Category 5 Super Typhoon Bopha bearing down on the Philippines

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 3:41 PM GMT on December 03, 2012

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Extremely dangerous Typhoon Bopha is bearing down on the Philippine island of Mindanao as a Category 5 storm with 160 mph winds. Bopha completed an eyewall replacement cycle on Sunday and has been steadily intensifying today, and will make landfall on Mindanao in the early morning on Tuesday local time. Mindanao rarely gets hit by typhoons, since the island is too close to the Equator, and the infrastructure of Mindanao is not prepared to handle heavy typhoon rains as well as the more typhoon-prone northern islands. Bopha is potentially a catastrophic storm for Mindanao. The typhoon is following a similar track to last year's Tropical Storm Washi, which hit Mindanao on December 16, 2011 with 60 mph winds and torrential rains. Washi triggered devastating flooding that killed 1268 people. Washi was merely a tropical storm, and Bopha is likely to hit at Category 4 or 5 strength, making it the strongest typhoon ever recorded in Mindanao.


Figure 1. Super Typhoon Bopha at 01:45 UTC on December 2, 2012. At the time, Bopha had top sustained winds of 150 mph, as was just below its peak intensity of 155 mph, which it reached from 06 - 12 UTC on December 2. Image credit: NASA.

Bopha: the 2nd most southerly typhoon on record
Bopha became a tropical depression unusually close to the Equator, at 3.6°N latitude. Tropical cyclones rarely form so close to the Equator, because they cannot leverage the Earth's rotation to get themselves spinning. According to hurricane expert Dr. Paul Roundy of SUNY Albany, Bopha got its spin from a large-scale atmospheric wave called a mixed Rossby gravity wave. Because of the lack of atmospheric spin so close to the Equator, it took Bopha over four days to intensify into a typhoon, and it stayed a relatively small storm. Bopha became the 2nd most southerly typhoon ever recorded in the Western Pacific at 06 GMT on November 30, when the storm was at 3.8°N latitude. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center lists Typhoon Vamei of 2001 as the most southerly typhoon on record, at 1.5°N. However, other meteorological agencies do not credit Vamei with reaching typhoon strength, so this record is disputed. The previous most southerly typhoon was Typhoon Kate of 14 - 25 October 1970, which reached typhoon intensity at 4.3°N, 137.4°E. Bopha continued intensifying over the weekend, becoming the second most southerly super typhoon ever recorded (150 mph winds) at 00 GMT on December 1, when it was at 6.1°N latitude. The record most southerly super typhoon was Kate, which reached super typhoon intensity at 6.0°N, 126.3°E. Kate struck the Philippine island of Mindanao as a Category 4 storm, killing 631 people. Bopha further intensified into a Category 5 typhoon on Monday at 7.4°N latitude, becoming the second most southerly Category 5 typhoon on record, next to Typhoon Louise of 1964, which was a Category 5 storm at 7.3°N. According to NOAA's Coastal Services Center, there have been only 4 previous typhoons of at least Category 4 strength to track within 200 nautical miles of Mindanao Island, dating back to 1945: Mike ("Ruping" ) in 1990, Ike ("Nitang") in 1984, Kate ("Titang") in 1970, and Louise ("Ining" ) in 1964.


Figure 2. Tracks of all Category 4 typhoons to affect the southern Philippine Island of Mindanao since 1945. Image credit: NOAA Coastal Services Center.

The closest a tropical cyclone has ever been to the Equator is 0.7°N, by Tropical Cyclone Agni in the North Indian Ocean in November 2004. Agni got counter-clockwise spin from the presence of the summer monsoon circulation in the Indian Ocean. The closest a Western Pacific tropical cyclone has been to the Equator is 1.4°N latitude, by Tropical Storm Vamei on December 27, 2001. Vamei hit Singapore after Christmas in 2001, at a latitude of 1.5°N.


