A dramatic greening of the Arctic over the past 30 years

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 3:30 PM GMT on March 18, 2013

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A remarkable transformation in the vegetation of the Arctic has occurred over the past 30 years, according to a study of satellite data published on March 10, 2013, in Nature Climate Change. The authors found that Arctic vegetation growth and temperatures in 2011 resembled what occurred 250 - 430 miles farther to the south back in 1982. That's the approximate distance in latitude between San Francisco and San Diego, or Washington D.C. and Atlanta. More greening occurred in Eurasia than North America, and the Arctic's new greenness is visible on the ground as an increasing abundance of tall shrubs and trees. Large patches of vigorously productive vegetation now span a third of the northern landscape, an area about equal to the contiguous United States. "Higher northern latitudes are getting warmer, Arctic sea ice and the duration of snow cover are diminishing, the growing season is getting longer and plants are growing more," said co-author Dr. Ranga Myneni of Boston University's Department of Earth and Environment, in a NASA press release. "In the north's Arctic and boreal areas, the characteristics of the seasons are changing, leading to great disruptions for plants and related ecosystems." The changes in the Arctic's vegetation are being driven by human-caused global warming, which is occurring in the Arctic at more than double the rate of the rest of the planet. This so-called "Arctic amplification" is due, in part, to the increased melting of ice and snow near the pole. When ice and snow melt, they uncover darker surfaces underneath, which absorb more sunlight and increase Arctic temperatures in a vicious cycle which melts even more ice and snow. Using 17 climate models, the researchers predicted that a continuation of warming in the Arctic in coming decades could lead to over a 1300 mile latitudinal shift in Arctic vegetation zones by the year 2100, compared to the period 1951 - 1980. That's a distance greater than the north-south extent of the contiguous United States. However, more frequent forest fires, increased pest outbreaks, and summertime droughts due to a warming climate might slow down Arctic plant growth.


Figure 1. Of the 10 million square miles (26 million square kilometers) of northern vegetated lands, 34 to 41 percent showed increases in plant growth (green and blue), 3 to 5 percent showed decreases in plant growth (orange and red), and 51 to 62 percent showed no changes (yellow) over the past 30 years. Satellite data in this visualization are from AVHRR and MODIS. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio.


Figure 2. Trees take hold as permafrost thaws near the Altai Mountains in Russia. Credit: Terry Callaghan, EU-Interact/Sergey Kirpotin, Tomsk State University.

Commentary
One often hears complaints that global warming may be greatly overestimated, due to many temperature sensors being located in increasingly urbanized areas where local "urban heat island" effects are not being properly considered. If this were true (and it isn't), then we would not expect to see "nature's thermometers"--plants and animals--change their behavior and ranges much. But plants and animals are responding in major ways to the warming climate, and the greening of the Arctic is merely one more example of "nature's thermometers" telling us that the planet is warming significantly. Some other examples:

Fall is falling back: During 1982 to 1999, the end of the growing season was delayed by 4.3 days in the Northern Hemisphere. During 2000 to 2008, the end of the growing season was further delayed by an additional 2.3 days. In the U.S., fall now occurs ten days later than it did 30 years ago.

Spring is springing forward: Spring events, like bird and butterfly migrations, flower blooming times, and frog mating, have been advancing by about three days per decade over the past 30 years.

Animals are changing migration patterns: New species have colonized previously ‘cool’ regions, including sea anemones in Monterey Bay, and lichens and butterflies in Europe. Over the past 50 years, maximum range shifts vary from 200 km (butterflies) to 1,000 km (marine copepods).

Related blog post: New USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map for gardeners shows a warming climate

Dr. Myneni's petition to protect Earth from climate change
Professor Myneni of Boston University's Department of Earth & Environment, co-author of the greening Arctic study, has developed a simple one-sentence petition that he hopes one billion people will sign by Earth Day, 2014:

Dear Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon,

We, the People of the Earth, request You to act judiciously and expeditiously to protect the Earth from anthropogenic climate change.

