A dramatic greening of the Arctic over the past 30 years

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 3:30 PM GMT on March 18, 2013

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A remarkable transformation in the vegetation of the Arctic has occurred over the past 30 years, according to a study of satellite data published on March 10, 2013, in Nature Climate Change. The authors found that Arctic vegetation growth and temperatures in 2011 resembled what occurred 250 - 430 miles farther to the south back in 1982. That's the approximate distance in latitude between San Francisco and San Diego, or Washington D.C. and Atlanta. More greening occurred in Eurasia than North America, and the Arctic's new greenness is visible on the ground as an increasing abundance of tall shrubs and trees. Large patches of vigorously productive vegetation now span a third of the northern landscape, an area about equal to the contiguous United States. "Higher northern latitudes are getting warmer, Arctic sea ice and the duration of snow cover are diminishing, the growing season is getting longer and plants are growing more," said co-author Dr. Ranga Myneni of Boston University's Department of Earth and Environment, in a NASA press release. "In the north's Arctic and boreal areas, the characteristics of the seasons are changing, leading to great disruptions for plants and related ecosystems." The changes in the Arctic's vegetation are being driven by human-caused global warming, which is occurring in the Arctic at more than double the rate of the rest of the planet. This so-called "Arctic amplification" is due, in part, to the increased melting of ice and snow near the pole. When ice and snow melt, they uncover darker surfaces underneath, which absorb more sunlight and increase Arctic temperatures in a vicious cycle which melts even more ice and snow. Using 17 climate models, the researchers predicted that a continuation of warming in the Arctic in coming decades could lead to over a 1300 mile latitudinal shift in Arctic vegetation zones by the year 2100, compared to the period 1951 - 1980. That's a distance greater than the north-south extent of the contiguous United States. However, more frequent forest fires, increased pest outbreaks, and summertime droughts due to a warming climate might slow down Arctic plant growth.


Figure 1. Of the 10 million square miles (26 million square kilometers) of northern vegetated lands, 34 to 41 percent showed increases in plant growth (green and blue), 3 to 5 percent showed decreases in plant growth (orange and red), and 51 to 62 percent showed no changes (yellow) over the past 30 years. Satellite data in this visualization are from AVHRR and MODIS. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio.


Figure 2. Trees take hold as permafrost thaws near the Altai Mountains in Russia. Credit: Terry Callaghan, EU-Interact/Sergey Kirpotin, Tomsk State University.

Commentary
One often hears complaints that global warming may be greatly overestimated, due to many temperature sensors being located in increasingly urbanized areas where local "urban heat island" effects are not being properly considered. If this were true (and it isn't), then we would not expect to see "nature's thermometers"--plants and animals--change their behavior and ranges much. But plants and animals are responding in major ways to the warming climate, and the greening of the Arctic is merely one more example of "nature's thermometers" telling us that the planet is warming significantly. Some other examples:

Fall is falling back: During 1982 to 1999, the end of the growing season was delayed by 4.3 days in the Northern Hemisphere. During 2000 to 2008, the end of the growing season was further delayed by an additional 2.3 days. In the U.S., fall now occurs ten days later than it did 30 years ago.

Spring is springing forward: Spring events, like bird and butterfly migrations, flower blooming times, and frog mating, have been advancing by about three days per decade over the past 30 years.

Animals are changing migration patterns: New species have colonized previously ‘cool’ regions, including sea anemones in Monterey Bay, and lichens and butterflies in Europe. Over the past 50 years, maximum range shifts vary from 200 km (butterflies) to 1,000 km (marine copepods).

Related blog post: New USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map for gardeners shows a warming climate

Dr. Myneni's petition to protect Earth from climate change
Professor Myneni of Boston University's Department of Earth & Environment, co-author of the greening Arctic study, has developed a simple one-sentence petition that he hopes one billion people will sign by Earth Day, 2014:

Dear Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon,

We, the People of the Earth, request You to act judiciously and expeditiously to protect the Earth from anthropogenic climate change.

Respectfully,
People of the Earth


The petition, which I have signed, is at: https://yourclimatechange.org/, and was recently featured by Discovery News.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting Grothar:



I guess at some point one must realize that the piano didn't write the concerto.


