Lake Michigan and Lake Huron hit all-time low water levels

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:00 PM GMT on February 06, 2013

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During January 2013, water levels on Lake Michigan and Lake Huron fell to their all-time lowest values since record keeping began in 1918, said the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers on Tuesday. The two lakes (which are connected and are hydrologically the same lake) fell to a water level of 576.02'. This is 0.4" below the previous record low of 576.05' set in March 1964. The lakes have dropped 17 inches since January 2012, and are now 29 inches below their long-term average. Lake Superior is about 9" above its all-time low water level, and Lakes Erie and Ontario are just 6" below average (26 - 27" above their all-time lows), so these lakes will not set new low water records in 2013. The latest forecast calls for Lake Superior to drop 2 inches during February, Lake Michigan and Huron to drop 1 inch, Lake Erie to rise 2 inches, and Lake Ontario remain near its current level.


Figure 1. Low water levels at Old Mission Point Lighthouse at Grand Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan, during July 2000. Image credit: NOAA/GLERL.


Why the record lows?
The record-low water levels on Lake Michigan and Lake Huron are due, in part, to dredging operations in their outflow channel, the St. Clair River. The dredging, which stopped in the 1960s, is blamed for a long-term 10 - 16" decrease in water levels. The record low water levels on Lake Michigan and Lake Huron in January occurred despite the fact that precipitation over their watershed was 61% above average during the month. However, precipitation over the past 12 months was only 91% of average, and runoff into the lakes depends upon precipitation over longer than a 1-month period. Furthermore, evaporation over these lakes was much higher than average during January, making the net water supplied to the lakes (runoff into the lakes, plus precipitation over the lakes, minus evaporation from the lakes) only 63% of average. What caused the increased evaporation? Well, very warm water temperatures, for one. According to NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL), water temperatures over Lake Michigan are currently about 2.5°F above average, and are about 1°F above average over Lake Huron. These warm water temperatures are the lingering effects of the extraordinary warmth of 2012, which was the warmest year on record over much of the Great Lakes region. Also increasing the evaporation from the lakes during January was the presence of less ice cover than average, which exposed more open water to the air.


Figure 2. The water level on Lake Huron and Lake Michigan measured during 2012 - 2013 (red line) hit an all-time low during January 2013, beating the previous record set in March 1964. The predicted water levels for February - March call for record lows both months. Image credit: Army Corps of Engineers.

Ice cover declining, water temperatures warming, and precipitation increasing in recent decades
The long-term future of Great Lakes water levels is cloudy, since climate change is expected to bring competing effects. A 2011 paper by scientists at NOAA Great Lakes Environemental Research Laboratory found that lake levels could rise or fall, depending upon the climate change scenario used. On the one hand, precipitation has increased by 12% over Michigan during the past century, and is expected to increase even more in the coming decades. This would tend to increase lake levels. However, lake water temperatures are predicted to increase and ice cover decrease, which would heighten evaporation rates. This would tend to lower lake levels. Ice cover on North America's Great Lakes--Superior, Michigan, Huron, Ontario, and Erie--has declined 71% since 1973, according to a 2012 study published in the Journal of Climate by researchers at NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. The loss of ice is due to warming of the lake waters, which could be due to a combination of global warming and natural cycles, the researchers said. Winter air temperatures over the lower Great Lakes increased by about 2.7°F (1.5°C) from 1973 - 2010, and by 4 - 5°F (2.3 - 2.7°C) over the northern Lakes, including Lake Superior. Lake Superior's summer surface water temperature warmed 4.5°F (2.5°C) over the period 1979 - 2006 (Austin and Colman 2007). During the same period, Lake Michigan warmed by about 3.3°F (1.7°C), Lake Huron by 4.3°F (2.4°C), and Lake Erie (which is shallow and loses and gains heat relatively quickly) showed almost no warming. The Army Corps of Engineers is also considering adding speed bumps to the bottom of the St. Clair River to slow down drainage of Lake Huron, which would act to increase water levels in Lake Huron and Lake Michigan.


Figure 3. Average yearly precipitation over the state of Michigan increased by about 12% per century since 1895, according to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center.