Respectfully,
People of the Earth


The petition, which I have signed, is at: https://yourclimatechange.org/, and was recently featured by Discovery News.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:


One impending disaster at a time, Largo. :)

We start with what is the most pressing threat to life as we have become acclimated to. Currently, this is AGW. Should we discover next week that a global killing meteor was going to strike our planet in another 6 months then AGW is quickly placed on the back burner and the focus is placed on large, titanium umbrellas for everyone.
Rookie, you are a wonderful man.
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Quoting nymore:
Bears will eat whatever is available, no matter the species. How are you going to miss Polar Bears, by the time any of this will come to pass or not, you will be nothing but worm food.
Not necessarily, given the way the warming is going.

And I have asked to be cremated.
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Quoting LargoFl:
ok so global warming IS occuring..so we proved that NOW..what are we going to do about north america crashing into europe?.......you see..it never ends does it...whats going to happen to the ocean currents and weather when THAT happens?


One impending disaster at a time, Largo. :)

We start with what is the most pressing threat to life as we have become acclimated to. Currently, this is AGW. Should we discover next week that a global killing meteor was going to strike our planet in another 6 months then AGW is quickly placed on the back burner and the focus is placed on large, titanium umbrellas for everyone.
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Quoting LargoFl:
ok so global warming IS occuring..so we proved that NOW..what are we going to do about north america crashing into europe?.......you see..it never ends does it...whats going to happen to the ocean currents and weather when THAT happens?
OK - took a deep breath - erased my first response (which was probably ban-worthy) -

(1) By the time that happens, humanity will probably be back to hunter-gatherer status because of our failure to deal with global warming, so you don't need to worry about it.

(2) And what about that meteor that's going to hit Earth in 40,000 years or so?

Geez, Largo, I thought you were going to say "Now, what are we going to do about it (global warming)?" and then a whole bunch of us were going to stand up from our computers and cheer and say "YES!!! That's the question we should all be addressing."
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Quoting FLwolverine:
"Back" was redundant in any event; "revert" means change back to.

But maybe what you really mean is that polar bears will die out or interbreed with the brown bears that move north as the world warms, so that eventually we won't have big white bears that live on the ice and eat seals, but that's ok because we'll have big brown bears that live on land and eat everything.

Well, maybe, but I'll miss the white bears.
Bears will eat whatever is available, no matter the species. How are you going to miss Polar Bears, by the time any of this will come to pass or not, you will be nothing but worm food.
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And if I was Google that is developing the driver less car, I would be looking into the magnetic field to run them free of energy.
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Quoting LargoFl:
scientists measure they figure,sometimes even create..but many many times they dont look to the future in what..they created and How it will be used..one bomb comes to mind...........science is only interested in finding out the why of something...so ok..lets concide they Proved global warming is true and IS occuring...ok now what.......go ahead..answer this...now what....your whole life and the way you live it..is about to change dramaticly...IF what you claim is true.....poof goes the car..poof goes the electric..poof goes your whatever....back to the horse and buggy days...im sorry..no thank you


It's worse than that.

There's not enough land for grazing to have the number of horses we would need for transporting all our people, raw materials, and finished goods. Because of our commuting distances, some people would actually need several horses staged at different locations between home and work in order to keep rested horses available.

Solar electric is the way to go.

Buy a scooter. It's a lot more convenient, and even cheaper, than a horse, and uses much less energy.

Might be able to get the Mythbusters to design a bike with a teardrop shaped wind shield covering, which will keep out rain, and provably reduce energy costs.

My idea:

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Put a chrome metal ball on a table, and have a powerful magnet nearby, watch the ball attract or repel from the magnet. No fuel, no oil, no gas, no exhaust, nothing but pure energy, free from the magnetic field of planet earth.
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on another note..the GFS has changed for thursday...
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Quoting MAweatherboy1:
This looks a lot like yesterday's map:

Me. Not. Like.
Member Since: November 25, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 492
ok so global warming IS occuring..so we proved that NOW..what are we going to do about north america crashing into europe?.......you see..it never ends does it...whats going to happen to the ocean currents and weather when THAT happens?
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Quoting nymore:
Your right I should have left out the word back and simply said: Will revert to being Brown Bears, which has already happened on the A,B,C islands.


They're interbreeding more and more as the brown bears move north into polar bear territory. And there's evidence that the hybrid offspring are fertile, which is often not the case when closely related species interbreed, eg the mule.

