometeor:
YAY! It's raining!



BOO you cant have it
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Tonight!!:)
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767. etxwx
From flooding on one side of the world to fires on the other:

2,800 battling Yunnan forest fire
2013-04-28 01:13 (Xinhua/China Daily)

KUNMING - Over 2,800 people are working to put out a forest fire that raged for the fifth days on Saturday in southwest China's Yunnan province, local authorities said. Aided by lingering drought and strong winds, the fire has swept through 200 hectares of forests in Lufeng County in Chuxiong Yi autonomous prefecture since it broke out on Tuesday, said the county government in a statement. More than 2,800 firefighters and four helicopters have been mobilized to contain the fire, the statement said, adding that the fire has been effectively controlled. No casuality has been reported so far. The economic losses are being assessed.
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YAY! It's raining!
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Quoting psetas23:
hey guys wat happened to the low in the gulf is it still coming



read back a few pages and you will have the ander too that ?
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Quoting wilsongti45:


Thanks for the information John. I was starting to feel crazy. This should be the number one story with global warming. Thousands of square kilometers that usually reflect sunlight will now be absorbing sunlight. I wonder what the implications of this will be, sparing the obvious.


Here's a particularly alarming consequence:

http://arctic-news.blogspot.com/2013/03/record-me thane-in-arctic-early-march-2013.html
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o_O Here comes more rain for me, already 2 inches on the day. We need about 1/4 inch more to break the daily rainfall record, although I believe the airport already has.

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Roof collapsed due to rain at a store in Sugar Land, TX.
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hey guys wat happened to the low in the gulf is it still coming
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Quoting 1900hurricane:
After living in the Houston area for most of my life, flooding there really doesn't ever surprise me anymore.


Did you see that graphic where TX coast has high probability of canes this season?
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Radar loop of tornado producing supercells from 1143 AM CDT and 516 PM CDT on Wednesday, April 27, 2011.
KHTX radar loop from 1 PM EDT (12 PM CDT) until 6 PM EDT (5 PM CDT) of the supercells across middle Tennessee and northern Alabama on the afternoon of April 27, 2011

 
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757. etxwx
For flooding coverage here are Houston TV station links:
KTRK
KHOU
KPRC
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After living in the Houston area for most of my life, flooding there really doesn't ever surprise me anymore.

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Quoting JohnLonergan:


wilsongti45'

I previously posted this at BaltimoreBrian's blog.
Here are two more professionals who agree with you.


Dr Maslowski and Dr Peter Wadhams predict mid decade.
Maslowski and Team Offer New Estimate on Summer Arctic Sea Ice Disappearance

Wiesław Maslowski and his team from the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, USA presented a new and improved computer model predicting Arctic sea ice behaviour over the coming years at the 2011 European Geosciences Union (EGU) in Vienna, Austria. The model predicts that increasing summer sea ice melt could lead to an ice-free Arctic during at least part of the boreal (northern hemisphere) summer by 2016, with a margin of error of plus or minus three years.


Arctic expert predicts final collapse of sea ice within four years

As sea ice shrinks to record lows, Prof Peter Wadhams warns a 'global disaster' is now unfolding in northern latitudes. ...

..."This collapse, I predicted would occur in 2015-16 at which time the summer Arctic (August to September) would become ice-free. The final collapse towards that state is now happening and will probably be complete by those dates".





Thanks for the information John. I was starting to feel crazy. This should be the number one story with global warming. Thousands of square kilometers that usually reflect sunlight will now be absorbing sunlight. I wonder what the implications of this will be, sparing the obvious.
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Quoting BaltimoreBrian:
What is the latest on the potential storm next week with the upper heights almost 6 standard deviations below normal?


You sound like a physics professor.
Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 27210
753. etxwx
Houston Chronicle photos of flooding
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New Metric to Measure Destructive Potential of Hurricanes


What do you think about this?
Member Since: August 9, 2011 Posts: 26 Comments: 8918

 
3D view of Tuscaloosa-Birmingham, Alabama tornado from April 27, 2011.
 