Figure 3. This MET-5 visible satellite image taken at 0400 UTC November 28, 2004, shows Agni as a developing tropical storm just north of the Equator in the Indian Ocean. Image credit: Navy Research Lab, Monterey.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting barbamz:


Seems Bopha is heading right to the west for a while now. South of the forecast track. If this continues it might be worse for the highly populated area of Davao City as well.
I was just seeing that as well. Also, two other big problems with a westward instead of WNW track. That takes the storm over a much more densely populated section of the island, and also would have it spend much more time over land.
Member Since: November 25, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 489
I wish Levi32 would post a video on Bopha/Pablo.

His Winter weather forecast (just released) was very interesting.
Member Since: July 6, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 2255
85. auburn (Mod)
Looks like Hurricane Hollow and the Barometer Bob Show is going to close down...

Help Save Hurricane Hollow and the Barometer Bob Show

Hope its OK to post this here..I just know he has had ties with helping portlight and even WU in the past.
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Quoting barbamz:


Seems Bopha is heading right to the west for a while now. South of the forecast track. If this continues it might be worse for the highly populated area of Davao City as well.


we don't see this storms often here...much less often in the ATL... enjoy

like the French people say... amusez vous!!
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This guy in his westernpacific video blog is of the same opinion as Aussi (and others) that they should have issued Signal No. 4 in their warnings.
Member Since: October 25, 2008 Posts: 52 Comments: 5712
Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:


here is the article from NYT

TOKYO — Nine people were found dead early Monday after their cars were crushed by slabs of concrete that fell from the ceiling of a tunnel in eastern Japan, severing a major highway leading to Tokyo.

The highway connects Tokyo and western Japan.
Enlarge This Image

Franck Robichon/European Pressphoto Agency
Fire fighters and rescue personnel gathered at the entrance to the Sasago tunnel, west of Tokyo.
The police said they were investigating the cause of the collapse on Sunday at the Sasago Tunnel — a three-mile passage near the city of Otsuki and about 50 miles west of Tokyo — and for evidence of negligence by the company that operates the highway.

News reports said investigators believed that supports in the ceiling of the 35-year-old tunnel might have grown brittle, allowing hundreds of the slabs to fall onto passing vehicles. Each slab weighed 1.2 tons, officials said.



Seems just as much an engineering flaw as a maintenance flaw, IMO.

Shouldn't jump to any early conclusions, because there'll be a full investigation. It's Japan. Finger pointing could be dangerous to people's honor, which could get someone else killed if they are too traditional.
Member Since: January 25, 2012 Posts: 33 Comments: 1520
Quoting Neapolitan:
30 minutes? I would definitely write to admin and demand a $0.00057 refund... ;-)

Nah, it's just the way development on a live server goes. Google, Twitter, facebook, Amazon: every website suffers occasional disruptions.

Bopha may not be monstrous in size, but the storm sadly appears to be on a track that will allow it to cause almost maximum damage. It's likely to be historic--not something anyone wants to see or experience.


$0.00057......lol
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Eye seen on radar.

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Quoting PalmBeachWeather:
I will admit I pay a minimal fee to join this blog, but should it really take me 30 minutes to enter sometimes??? I think not. Sorry, Just venting
30 minutes? I would definitely write to admin and demand a $0.00057 refund... ;-)

Nah, it's just the way development on a live server goes. Google, Twitter, facebook, Amazon: every website suffers occasional disruptions.

Bopha may not be monstrous in size, but the storm sadly appears to be on a track that will allow it to cause almost maximum damage. It's likely to be historic--not something anyone wants to see or experience.
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13473
Bopha as seen from ISS yesterday


http://www.flickr.com/photos/nasa2explore/8241228 681/

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Seems Bopha is heading right to the west for a while now. South of the forecast track. If this continues it might be worse for the highly populated area of Davao City as well.
Member Since: October 25, 2008 Posts: 52 Comments: 5712
Quoting Slamguitar:


What caused that?
Quoting PalmBeachWeather:
I heard that the fault may be on just one bolt.


here is the article from NYT

TOKYO — Nine people were found dead early Monday after their cars were crushed by slabs of concrete that fell from the ceiling of a tunnel in eastern Japan, severing a major highway leading to Tokyo.