However, brown bears aren't about to invade places like Spitzbergen, so there will always be pure bred polar bears.
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This looks a lot like yesterday's map:

Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 83 Comments: 7850
Quoting PolishHurrMaster:
Anyone can post a website posted sometime ago which had 2 initial locations of tropical storm and two locations for both high and low and showed a track of a storm with certain conditions?
I'd be glad.



This One?
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Quoting LargoFl:
scientists measure they figure,sometimes even create..but many many times they dont look to the future in what..they created and How it will be used..one bomb comes to mind...........science is only interested in finding out the why of something...so ok..lets concide they Proved global warming is true and IS occuring...ok now what.......go ahead..answer this...now what....your whole life and the way you live it..is about to change dramaticly...IF what you claim is true.....poof goes the car..poof goes the electric..poof goes your whatever....back to the horse and buggy days...im sorry..no thank you
But if "global warming is true and is occurring", then our whole life and way of living is going to change WHETHER WE BELIEVE IN GLOBAL WARMING OR NOT! You can't just say "no thank you" and somehow be exempt.
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Quoting LargoFl:
scientists measure they figure,sometimes even create..but many many times they dont look to the future in what..they created and How it will be used..one bomb comes to mind...........science is only interested in finding out the why of something...so ok..lets concide they Proved global warming is true and IS occuring...ok now what.......go ahead..answer this...now what....your whole life and the way you live it..is about to change dramaticly...IF what you claim is true.....poof goes the car..poof goes the electric..poof goes your whatever....back to the horse and buggy days...im sorry..no thank you


Scientist help to answer the questions. Scientist do not dictate how the answers are used.
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Quoting LargoFl:
scientists measure they figure,sometimes even create..but many many times they dont look to the future in what..they created and How it will be used..one bomb comes to mind...........science is only interested in finding out the why of something...so ok..lets concide they Proved global warming is true and IS occuring...ok now what.......go ahead..answer this...now what....your whole life and the way you live it..is about to change dramaticly...IF what you claim is true.....poof goes the car..poof goes the electric..poof goes your whatever....back to the horse and buggy days...im sorry..no thank you


I'm telling you magnetic street cars. In order to move, the two ends are turned on to attract or detract the movement of vehicles.
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Quoting AGWcreationists:
Actually, they can interbreed and produce viable offspring.

Pizzly Bears
When polar bears and grizzlies breed, they can produce fertile offspring. Why can't other species?

Why can polar bears breed with grizzlies?

Scientists confirmed last week that a bear shot by an Inuvialuit hunter in the Northwest Territories is a second-generation grizzly-polar bear hybrid—a "pizzly" or "grolar" bear. Why can some interbreeding species produce fertile offspring, while others—like horses and donkeys—cannot?

Because they have more recent common ancestry.

[much more at link]


Beware of the current day scientific definition of "Species". It actually doesn't exist. Every author or speaker uses the term differently to the point that it is nearly meaningless. In fact, evolutionary biologists commonly use "Species" and "Evolution" as circularly defining terms, which is a logical fallacy.
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Quoting nymore:
Your right I should have left out the word back and simply said: Will revert to being Brown Bears, which has already happened on the A,B,C islands.
"Back" was redundant in any event; "revert" means change back to.

But maybe what you really mean is that polar bears will die out or interbreed with the brown bears that move north as the world warms, so that eventually we won't have big white bears that live on the ice and eat seals, but that's ok because we'll have big brown bears that live on land and eat everything.

Well, maybe, but I'll miss the white bears.
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scientists measure they figure,sometimes even create..but many many times they dont look to the future in what..they created and How it will be used..one bomb comes to mind...........science is only interested in finding out the why of something...so ok..lets concide they Proved global warming is true and IS occuring...ok now what.......go ahead..answer this...now what....your whole life and the way you live it..is about to change dramaticly...IF what you claim is true.....poof goes the car..poof goes the electric..poof goes your whatever....back to the horse and buggy days...im sorry..no thank you
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Quoting GeorgiaStormz:


big fail Phil!
At least for our area
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
Quoting LargoFl:
its just doesnt matter one ioata if the doc and others are right OR wrong...its what is going to happen to ALL of us once Govt decides yes it IS happening and THIS is what we are going to do to prevent it.....THAT is what is in YOUR future..i could care less about global warming..its what THEY will do that worries me a great deal..