The pianos are trying to resolve that little problem. Even if they succeed in this venture they will still probably require a Conductor.

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Quoting Neapolitan:
Some friendly advice: I think your words would carry more weight and credibility if you could please link to a science source instead of a heavy-duty denialist site, an idceological trove of illogical and scientifically-baseless blatherings such as, "Environmentalism will be worse for the poor than climate change" and "The evidence for anthropogenic climate change is neither as strong nor as demanding of action as is widely claimed."
There are plenty of other sites as well. My larger point stands. It was purely conjectural to list the polar bear as threatened, and it was done more for political reasons than scientific ones.
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Quoting LargoFl:
my real fear is what govt will do IF this global warming thing forces it to change our very way of life today, not 200-300 years from now...this is the danger i feel coming if this idea takes off...there is only ONE way..to fight this so called Human warming event..you think about that for awhile..my guess is when you finally come to grips on exactly what it will take, and how that will disrupt your daily lives...you'll come to your senses..they are preparing us today..for what they are going to do to us..in the near future.......think very hard folks...think of what govt's do when there is a shortage..yes indeed.....if you drive..if your electric power uses oil...if your boat etc uses gas..and a hundred other things they can list that now you cant use only when THEY say so....do not..give them that kind of power...i know..i sound like a crackpot....but i remember the odd even days very clearly...my guess is alot here do also..that..is how much power they have over your lives..and with global warming..make that a hundred fold worse.


My real fear is what global warming will do and this would probably include the collapse of governments due to the civil unrest that will follow failed crops and water shortages. But, that's just me. We all have our own fears.
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Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:


Hmmmm. Did you ever stop to think that they may be hunting on bare rocks simply because there is less sea ice to hunt off of? Besides, bears are opportunistic feeders. They will grab a bite to eat no matter where they are at. ... As long as there is food available for them. Don't leave your garbage out. :)


They're partial to walrus pups. Walrus haul up on rocky shores. They're well used to hunting on rocky terrain.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting LargoFl:
my real fear is what govt will do IF this global warming thing forces it to change our very way of life today, not 200-300 years from now...this is the danger i feel coming if this idea takes off...there is only ONE way..to fight this so called Human warming event..you think about that for awhile..my guess is when you finally come to grips on exactly what it will take, and how that will disrupt your daily lives...you'll come to your senses..they are preparing us today..for what they are going to do to us..in the near future.......think very hard folks...think of what govt's do when there is a shortage..yes indeed.....if you drive..if your electric power uses oil...if your boat etc uses gas..and a hundred other things they can list that now you cant use only when THEY say so....do not..give them that kind of power...i know..i sound like a crackpot....but i remember the odd even days very clearly...my guess is alot here do also..that..is how much power they have over your lives..and with global warming..make that a hundred fold worse.


This was our wake-up call to start converting to solar and other non fossil fuels. But did we listen, NO. If we had started then we wouldn't
be having this conversation now. Problem is we have no leaders. Just
a bunch of greedy politicians whose only job is to get re-elected. Giving
your soap box back....
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting AGWcreationists:
The Polar Bear Affair. Part 1001.
Interesting analysis of the various viewpoints and approaches to polar bear populations.

But it is clear that declaring polar bears to be threatened is conjecture and a desire to drive an agenda.
Some friendly advice: I think your words would carry more weight and credibility if you could please link to a science source instead of a heavy-duty denialist site, an idceological trove of illogical and scientifically-baseless blatherings such as, "Environmentalism will be worse for the poor than climate change" and "The evidence for anthropogenic climate change is neither as strong nor as demanding of action as is widely claimed."
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Quoting yonzabam:


Just because some environmentalists yell about the 'plight' of the polar bear in a warmer world, and the media pick up on this, doesn't mean that everyone concerned about arctic ice melt is in agreement with this.

I, for one, am not. You can watch video footage of polar bears hunting on bare rocks on Youtube. They don't need ice to feed. It just so happens that sea ice is where their usual prey is, so that's where they hunt.

If the ice melts, the seals will haul up on rocks instead of ice, and the bears will hunt them there. That might even be to the bear's advantage, as they will be able to take advantage of rocky terrain to ambush their prey, something they can't easily do on flat, featureless ice.