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Portions of southwestern Houston have received over 7" of rainfall. This is the result.

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Loop

was 84.1 today... looks like we have another Coast eddy.
Member Since: February 29, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 6251
Impressive Houston flooding photos from TWC.

Link
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Quoting galvestonhurricane:


West Houston hail. In other news, the University of Houston is three feet underwater.

That's... crazy. But we need a fish looking in for authenication :)
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West Houston hail. In other news, the University of Houston is three feet underwater.
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New scan shows much more rotation.

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Rotation doesn't look too strong on this one either...

BULLETIN - EAS ACTIVATION REQUESTED
TORNADO WARNING
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE NASHVILLE TN
746 PM CDT SAT APR 27 2013

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN NASHVILLE HAS ISSUED A

* TORNADO WARNING FOR...
NORTHWESTERN CHEATHAM COUNTY IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE...
NORTHEASTERN DICKSON COUNTY IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE...
SOUTHEASTERN MONTGOMERY COUNTY IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE...

* UNTIL 815 PM CDT

* AT 743 PM CDT...NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE METEOROLOGISTS WERE
TRACKING A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM CAPABLE OF PRODUCING A TORNADO. THIS
DANGEROUS STORM WAS LOCATED 16 MILES SOUTH OF CLARKSVILLE...AND
MOVING EAST AT 40 MPH.

* LOCATIONS IMPACTED INCLUDE...
CHEATHAM DAM.

PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS...

TAKE COVER NOW. MOVE TO AN INTERIOR ROOM ON THE LOWEST FLOOR OF A
STURDY BUILDING. AVOID WINDOWS. IF IN A MOBILE HOME...A VEHICLE OR
OUTDOORS...MOVE TO THE CLOSEST SUBSTANTIAL SHELTER AND PROTECT
YOURSELF FROM FLYING DEBRIS.

&&

LAT...LON 3647 8712 3646 8713 3645 8710 3643 8708
3628 8704 3623 8744 3641 8747 3649 8713
TIME...MOT...LOC 0046Z 250DEG 33KT 3634 8734

$$

13
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this is crazy here!! warmer north cooler south!!
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SEL4

URGENT - IMMEDIATE BROADCAST REQUESTED
SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH NUMBER 144
NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER NORMAN OK
725 PM CDT SAT APR 27 2013

THE NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER HAS ISSUED A

* SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH FOR PORTIONS OF
DEEP SOUTH TEXAS
COASTAL WATERS

* EFFECTIVE THIS SATURDAY NIGHT AND SUNDAY MORNING FROM 725 PM
UNTIL 100 AM CDT.

* PRIMARY THREATS INCLUDE...
SEVERAL DAMAGING WIND GUSTS TO 70 MPH POSSIBLE
SEVERAL LARGE HAIL EVENTS TO 1.5 INCHES IN DIAMETER POSSIBLE

THE SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH AREA IS APPROXIMATELY ALONG AND 80
STATUTE MILES EAST AND WEST OF A LINE FROM 55 MILES NORTHWEST OF
BEEVILLE TEXAS TO 65 MILES SOUTH SOUTHWEST OF ALICE TEXAS. FOR A
COMPLETE DEPICTION OF THE WATCH SEE THE ASSOCIATED WATCH OUTLINE
UPDATE (WOUS64 KWNS WOU4).

PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS...

REMEMBER...A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH MEANS CONDITIONS ARE
FAVORABLE FOR SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS IN AND CLOSE TO THE WATCH
AREA. PERSONS IN THESE AREAS SHOULD BE ON THE LOOKOUT FOR
THREATENING WEATHER CONDITIONS AND LISTEN FOR LATER STATEMENTS
AND POSSIBLE WARNINGS. SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS CAN AND OCCASIONALLY
DO PRODUCE TORNADOES.

&&

OTHER WATCH INFORMATION...CONTINUE...WW 141...WW 142...WW 143...