At least I get to vote on some of what the government does, and I get to vote on who some of the leaders are.

I don't get a vote on corporate monopolies' board members, CEOs, or decision making.

I don't get to vote on what electric company I own either. Therefore, if the government owned the electric company, I would actually have more power over the electric company and the services I receive.


If there is ever a successful Type 1 civilization, I highly, highly doubt it will be as capitalistic as the U.S. currently is, because there is just no way for such a civilization to function; It's irrational and far too wasteful.
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Earthquakes Turn Water Into Gold


Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 9733
Quoting goosegirl1:


I would suggest you read the links on comment # 602. I would further point out that brown bears and polar bears are seperate species, humans are not. Race and species are certainly no where near equivelant.
Your right I should have left out the word back and simply said: Will revert to being Brown Bears, which has already happened on the A,B,C islands.
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Quoting goosegirl1:


I would suggest you read the links on comment # 602. I would further point out that brown bears and polar bears are seperate species, humans are not. Race and species are certainly no where near equivelant.
Actually, they can interbreed and produce viable offspring.

Pizzly Bears
When polar bears and grizzlies breed, they can produce fertile offspring. Why can't other species?

Why can polar bears breed with grizzlies?

Scientists confirmed last week that a bear shot by an Inuvialuit hunter in the Northwest Territories is a second-generation grizzly-polar bear hybrid—a "pizzly" or "grolar" bear. Why can some interbreeding species produce fertile offspring, while others—like horses and donkeys—cannot?

Because they have more recent common ancestry.

[much more at link]
Member Since: November 25, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 492
HAZARDOUS WEATHER OUTLOOK IS FOR EAST CENTRAL FLORIDA.

.DAY ONE...TODAY AND TONIGHT.

.THUNDERSTORM IMPACT...
THERE IS THE POTENTIAL FOR ISOLATED LIGHTNING STORMS THIS AFTERNOON
AS RESIDUAL MOISTURE COMBINES WITH DAYTIME HEATING...SEA AND LAKE
BREEZE BOUNDARIES...AND STRONG JET STREAM WINDS OVERHEAD. BRIEF
HEAVY DOWNPOURS...CLOUD TO GROUND LIGHTNING...SMALL HAIL AND
GUSTY WINDS WILL BE POSSIBLE WITH THE STRONGEST STORMS. STORM
MOTION WILL BE EASTWARD THIS AFTERNOON AT 20 TO 30 MPH.
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Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 9733
Quoting Xandra:

And while that is good enough in the fantasy bubble of Fox News and Rush Limbaugh and the Tea Party, the rest of us live in a real world that is undergoing rapid, cataclysmic change that is unprecedented in geologic and climatic history.


Two points. First, who lives in the greater fantasy bubble? Tea Partiers, or those who pretend our current level of government spending and commitments to entitlement spending are viable? And second, the changes we are seeing are not unprecedented in geological and climatic history. The Younger Dryas, for example, ended in about 50 years with signficant warming. Hyperbole doesn't help your side.

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rains helped so florida some..thats good news....
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Quoting nymore:
Polar bears will just revert back to being brown bears, much as humans are doing now with the races becoming more mixed. No one is really sure how polar bears came to break away from brown bears but it is well known brown bears and polar bears can breed successfully.


I would suggest you read the links on comment # 602. I would further point out that brown bears and polar bears are seperate species, humans are not. Race and species are certainly no where near equivelant.
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Quoting LargoFl:
its just doesnt matter one ioata if the doc and others are right OR wrong...its what is going to happen to ALL of us once Govt decides yes it IS happening and THIS is what we are going to do to prevent it.....THAT is what is in YOUR future..i could care less about global warming..its what THEY will do that worries me a great deal..
Then shouldn't you be taking the position that AGW/CC isn't happening (or if it is, it isn't serious), and so, Mr. Government, you don't need to do anything about it?
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Largo, then go and support candidates you feel comfortable with who won't do these "things" you are so worried about. Or in your opinion, these type of candidates, don't exist--everyone in govt. is "out to get you"? The govt. here is made up of elected officials that can be voted in AND out of office.
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dont see any storms so far for central florida.....
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Quoting FLwolverine:
So, Largo, it seems like you are making up your mind about "this so called Human warming event" -- it's a hoax that the government is using to "prepare us today..for what they are going to do to us..in the near future". Did I get that right?