References
Austin, J. A., and S. Colman, 2007, "Lake Superior summer water temperatures are increasing more rapidly than regional air temperatures: A positive ice-albedo feedback," Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L06604, doi:10.1029/2006GL029021.

Wang, J., X. Bai, H. Hu, A.H. Clites, M.C. Colton, and B.M. Lofgren, 2012, "Temporal and spatial variability of Great Lakes ice cover, 1973-2010," Journal of Climate 25(4):1318-1329 (DOI:10.1175/2011JCLI4066.1)

Jeff Masters

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Quoting NEwxguy:


I agree,of older age,I can remember the blizzard of 78,it took a long time for most forecasters to fall into step with the major event,it just didn't look that bad,of course data collection was so archaic back then,we didn't have the amount of data we collect these days.but it still amazes how these small systems merge and explode.


The blizzard of 78 was a bizzarre thing indeed in upstate NY. They had closed the state down the day of its expected arrival... the forecast was that grim. State offices, schools, everything. The Low center went just north, over Lake Ontario as I recall. But something happened to the low, the local met then said that it got so deep that it split in two.... anyway... the Monstorous cold front simply stalled halfway between Buffalo and Rochester, and never really made it to Oswego, sigh, where the expected Lake effect was to be well over 10 feet in areas, according to that met (Bob Sykes, by name). We were hoping to be out of school till spring!~
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John Seach ‏@johnseach
#Tinakula volcano, Solomon Islands. Major #earthquake so close and shallow is likely to have effects on volcano.
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Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:




30"????


As Aussie said,we will not know the final totals until the event is over.
Member Since: April 29, 2009 Posts: 75 Comments: 14267
Quoting MAweatherboy1:
This is from one of my better local news outlets:



Link




30"????
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
Quoting MAweatherboy1:
In other news, still plenty of rockin' and rollin' going on down in the Solomon Islands after the major earthquake there last night:


My quake monitor has been going off big time since last week. There was a 7.0 there, also a 5.5 37 miles S of Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia not long ago, it was shallow at 6.8miles.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting TomTaylor:
I'm talking about the accuracy of precipitation and snow forecasts. "Showing a storm" is entirely different than correctly showing where and how much rain/snow will fall.

I saw somewhere that 2/3day extratropical QPF forecasts from the ECMWF are about as skillful as the ECMWFs 8/9 day 500 mb height forecasts. In the tropics, the skill of QPFs is significantly lower.

No one knows how much precip will occur until it does happen and when the event is over. Models are just guidance. Not absolute.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
In other news, still plenty of rockin' and rollin' going on down in the Solomon Islands after the major earthquake there last night:

Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 83 Comments: 7787
Quoting Bluestorm5:
Yes. Winter Storm Nemo.

Nemo, omg lol.

P. Sherman, 42 Wallaby Way, Sydney.
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Quoting AussieStorm:

How long have the models been showing this snow storm for the NE? I think I saw someone post about it here late last week. I know the ECMWF has been showing it for more than 140hrs.
I'm talking about the accuracy of precipitation and snow forecasts. "Showing a storm" is entirely different than correctly showing when, where and how much rain/snow will fall.

I saw somewhere that 2/3day extratropical QPF forecasts from the ECMWF are about as skillful as the ECMWFs 8/9 day 500 mb height forecasts. In the tropics, the skill of QPFs is significantly lower.
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 19 Comments: 4357
Quoting MAweatherboy1:

Yep, the GFS has struggled big time on this one, the Euro absolutely dominated. A little like Sandy, in a way. It saw this coming way before the other models.


agreed.
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
WINTER WEATHER UPDATE 85
____________________________________

Major snowstorm headed for the East Coast...
Moderate/Heavy snow for NYC
Extreme snowfall for Boston and Providence, blizzard watch in effect



I have decided to "zoom in" more into my area. So from now on I won't be using the big map because it's too difficult to come up with a reasonable snowfall forecast for a very large area...unless it's a big and dangerous snowstorm I'll keep using it.