So, maybe its the seals that have most to worry about. Don't confuse media hype with mainstream scientific opinion.


Hmmmm. Did you ever stop to think that they may be hunting on bare rocks simply because there is less sea ice to hunt off of? Besides, bears are opportunistic feeders. They will grab a bite to eat no matter where they are at. ... As long as there is food available for them. Don't leave your garbage out. :)
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Quoting Grothar:



I guess at some point one must realize that the piano didn't write the concerto.
But they are handy at broadcasting one.:)...wuzup Gro.
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lol...a 1036 mb low...next to that huge 1071 mb high
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
Quoting AGWcreationists:
The Polar Bear Affair. Part 1001.
Interesting analysis of the various viewpoints and approaches to polar bear populations.

But it is clear that declaring polar bears to be threatened is conjecture and a desire to drive an agenda.


I would suggest reading what legitimate scientists have to say, and they also address these issues. This is a good start. Link
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Quoting LargoFl:
attention..on the advice of the scientific community, the very REAL danger of Global warming is now evident..so I am signing this executive order...starting Monday..vehiciles with license plates ending in ODD number may only drive on ODD days, license plates ending with an even number can only drive on even days, cars with vanity name plates will be included in even days...now on to electric usage. no home nor business can use electric power for more than 4 hours per day, hospitals police and emergency facitilites are exempted from this order........so..go ahead with this global warming.....we all remember the gas shortage years ago..odd-even days etc....keep up with the warming agenda..just wait and see what unfolds.....anyone else see what they Can do that i havent mentioned here?


Honestly? Something very similar to your scenario could happen, and maybe not in the distant future either. If and when oil becomes too scare to be a cheap resource, it will be run, scratch, adapt or die Link
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629. VR46L
Quoting PedleyCA:


Ouch, I want some bread too. Ouch it is Cold there. It is 60.3F here and the Sun Just popped out for Lunch. Have a Nice Day.


Yep , So do I !! Bet it lovely too!!

That temp sounds like heaven to me right now!!

Winter has returned with a vengeance even though here it is supposed to be half way through spring !
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624

I see that graph has 1998 at 0.2C higher than any year since then. Obviously a denier fantasy, then.
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borrowed from a friend
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 170 Comments: 53767



I guess at some point one must realize that the piano didn't write the concerto.
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Quoting VR46L:


Sounds lovely !! Enjoy!!

Oh yeah 39°F and wanting to snow sigh



Ouch, I want some bread too. Ouch it is Cold there. It is 60.3F here and the Sun Just popped out for Lunch. Have a Nice Day.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Neapolitan:
That is incorrect. The sun has been in a slight cooling trend for decades now, yet the planet continues to warm:

sun? No.

The insolation/temperature connection has been researched thoroughly, studied in depth, and written about hundreds of times. And the result is always the same: our current warming is most definitely not because of the sun.

Focusing on just polar bears alone is kind of silly, and akin to worrying only about the Titanic's deck towels getting wet. Having said that, however, there is every indication that polar bear populations are decreasing, and the animal is most definitely threatened by extinction due to a loss of habitat and food sources happening at a rate too rapid for them to adapt to.
And then there is this graph:



Note that global temperature peaks lag sunspot cycle length peaks.
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Why AGW doesn't really matter.


I suspect humans drove Mamoths extinct for the same reason; Just want some ivory knife handles or pool stick, or an ivory necklace for the wife.

Be glad they haven't figured out they could hunt polar bears or walruses.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
my real fear is what govt will do IF this global warming thing forces it to change our very way of life today, not 200-300 years from now...this is the danger i feel coming if this idea takes off...there is only ONE way..to fight this so called Human warming event..you think about that for awhile..my guess is when you finally come to grips on exactly what it will take, and how that will disrupt your daily lives...you'll come to your senses..they are preparing us today..for what they are going to do to us..in the near future.......think very hard folks...think of what govt's do when there is a shortage..yes indeed.....if you drive..if your electric power uses oil...if your boat etc uses gas..and a hundred other things they can list that now you cant use only when THEY say so....do not..give them that kind of power...i know..i sound like a crackpot....but i remember the odd even days very clearly...my guess is alot here do also..that..is how much power they have over your lives..and with global warming..make that a hundred fold worse.
Member Since: August 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 38386
Quoting GeorgiaStormz:
Chris Holcomb ‏@ChrisHolcomb
NWS survey team determines EF2 tornado in Meriwether/Pike county storm with 120mph winds.




Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 9727
Quoting Naga5000:


Umm, want to rethink your statement? "The status of polar bear populations has been assessed at both national and international level, and 7 of 19 of the World's polar bear sub-populations are found to be declining in number, with trends in two linked to reductions in sea ice." Link
The Polar Bear Affair. Part 1001.
Interesting analysis of the various viewpoints and approaches to polar bear populations.

But it is clear that declaring polar bears to be threatened is conjecture and a desire to drive an agenda.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
ecmwf still pushes a our next low straight off shore.....


maybe S MS/AL severe

NC?VA snow?
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 9727
Anyone can post a website posted sometime ago which had 2 initial locations of tropical storm and two locations for both high and low and showed a track of a storm with certain conditions?
I'd be glad.
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Quoting Naga5000:


Umm, want to rethink your statement? "The status of polar bear populations has been assessed at both national and international level, and 7 of 19 of the World's polar bear sub-populations are found to be declining in number, with trends in two linked to reductions in sea ice." Link


Just because some environmentalists yell about the 'plight' of the polar bear in a warmer world, and the media pick up on this, doesn't mean that everyone concerned about arctic ice melt is in agreement with this.

I, for one, am not. You can watch video footage of polar bears hunting on bare rocks on Youtube. They don't need ice to feed. It just so happens that sea ice is where their usual prey is, so that's where they hunt.

If the ice melts, the seals will haul up on rocks instead of ice, and the bears will hunt them there. That might even be to the bear's advantage, as they will be able to take advantage of rocky terrain to ambush their prey, something they can't easily do on flat, featureless ice.

So, maybe its the seals that have most to worry about. Don't confuse media hype with mainstream scientific opinion.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Chris Holcomb ‏@ChrisHolcomb
NWS survey team determines EF2 tornado in Meriwether/Pike county storm with 120mph winds.
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 9727
Quoting AGWcreationists:
We can compare sunspot cycles over the last several hundred years, and note that the depths of the Little Ice Age corresponded to the Maunder Minimum and our current warming corresponds to an increase in sunspot cycle intensity over the last 150 years or so.

So there is a possible natural forcing mechanism for the recent warming.
That is incorrect. The sun has been in a slight cooling trend for decades now, yet the planet continues to warm:

sun? No.

The insolation/temperature connection has been researched thoroughly, studied in depth, and written about hundreds of times. And the result is always the same: our current warming is most definitely not because of the sun.

Quoting AGWcreationists:
Polar bears did not go extinct back then with far less sea ice than we have seen as of late. And the threat to polar bears is trotted out as one reason to fight AGW. I would imagine they would adapt as they did during the Holocene Warm Period.
Focusing on just polar bears alone is kind of silly, and akin to worrying only about the Titanic's deck towels getting wet. Having said that, however, there is every indication that polar bear populations are decreasing, and the animal is most definitely threatened by extinction due to a loss of habitat and food sources happening at a rate too rapid for them to adapt to.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
attention..on the advice of the scientific community, the very REAL danger of Global warming is now evident..so I am signing this executive order...starting Monday..vehiciles with license plates ending in ODD number may only drive on ODD days, license plates ending with an even number can only drive on even days, cars with vanity name plates will be included in even days...now on to electric usage. no home nor business can use electric power for more than 4 hours per day, hospitals police and emergency facitilites are exempted from this order........so..go ahead with this global warming.....we all remember the gas shortage years ago..odd-even days etc....keep up with the warming agenda..just wait and see what unfolds.....anyone else see what they Can do that i havent mentioned here?
Member Since: August 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 38386
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 170 Comments: 53767
Who let the Whackos out?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
570 FunnelVortex: I accidently hit the "report" button on your post.