DISCUSSION...A CLUSTER OF STORMS EVOLVING NEAR THE RIO GRANDE RIVER
APPEARS TO BE GENERATING A COLD POOL...WHICH IS EXPECTED TO ADVANCE
TOWARD LOWER/MIDDLE TEXAS COASTAL AREAS THIS EVENING...AIDED BY 20+
KT WEST SOUTHWESTERLY DEEP LAYER MEAN FLOW. IN THE PRESENCE OF
STEEP MID-LEVEL LAPSE RATES AND SIZABLE CAPE...STRONGEST CELLS WILL
PRODUCE LARGE HAIL AND A FEW DAMAGING WIND GUSTS.

AVIATION...A FEW SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS WITH HAIL SURFACE AND ALOFT
TO 1.5 INCHES. EXTREME TURBULENCE AND SURFACE WIND GUSTS TO 60
KNOTS. A FEW CUMULONIMBI WITH MAXIMUM TOPS TO 500. MEAN STORM
MOTION VECTOR 27020.


...KERR
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
Negligent rotation.


Yeah, that was kind of a useless tornado warning IMO. But the way this tornado season has been, it's better than nothing.
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take a look at these clouds east of Hawaii

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Negligent rotation.

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that high is still there in the northeast!!
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BULLETIN - EAS ACTIVATION REQUESTED
TORNADO WARNING
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE MEMPHIS TN
738 PM CDT SAT APR 27 2013

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN MEMPHIS HAS ISSUED A

* TORNADO WARNING FOR...
CENTRAL PHILLIPS COUNTY IN EASTERN ARKANSAS...
NORTHERN COAHOMA COUNTY IN NORTHWEST MISSISSIPPI...

* UNTIL 815 PM CDT

* AT 738 PM CDT...NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE DOPPLER RADAR INDICATED A
SEVERE THUNDERSTORM PRODUCING A TORNADO 13 MILES NORTHWEST OF
FRIARS POINT...OR 7 MILES SOUTHEAST OF MARVELL...MOVING EAST AT 35
MPH.

* LOCATIONS IN THE WARNING INCLUDE BUT ARE NOT LIMITED TO RURAL AREAS
OF CENTRAL PHILLIPS AND NORTHERN COAHOMA COUNTIES.

THIS WARNING ALSO INCLUDES AREAS NEAR BEAVERDAM LAKE...FLOWER LAKE
AND TUNICA LAKE.

PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS...

.THE SAFEST PLACE TO BE DURING A TORNADO IS IN A STORM SHELTER. IF NO
STORM SHELTER IS AVAILABLE...SEEK SHELTER ON THE LOWEST FLOOR OF THE
BUILDING IN AN INTERIOR HALLWAY OR ROOM SUCH AS A CLOSET. USE
BLANKETS OR PILLOWS TO COVER YOUR BODY AND ALWAYS STAY AWAY FROM
WINDOWS.

IF IN MOBILE HOMES OR VEHICLES...EVACUATE THEM AND GET INSIDE A
SUBSTANTIAL SHELTER. IF NO SHELTER IS AVAILABLE...LIE FLAT IN THE
NEAREST DITCH OR OTHER LOW SPOT AND COVER YOUR HEAD WITH YOUR HANDS.

&&

LAT...LON 3451 9054 3442 9040 3426 9040 3426 9044
3437 9095 3455 9090
TIME...MOT...LOC 0038Z 289DEG 31KT 3446 9081

$$
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12z JMA





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Quoting Slamguitar:
Not really wx:

Explosion at the Marathon Detroit refinery.

Oh wow.
I went outside to see if I could see any of the smoke( like I could for the 9 mile tanker explosion and Sterling Services chemical fire in 2009) but I can't. Thanks for bringing this to my attention as I didn't know about it until now. I've passed by this area before when I'd be heading south on I-75.

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What is the latest on the potential storm next week with the upper heights almost 6 standard deviations below normal?
Member Since: August 9, 2011 Posts: 26 Comments: 8918
Not really wx:

Explosion at the Marathon Detroit refinery.
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Storm reports so far:

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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