The highway connects Tokyo and western Japan.
Enlarge This Image

Franck Robichon/European Pressphoto Agency
Fire fighters and rescue personnel gathered at the entrance to the Sasago tunnel, west of Tokyo.
The police said they were investigating the cause of the collapse on Sunday at the Sasago Tunnel — a three-mile passage near the city of Otsuki and about 50 miles west of Tokyo — and for evidence of negligence by the company that operates the highway.

News reports said investigators believed that supports in the ceiling of the 35-year-old tunnel might have grown brittle, allowing hundreds of the slabs to fall onto passing vehicles. Each slab weighed 1.2 tons, officials said.

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Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:
JAPAN TUNNEL COLLAPSE

9 deaths...RIP



What caused that?
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Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:
JAPAN TUNNEL COLLAPSE

9 deaths...RIP

I heard that the fault may be on just one bolt.
Member Since: October 3, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 5824
JAPAN TUNNEL COLLAPSE

9 deaths...RIP

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Quoting RTSplayer:


No sorry.

That's not the storm numbers for Bopha.

That is a line from the Dvorak classification table.

Bopha is subject to a +5 adjustment, putting it at 884mb, which is still close to Wilma.

It maintained that most of the morning, but it looks like it topped out 2 hours ago, about like I said last night. The T numbers are starting to come down slightly, but the wind speed and pressure estimates are the same.

2012DEC03 143000 7.5 884.1/ +5.1 /155.0 7.5 7.6 7.6 NO LIMIT OFF OFF 11.62 -81.20 EYE 14 IR 7.45 -127.97 COMBO
2012DEC03 145700 7.5 884.1/ +5.1 /155.0 7.5 7.5 7.5 NO LIMIT OFF OFF 6.65 -80.59 EYE 16 IR 7.48 -127.87 COMBO
2012DEC03 153000 7.5 884.0/ +5.1 /155.0 7.5 7.5 7.5 NO LIMIT OFF OFF 11.96 -80.03 EYE 16 IR 7.52 -127.74 COMBO
2012DEC03 155700 7.5 884.1/ +5.1 /155.0 7.5 7.4 7.4 NO LIMIT OFF OFF 8.29 -79.36 EYE 17 IR 7.45 -127.63 COMBO
2012DEC03 163000 7.5 884.1/ +5.1 /155.0 7.4 7.3 7.3 NO LIMIT ON OFF 8.06 -78.41 EYE 17 IR 7.49 -127.50 COMBO
2012DEC03 165700 7.5 884.1/ +5.1 /155.0 7.4 7.2 7.2 NO LIMIT ON OFF 8.17 -78.05 EYE 16 IR 7.52 -127.39 COMBO
2012DEC03 171300 7.5 884.0/ +5.1 /155.0 7.3 7.2 7.2 NO LIMIT ON OFF 4.98 -78.54 EYE 16 IR 7.53 -127.33 COMBO



Sorry for the confusion. I should have clarified that post earlier.


I was doubting of such intensity...not impossible though.
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Quoting AGWcreationists:
879? Sheez, that's lower than Wilma. And the winds are still probably catching up with the pressure drop.


No sorry.

That's not the storm numbers for Bopha.

That is a line from the Dvorak classification table.

Bopha is subject to a 5 adjustment, putting it at 884mb, which is still close to Wilma.

It maintained that most of the morning, but it looks like it topped out 2 hours ago, about like I said last night. The T numbers are starting to come down slightly, but the wind speed and pressure estimates are the same.

--------Intensity------- -Tno Values-- ---Tno/CI Rules--- -Temperature-
Time Final/MSLPLat/Vmax Fnl Adj Ini Cnstrnt Wkng Rpd Cntr Mean Scene EstRMW Storm Location Fix
Date (UTC) CI MSLP /BiasAdj/(kts) Tno Raw Raw Limit Flag Wkng Region Cloud Type (km) Lat Lon Mthd