Don't sweat it. "...I sometimes hit minus when I really really meant to hit plus..."
Apparently such accidents are common enough that WunderYakuza has agreed to see if there's a fix for the problem of the plus, the minus, and the !flag being bunched too closely to each other.
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Quoting AGWcreationists:
Puh-leeze. That is why polar bears were listed as threatened a few years ago - even though their populations have been rising - the threat that they would starve to extinction by loss of sea ice. Yet the species survived that earlier warm period.


Umm, want to rethink your statement? "The status of polar bear populations has been assessed at both national and international level, and 7 of 19 of the World's polar bear sub-populations are found to be declining in number, with trends in two linked to reductions in sea ice." Link
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609. VR46L
Quoting aquak9:
HI VR- actually eating hot bread that I just pulled outta the oven. Enjoying the show here.

cough cough- oh yeah, it's sunny breezy and hot at 82ºF here in NE Fla.


Sounds lovely !! Enjoy!!

Oh yeah 39°F and wanting to snow sigh

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Quoting RitaEvac:


Don't forget Stephen Hawking


How could I forget him??? My point was- none of us would be pounding a keyboard today without pre-1979 science doing the legwork. Obviously someone is trying to stir the pot :)
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Cloud deck just blew onshore from the Gulf here in Galveston county, went from clear blue skies to overcast on a dime. Shouldn't last too long as it's clear on the back side in the gulf moving quickly.
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Quoting Guruchild:
I am sick of seeing people comparing climate data to the 1970s and 1980s and using it as evidence of climate change. We have half en eyeblink of data. If you want to pretend this data means squat, you need more of it. You don't have more of it because humans were scientifically lazy and basically just idiots before about 1979. Obviously, they haven't progressed much since then.


How much data do you need? Here is some data for you:

The Laws of Physics

The Laws of Thermodynamics

The Laws of Chemistry

CO2 is known to be a greenhouse gas

Mankind's activities are known to produce tons/day of CO2 that enters the atmosphere.

Mankind's activities are known to destroy some of the natural carbon sinks.

Atmospheric levels of CO2 have risen by over 40% just since the industrial revolution began and when the previous CO2 levels had remained fairly stable for 1,000s of years prior to this.

Who needs manufactured thermometers to see the rise in global temperatures when all of nature's natural thermometers clearly indicate there is a warming that taking place now? The manufactured thermometers will tell you how much warming has occurred, but they are not needed to observe the warming itself.

You may be able and willing to belittle the scientist, their data gathering techniques, their models, their perceived desires for world dominance through scare tactics and the limited time frame they have had for gathering the data, but how do you call Mother Nature a farce and a liar? ... You know the old saying. "It's not nice to fool Mother Nature!".
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Quoting AGWcreationists:

Of course, we would see a similar impact from a cyclical megadrought like the one that collapsed the Anasazi.

The Western US is grossly beyond the carring capacity for water resources if some such megadrought comes along.
True..Obviously was not a consideration at the time.
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Quoting Naga5000:


I see no one here trotting out the threat to polar bears...and quite frankly the polar bears are not the point.
Puh-leeze. That is why polar bears were listed as threatened a few years ago - even though their populations have been rising - the threat that they would starve to extinction by loss of sea ice. Yet the species survived that earlier warm period.
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HI VR- actually eating hot bread that I just pulled outta the oven. Enjoying the show here.

cough cough- oh yeah, it's sunny breezy and hot at 82ºF here in NE Fla.
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Quoting AGWcreationists:
We also have no sense of the relative intensity of sunspot cycles back then. We can compare sunspot cycles over the last several hundred years, and note that the depths of the Little Ice Age corresponded to the Maunder Minimum and our current warming corresponds to an increase in sunspot cycle intensity over the last 150 years or so.

So there is a possible natural forcing mechanism for the recent warming. And there is a standing theory as to why that can happen, namely weaker solar magnetism allows more cosmic rays to reach Earth, increasing cloud formation and generating a net cooling effect.

But my original point stands. Polar bears did not go extinct back then with far less sea ice than we have seen as of late. And the threat to polar bears is trotted out as one reason to fight AGW. I would imagine they would adapt as they did during the Holocene Warm Period.