Here's a question that always comes to mind when one of the WU regulars starts dissing AGW/CC. Obviously Dr. Masters and WU find the evidence credible and believe the AGW/CC is happening and is a threat. You thinks that's wrong. So what do you think of Dr. M? Is he in on the hoax and intentionally leading people astray? Or is he just to dumb to see that he's being duped? What do you think? And if he's either of those, why are you here?
its just doesnt matter one ioata if the doc and others are right OR wrong...its what is going to happen to ALL of us once Govt decides yes it IS happening and THIS is what we are going to do to prevent it.....THAT is what is in YOUR future..i could care less about global warming..its what THEY will do that worries me a great deal..
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Is this the right blog?..checking...

unfortunately, yes...

I'll be back later..soon to be a lot of insults thrown and beating of the chests..
Member Since: August 19, 2006 Posts: 13 Comments: 15751
Quoting LargoFl:
thanks..i shudder to think what the very near future is going to be like, yes oil will indeed run out someday..yeah they will try to come up with some kind of solar car..just think about electric and the lubricants and chemicals and even medicines that come from oil.......maybe back to the stone age for us?...yeah maybe that is too harsh but..think about the cities..the millions living in them, no way for the food stuffs grown in far away farms to GET the food to them..there just arent enough horses in the world to take the place of trucks and cars...OIL is how our civilization grew to where it is today....a terrible world in the future huh...
The part so many seem to miss--or so many deliberately ignore--is that rapid climate change is the single best mechanism by which mankind may find itself forced "back to the stone age". Running out of oil overnight would be bad, yes; fuel prices would skyrocket, and all sorts of political turmoil would follow. But worse--far worse--are rising sea levels requiring the relatively rapid forced exodus of perhaps a billion people; the loss of tens trillions of dollars worth of infrastructure; massive droughts leading to desertification of current agricultural areas; mass extinctions of plant and animal species important to civilization; ocean acidification; shortages of food and clean water leading to famines and societal upheaval on a scale never before witnessed. And so on. IOW: a world suddenly without oil would be extremely inconvenient for mankind--but a world suddenly warmed would be horrifying.
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Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:


Hey. I thought I was the only one that dropped esoteric messages. :)


I no longer explain to society, let the cards fall as they may as the Paradigm shift makes itself known. It's all deserving and all for the better.
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Polar bears will just revert back to being brown bears, much as humans are doing now with the races becoming more mixed. No one is really sure how polar bears came to break away from brown bears but it is well known brown bears and polar bears can breed successfully.
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Quoting LargoFl:
my real fear is what govt will do IF this global warming thing forces it to change our very way of life today, not 200-300 years from now...this is the danger i feel coming if this idea takes off...there is only ONE way..to fight this so called Human warming event..you think about that for awhile..my guess is when you finally come to grips on exactly what it will take, and how that will disrupt your daily lives...you'll come to your senses..they are preparing us today..for what they are going to do to us..in the near future.......think very hard folks...think of what govt's do when there is a shortage..yes indeed.....if you drive..if your electric power uses oil...if your boat etc uses gas..and a hundred other things they can list that now you cant use only when THEY say so....do not..give them that kind of power...i know..i sound like a crackpot....but i remember the odd even days very clearly...my guess is alot here do also..that..is how much power they have over your lives..and with global warming..make that a hundred fold worse.
So, Largo, it seems like you are making up your mind about "this so called Human warming event" -- it's a hoax that the government is using to "prepare us today..for what they are going to do to us..in the near future". Did I get that right?