From now on I'll use this map for my area. It is divided in counties for PA, NJ, NY and CT. It's a better-handle map for me to work with...

Here is my new weather map... Just as the other one, same snowfall scale colors, same look just a zoom into NYC.



click on both pictures, if you'd like, for a larger view...
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
Quoting AussieStorm:

The GFS has finally come onboard also, It was the outsider.

Yep, the GFS has struggled big time on this one, the Euro absolutely dominated. A little like Sandy, in a way. It saw this coming way before the other models.
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 83 Comments: 7787
Quoting AussieStorm:

30in = 76cm. That is a massive snow dump. Does this storm have a name yet?
Yes. Winter Storm Nemo.
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Quoting MAweatherboy1:
This is from one of my better local news outlets:



Link

30in = 76cm. That is a massive snow dump. Does this storm have a name yet?
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Quoting MAweatherboy1:
CMC looks great:



UKMET also beautiful:



Model consensus is actually unusually good at this point. Which kind of worries me...

The GFS has finally come onboard also, It was the outsider.
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This is from one of my better local news outlets:



Link
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 83 Comments: 7787
The Taunton NWS map is starting to get colorful.

Member Since: August 2, 2006 Posts: 46 Comments: 11668
Quoting PlazaRed:

The implications of the fossil fuel running out are so awesome that very few people who really understand society's needs will care to comment on this.
Take an average northern hemisphere city of say a million people. In bare reality its energy consumption levels are astronomical.
If the basic fuels of Electricity, Gas and Solid fuel were unavailable then during a cold winter spell possibly as many as half the population would freeze to death! If people had open fires, there would not have enough fuel to burn on them, chopping down the nearest tree would not really do much good as it probably wouldn't burn that well.
This fuel shortage that's coming isnt a technical collage exercise, its a certainty. Massive limitations on power use might have to be implicated. We have just had new electronic power meters installed by the power company, in our town, which they can control on and off as well as the maximum amp flow/rating from their computers in their office.
So if they want you to have no more than 2 kilowatts then that's what you get. Its a reality and its coming probably one day soon.


It won't happen that suddenly if you are talking declining supplies. As the supplies lessen, fossil fuels will get more expensive. As it gets more expensive, industry will process more difficult reserves because it is now worth it. That is happening now. When oil was $15 a barrel, only the easiest reserves were worth it. Now that it is $80 a barrel, a lot of other reserves are worth it, like oils sands, oil shale, deep water exploration. As it gets more expensive, we will use less, and go to alternatives.

I cannot say that we will never run out of fossil fuels, but I think we are far from it. With recent discoveries in the Midwest, in other countries such as Israel, and the deep-water Gulf of Mexico just beginning to produce, I am not even sure we have reached peak oil yet. China and India, is doubling and tripling the use of fossil fuels, but will probably not reach our level of use, due to 'Peak Cheap Oil'.

Sudden government regulation banning fossil fuels is more what you should be concerned with. If industry is not ready with alternatives, you will be stuck with whatever the government allows, at whatever price, unless they have completely nationalized (globally?) the energy sector.

Case in point, is when government suddenly banned MTBE without protecting the gasoline refiners from liability. They quickly switched to ethanol, and there was not enough train cars, tanker trucks and pipelines to move it around. They were using barges to send it down the Mississippi and up the East Coast, at considerable expense.

Link
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414. etxwx
UPS goes green in California with electric delivery trucks
by Darrell Smith | The Sacramento Bee via McClatchy
Feb. 6, 2013

SACRAMENTO, Calif. — Big Brown is going green.
Excerpt: UPS's trademark brown vans will be joined by 100 fully electric vehicles in what is being touted as the largest rollout of zero-emissions, all-electric delivery vehicles in California.

UPS debuted its electric fleet in a Tuesday morning ceremony at its Shore Street distribution center in West Sacramento. Built in Stockton, the trucks will cover routes in Sacramento, Ceres, Fresno, Bakersfield and San Bernardino.

UPS expects the trucks to reduce fuel consumption by 126,000 gallons a year and to lower carbon emissions.