There's solid evidence why polar bears didn't disappear- Link

But that doesn't mean that the sudden, human-driven surge of climate change isn't happening too fast for them to keep up. Link
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601. VR46L
Quoting aquak9:


Maybe the maple syrup got knocked over a few months back...that stuff gets pretty sticky.



LOL!!


The waterdoggie is cooking today :)
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Quoting goosegirl1:


Oh gee whiz, someone better break the news to Einstein, Galileo, Copernicus, Brahe, Pastuer, Fleming, Avogadro..... well, a lot of those lazy scientists :)
BBBBWWWAAAAHHHHH HA HA HA!!!!,,Good post G.G.....
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Quoting hydrus:

Modeling of snowmelt predicted that warming of 3° to 5°C in the Western United States could cause snowmelt-driven runoff to occur as much as two months earlier, with profound effects on hydroelectricity, land use, agriculture, and water management.

Of course, we would see a similar impact from a cyclical megadrought like the one that collapsed the Anasazi.

The Western US is grossly beyond the carring capacity for water resources if some such megadrought comes along.
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Quoting goosegirl1:


Oh gee whiz, someone better break the news to Einstein, Galileo, Copernicus, Brahe, Pastuer, Fleming, Avogadro..... well, a lot of those lazy scientists :)


Don't forget Stephen Hawking
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Quoting biff4ugo:
How does an 80 mph straight line, sustained wind knock down a wall but leave the shelves behind it fully stocked?


The wall has a much higher wind profile, and no gaps as the shelf with goods on it does, therefore much more momentum gets transferred to the wall than would be transferred to the shelf.
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Quoting biff4ugo:
How does an 80 mph straight line, sustained wind knock down a wall but leave the shelves behind it fully stocked?


Maybe the maple syrup got knocked over a few months back...that stuff gets pretty sticky.
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goosegirl- don't forget Tesla.

Naga- I think the polar bears just need some cool sunglasses, maybe pre-1979 era.
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Quoting AGWcreationists:

I think there was even more to it. Right now, Saudi Arabia is the only producer with significant excess capacity. It basically made them untouchable after 9/11, even though most of the 9/11 hijackers were Saudis. And the Saudis threatened to blow up their production capacity if any military action were taken against them.

If Iraq reaches its full production potential, they will offer similar surplus capacity. And that would put a leash on the ability of the Saudis to gain protection by blackmailing world energy needs.

Not sure if the Bush Admin was that smart, but IMO that was one of the net effects of toppling Saddam. It doesn't necessarily rest upon who controls that oil, just that significant surplus capacity was generated to offset the Saudis.


We should have invaded the Saudis anyway.

The way you deal with the threat to blow up the refinery is just make sure you kill all the leadership at once, in one night. Aim for all the federal government buildings, and their appointed officials and employee's homes.

Meanwhile you drop propaganda leaflets telling the people, "For every oil refinery your government blows up, we will blow up one city." Using the Muslims own sneak attacks and terror tactics against them is the way to go.

What makes us better than them? They started it. Not much else really.


In a lot of ways, it was really an injustice that our government invaded Iraq, and did not invade Saudi Arabia or Pakistan, as they were apparently far more liable for the 911 attack and other schemes.
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How does an 80 mph straight line, sustained wind knock down a wall but leave the shelves behind it fully stocked?
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Quoting beell:


Where ya parking your vehicle today?
:)

Not in the garage, I have a roommate that lives in there. :P
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Quoting AGWcreationists:
We also have no sense of the relative intensity of sunspot cycles back then. We can compare sunspot cycles over the last several hundred years, and note that the depths of the Little Ice Age corresponded to the Maunder Minimum and our current warming corresponds to an increase in sunspot cycle intensity over the last 150 years or so.

So there is a possible natural forcing mechanism for the recent warming. And there is a standing theory as to why that can happen, namely weaker solar magnetism allows more cosmic rays to reach Earth, increasing cloud formation and generating a net cooling effect.

But my original point stands. Polar bears did not go extinct back then with far less sea ice than we have seen as of late. And the threat to polar bears is trotted out as one reason to fight AGW. I would imagine they would adapt as they did during the Holocene Warm Period.


I see no one here trotting out the threat to polar bears...and quite frankly the polar bears are not the point.
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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