Here's a question that always comes to mind when one of the WU regulars starts dissing AGW/CC. Obviously Dr. Masters and WU find the evidence credible and believe the AGW/CC is happening and is a threat. You thinks that's wrong. So what do you think of Dr. M? Is he in on the hoax and intentionally leading people astray? Or is he just too dumb to see that he's being duped? What do you think? And if he's either of those, why are you here?
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Quoting RitaEvac:


End times huh, the young and clueless are sitting on the tracks and the freight train is coming in like the bullet train


Hey. I thought I was the only one that dropped esoteric messages. :)
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NWS Atlanta %u200F@NWSAtlanta
A NWS survey team visited Dooley and Sumter counties to see if damage occurred from last nights storms. No organized damage found. #gawx


that was that far southern supercell.
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wow it got up to 80 by me today!..........
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The deniers prove our point again

by Doug Craig

The deniers of global climate change are passionate and committed. More like members of a religion than students of science. They believe so strongly that humans are not responsible for global climate, they are blind to any evidence that suggests otherwise. And they do not require any evidence to convince themselves. They just know it. And they are shocked at our stupidity. How can we not know it too?

They know all the scientific evidence for anthropogenic climate change must be false even though they cannot disprove it. And when they post their arguments everyone sees what is missing. But they don't see it. All those words they type and not any evidence. No trusted sources. No proof for a single claim. How can they be so sure? How do they know what they know? And not know it is worthless.

[...]

The deniers remind me of people who don't know how to speak a foreign language so they just yell loudly in English. They don't speak Science but they know how to yell loudly or write many words. But it isn't what they say or how they say it that matters. it's what they don't say that matters most of all.

The deniers don't have a single shred of evidence to support anything they say ever. They just boast and assert and pontificate. I can imagine the jurors leaning forward in the jury box waiting for the proof that never comes. They got nothin' and they seem to be the only ones who don't realize it. They are clowns at a circus and yet they have no clue.

Every post of a denier proves my point better than anything I could ever write. They never back up their claims with scientific evidence from trusted sources. Their only source is themselves or other deniers. And while that is good enough in the fantasy bubble of Fox News and Rush Limbaugh and the Tea Party, the rest of us live in a real world that is undergoing rapid, cataclysmic change that is unprecedented in geologic and climatic history.

The deniers seem to exist for two reasons. Comic relief and obstruction. We may not survive the changes to come. But we will not lack for entertainment.
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Quoting LargoFl:
thanks..i shudder to think what the very near future is going to be like, yes oil will indeed run out someday..yeah they will try to come up with some kind of solar car..just think about electric and the lubricants and chemicals and even medicines that come from oil.......maybe back to the stone age for us?...yeah maybe that is too harsh but..think about the cities..the millions living in them, no way for the food stuffs grown in far away farms to GET the food to them..there just arent enough horses in the world to take the place of trucks and cars...OIL is how our civilization grew to where it is today....a terrible world in the future huh...


End times huh, the young and clueless are sitting on the tracks and the freight train is coming in like the bullet train
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I just want to thank all the folks who joined in with me today in this discussion..the post count for the blog really livened up huh lol..ok im going back to weather doc lol...
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Quoting AGWcreationists:
There are plenty of other sties as well. My larger point stands. It was purely conjectural to list the polar bear as threatened, and it was done more for political reasons than scientific ones.


While the world would be a poorer place without organisations like Greenpeace, you shouldn't assume their opinions and pronouncements are shared by everyone with environmental concerns.

However, if the WWF says the polar bear is threatened, that opinion ought to carry more weight. Polar bears are top predators, so fat soluble man made toxins, such as PCBs, accumulate in their bodies. This can have adverse health effects, including reduced fertility.
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Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
new ecmwf says less severe wx
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 9733
Quoting PedleyCA:


This was our wake-up call to start converting to solar and other non fossil fuels. But did we listen, NO. If we had started then we wouldn't
be having this conversation now. Problem is we have no leaders. Just
a bunch of greedy politicians whose only job is to get re-elected. Giving
your soap box back....
thanks..i shudder to think what the very near future is going to be like, yes oil will indeed run out someday..yeah they will try to come up with some kind of solar car..just think about electric and the lubricants and chemicals and even medicines that come from oil.......maybe back to the stone age for us?...yeah maybe that is too harsh but..think about the cities..the millions living in them, no way for the food stuffs grown in far away farms to GET the food to them..there just arent enough horses in the world to take the place of trucks and cars...OIL is how our civilization grew to where it is today....a terrible world in the future huh...
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Quoting Grothar:



I guess at some point one must realize that the piano didn't write the concerto.


The pianos are trying to resolve that little problem. Even if they succeed in this venture they will still probably require a Conductor.

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.