"Climate change is not waiting. Pollution doesn't wait, so we can't wait, either," Gov. Jerry Brown said, flanked by a handful of UPS drivers, executives and state environmental officials at the ceremony.

The trucks are part of a larger objective put in motion by a Gov. Brown-signed executive order to put some 1.5 million zero-emissions vehicles – or roughly the number of fossil fuel-burning trucks on California roads and highways – onto the state's roadways by 2025.

Read more here: Link
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CMC looks great:



UKMET also beautiful:



Model consensus is actually unusually good at this point. Which kind of worries me...
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 83 Comments: 7787
Quoting AussieStorm:

How long have the models been showing this snow storm for the NE? I think I saw someone post about it here late last week. I know the ECMWF has been showing it for more than 140hrs.
a few days but now with a surface reflection and recon info out front we know better soon
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 171 Comments: 53841
Quoting 1900hurricane:

Trough phasing in a zonal pattern is one of the best ways to have a major snowstorm almost anywhere. In February 2010, Dallas got over a foot of snow from a trough phasing event. Unfortunately for forecasters, it is also fairly difficult to predict. If the troughs don't phase together correctly, the event becomes a huge bust. On the flip side, two troughs that weren't expected to phase together can create an unanticipated extreme event. That's what happened in Texas in 2010, where two troughs phased rather unexpectedly to form one larger disturbance. Snow wasn't even in the forecast until two or so days before the event, and the forecasted totals ended up being more than quadrupled!

I remember that system. The forecast was for 2-4" and we ended up with a foot and a half.

Most snow I've ever seen.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32072
Quoting NEwxguy:


I agree,of older age,I can remember the blizzard of 78,it took a long time for most forecasters to fall into step with the major event,it just didn't look that bad,of course data collection was so archaic back then,we didn't have the amount of data we collect these days.but it still amazes how these small systems merge and explode.

Trough phasing in a zonal pattern is one of the best ways to have a major snowstorm almost anywhere. In February 2010, Dallas got over a foot of snow from a trough phasing event. Unfortunately for forecasters, it is also fairly difficult to predict. If the troughs don't phase together correctly, the event becomes a huge bust. On the flip side, two troughs that weren't expected to phase together can create an unanticipated extreme event. That's what happened in Texas in 2010, where two troughs phased rather unexpectedly to form one larger disturbance. Snow wasn't even in the forecast until two or so days before the event, and the forecasted totals ended up being more than quadrupled!

Member Since: August 2, 2006 Posts: 46 Comments: 11668
Jim Cantore ‏@JimCantore
When I get to #Boston tomorrow for storm coverage the first thing I am going to purchase is a yardstick. #snow #MAwx
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 83 Comments: 7787
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 171 Comments: 53841
Quoting TomTaylor:
Lol Bastardi should know better than looking at 10 day model snow forecasts. 5 day precipitation forecasts are already dreadful. Snowfall is a much more fragile situation varying greatly with timing, positioning, moisture and temperature. Probably wouldn't take snowfall totals seriously beyond 3 days. Beyond 5 days they're pretty much not worth looking at, except to realize the potential for snow. Beyond 7 days I wouldn't even bother looking.

How long have the models been showing this snow storm for the NE? I think I saw someone post about it here late last week. I know the ECMWF has been showing it for more than 140hrs.
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Quoting RitaEvac:
We're just 4 months to Cane season, are your ready?



I'm ready!!
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Winter storm watch for
City of Toronto issued

Significant snowstorm threatening Thursday night and Friday.

An Alberta clipper currently tracking southeastward through the Dakotas is expected to track across the us midwest tonight and Thursday then track just south of Lake Erie on Friday. This clipper may intensify into a winter storm as it approaches Southern Ontario.

Snow ahead of this clipper will start spreading into Southern Ontario from Michigan and Lake Huron on Thursday with perhaps a couple cm of snow by Thursday evening in a swath of regions extending from Lake Huron to Western Lake Ontario.

As the clipper gets closer, latest indications suggest it will intensify Thursday night, with an expanding area of heavy snow expected to move into most of southern and parts of Eastern Ontario. Some freezing rain and ice pellets are possible over the extreme southwest.

Snow, heavy at times is expected to continue well into Friday as the strong clipper sails by just south of the Great Lakes.

Many parts of Southern and Eastern Ontario may receive 15 cm of snow from this storm by Friday evening. Some areas may receive higher amounts, with 25 cm not out of the question. This will depend on the exact track and intensity of this low, and enhancement in the cold easterly flow off of Lake Ontario for example. Total snow amounts may be somewhat lower over the extreme southwest due to some freezing rain and ice pellets.

Brisk easterly winds will also result in blowing snow in many areas Thursday night and Friday.

Travelling conditions will deteriorate and become hazardous in the snow and blowing snow Thursday night and Friday. There may be a significant impact on the commute to work on Friday morning and possibly Friday afternoon in heavy snow and blowing snow.

There is still some uncertainty as to the exact track and intensity of the low, which will affect where the heaviest snow falls. However the many of latest computer models have continued to suggest a more intense version of this winter storm is possible.

Environment Canada is closely monitoring this situation. The winter storm watch may be expanded further to the northeast as the event draws closer. Warnings may also be issued for many regions as well.

Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 171 Comments: 53841
Quoting Neapolitan:
More pretty artwork (from Weatherbell.com):

NE

Are you suggesting this event won't happen with you calling what a model is showing "artwork"? Maybe the Boston NWS office doesn't like art.
It's also surprising you actually frequent weatherbell.com as we all know your dislike for Joe Bastardi and Ryan Maue
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Quoting LargoFl:
I wonder what is going to happen once fossil fuels run out in the future and winter comes?..I seriously doubt one in a hundred have a fire place..electric heat will be awfully expensive then..how many will just do without heat?..sometime in the future..things might get bad huh..maybe even life changing as we know it today..yeah its a long way off i know..but our great grand kids or their kids might have to face this

The implications of the fossil fuel running out are so awesome that very few people who really understand society's needs will care to comment on this.
Take an average northern hemisphere city of say a million people. In bare reality its energy consumption levels are astronomical.
If the basic fuels of Electricity, Gas and Solid fuel were unavailable then during a cold winter spell possibly as many as half the population would freeze to death! If people had open fires, there would not have enough fuel to burn on them, chopping down the nearest tree would not really do much good as it probably wouldn't burn that well.
This fuel shortage that's coming isnt a technical collage exercise, its a certainty. Massive limitations on power use might have to be implicated. We have just had new electronic power meters installed by the power company, in our town, which they can control on and off as well as the maximum amp flow/rating from their computers in their office.
So if they want you to have no more than 2 kilowatts then that's what you get. Its a reality and its coming probably one day soon.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
401. SuzK
Quoting LargoFl:
I wonder what is going to happen once fossil fuels run out in the future and winter comes?..I seriously doubt one in a hundred have a fire place..electric heat will be awfully expensive then..how many will just do without heat?..sometime in the future..things might get bad huh..maybe even life changing as we know it today..yeah its a long way off i know..but our great grand kids or their kids might have to face this


I think the thing that scares is that during the Younger Dryas event of approx 12,000 ya, the climate of the Earth changed over a 10 YEAR PERIOD. If that is what we are facing, then anything is possible after that...from unendurable heat to a return of the ice. WE could see it, as well as our progeny. I say could, not will, but the die is cast.
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Quoting LargoFl:
remember..check in on the elderly.............


Who you calling Elderly?
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Boston's National Weather Service is starting to alert folks about the possible mega snowstorm


A POTENTIAL HISTORIC WINTER STORM AND BLIZZARD IS EXPECTED TO
DROP 1 TO 2 FEET OF SNOW ACROSS MUCH OF THE REGION FRIDAY INTO
SATURDAY...
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Quoting nrtiwlnvragn:
Recon is off to release some dropsondes for the 00Z model cycle. They will be flying every 12 hours for the next two days, so the models should be initialized better for this storm.


Google Earth

Also, seems that the flight paths for Winter Recon is password protected Link. Seems you can just follow it on Google Earth and it will then be known since they list the track plan number in the Recon Plan of the Day.


11 pm run will decide
the future forecasts to this
poss high impact event
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 171 Comments: 53841
This is from the Taunton NWS, this is not nearly the full discussion, just a summary:

HIGHLIGHTS...

***POTENTIAL HISTORIC WINTER STORM AND BLIZZARD TO IMPACT MUCH OF
SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND FRI INTO SAT***

***1 TO 2 FEET OF SNOW POSSIBLE FOR MUCH OF SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND
EXCEPT AREAS NEAR THE SOUTH COAST WHERE THERE MAY BE SOME
MIXING***

THE MODELS HAVE COME INTO VERY GOOD AGREEMENT IN A POTENTIALLY
HISTORIC WINTER STORM AND A POTENTIAL BLIZZARD THAT WILL IMPACT MUCH
OF SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND. WE ARE CONFIDENT IN MUCH OF THE REGION
RECEIVING 1 TO 2 FEET OF SNOW. STILL TOUGH TO PINPOINT WHERE THE
BEST CHANCE FOR THE HIGHER AMOUNTS WILL BE...BUT CLIMATOLOGY FAVORS
THE I-95 CORRIDOR. WE ALSO EXPECT A MID LEVEL DEFORMATION BAND THAT
WILL LEAD TO LOCALIZED HIGHER AMOUNTS ACROSS THE INTERIOR. THE BULK
OF THE STORM APPEARS TO BE IN THE FRIDAY NIGHT/SATURDAY MORNING TIME
FRAME.

THE MAIN UNCERTAINTY IS HOW MUCH MID LEVEL WARM AIR WORKS INTO THE
SYSTEM FRIDAY AFTERNOON INTO FRIDAY EVENING. THE NAM AND SREFS ARE
MOST AGGRESSIVE SUGGESTING A CHANGE OVER TO RAIN AND SLEET ACROSS
RHODE ISLAND AND SOUTHEAST MA FOR A TIME. IF THIS OCCURS OUR
CURRENT SNOWFALL ACCUMULATIONS ARE TOO HIGH IN THIS REGION...BUT WE
DID TRY TO SHOW LOWER TOTALS NEAR THE SOUTH COAST. ALSO...THE ECMWF
WHICH HAS BEEN VERY CONSISTENT AND COLDER SO WE DID LEAN MORE IN
THAT DIRECTION. AS WE MENTIONED THOUGH...THIS IS WHERE OUR FORECAST
IS MOST UNCERTAIN.
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 83 Comments: 7787
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 171 Comments: 53841
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 171 Comments: 53841
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 171 Comments: 53841
We're still a couple days out from the event, so things can change for sure, but right now it looks like this one could be historic. Incidentally, today and tomorrow are the anniversary of the infamous Blizzard of 1978. This shouldn't be quite that bad, but it'll be memorable for sure:



Tomorrow is also my birthday, so that makes it even more special :)
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 83 Comments: 7787
Quoting CJ5:


Jeez, the only thing you need to blame is a cost effective, reliable and sustainable solution. Right now, there is none. Fact!


The renewable energy sources would be much more competitive, if the oil industry was not so heavily subsidized with tax payer's dollars - Fact!
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4737
Balto/DC gets nothing again...?? :-(

I hate this winter. At least we have a Lombardi!
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Good afternoon everyone, I'm under a winter storm watch for 4-8" of snow tomorrow night into Friday morning. Hopefully this closes school on Friday. I see that the NE is going to get pounded by this storm, too bad I'm not over there to feel the full effects of Nemo.
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Quoting LargoFl:
remember..check in on the elderly.............


I am OK.

Grothar?
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4737
SE Mass. gets >2 inches of liquid equivalent over the next 4 days according to the GFS. That's 20-24 inches of snow with a 10-12:1 ratio.

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I wish I was going to school in the northeast right now.

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the 18z run that is currently running is showing more precip for my area..low may be bombing out sooner than predicted



18z run


12z run
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so anyone wanna take a stab at what I should be expecting for the weekend? winds? snow?
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More pretty artwork (from Weatherbell.com):

NE
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13537

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.