2012DEC03 143000 7.5 884.1/ 5.1 /155.0 7.5 7.6 7.6 NO LIMIT OFF OFF 11.62 -81.20 EYE 14 IR 7.45 -127.97 COMBO
2012DEC03 145700 7.5 884.1/ 5.1 /155.0 7.5 7.5 7.5 NO LIMIT OFF OFF 6.65 -80.59 EYE 16 IR 7.48 -127.87 COMBO
2012DEC03 153000 7.5 884.0/ 5.1 /155.0 7.5 7.5 7.5 NO LIMIT OFF OFF 11.96 -80.03 EYE 16 IR 7.52 -127.74 COMBO
2012DEC03 155700 7.5 884.1/ 5.1 /155.0 7.5 7.4 7.4 NO LIMIT OFF OFF 8.29 -79.36 EYE 17 IR 7.45 -127.63 COMBO
2012DEC03 163000 7.5 884.1/ 5.1 /155.0 7.4 7.3 7.3 NO LIMIT ON OFF 8.06 -78.41 EYE 17 IR 7.49 -127.50 COMBO
2012DEC03 165700 7.5 884.1/ 5.1 /155.0 7.4 7.2 7.2 NO LIMIT ON OFF 8.17 -78.05 EYE 16 IR 7.52 -127.39 COMBO
2012DEC03 171300 7.5 884.0/ 5.1 /155.0 7.3 7.2 7.2 NO LIMIT ON OFF 4.98 -78.54 EYE 16 IR 7.53 -127.33 COMBO



Sorry for the confusion. I should have clarified that post earlier.
Member Since: January 25, 2012 Posts: 33 Comments: 1520
70. wpb
any twitter or spotters chasers covering cat 5 typhone?
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Quoting PalmBeachWeather:
I will admit I pay a minimal fee to join this blog, but should it really take me 30 minutes to enter sometimes??? I think not. Sorry, Just venting


that happened to me but I didn't pay yet
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I will admit I pay a minimal fee to join this blog, but should it really take me 30 minutes to enter sometimes??? I think not. Sorry, Just venting
Member Since: October 3, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 5824
Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:


879 mb??? nuts


so far the lowest estimated pressure is 920 hPa for Bopha which came from the China Meteorological Administration advisory.
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Quoting AGWcreationists:
879? Sheez, that's lower than Wilma. And the winds are still probably catching up with the pressure drop.


Can Bopha surpass Sanba?
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Hi guys... what happened to the blog??? I had a hard time trying to get in??

Also, not su surprised to see a cat 5 typhoon...since 2010 Megi.. but impressive nonetheless
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Quoting RTSplayer:


T# kts mph kph category wpac pressure.

7.5 155 178 287 Cat 5 879mb


Google Earth will probably get good satellite photos of the region after the disaster.

There may be a few of these coastal towns scoured clean to their foundations, as they appear to be literally built right up to the beach.

I don't know what they do there, but I hope everyone evacuated some place else. At least mudslides are hit or miss. The type of storm surge and wind they are going to see on the coast is not.


879 mb??? nuts
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RSMC Reunion
Tropical Cyclone Outlook
17:30 PM RET December 3 2012
=================================

An area of low pressure that has shown some signs of organization since yesterday, appears as a suspect area. A fully exposed low level circulation, temporarily well defined, is seen on visible imagery since this morning. At 1030Z, the low is located near 7.4S 86.6E. The mean sea level pressure is estimated at 1005 hPa. The ASCAT pass of this morning show a 15-20 knots circulation with some 25-30 knots patches rather far north of the low within the monsoon flow. The system is moving generally southwestwards at 4 knots.

As previously noted, the wind shear remain the main limited factor. It is currently strong as the
system is beneath strong diffluant easterly winds. The upper level ridge is located near 10.0S.
However and according Numerical weather prediction models, the upper level ridge should shift southwards within the next few days and be located near 15.0S Wednesday. As the system should gradually move southwestwards and then west southwestwards, an easterly constraint should remain. However some slow development is possible for the next three days (with some easing of the relative shear when the system will resume on a more westwards track)

For the next 24 hours, potential for the development of a tropical depression is poor. Wednesday and Thursday, the potential becomes fair to good.
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Quoting barbamz:
Aaah, blog is online again? Good. It has been down for me. Anyone else?
Yes.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 20547
Bopha/Pablo zoom loop.
Earlier posted by Aussi.

Bopha/Pablo from space (Nasa).
Member Since: October 25, 2008 Posts: 52 Comments: 5712
Quoting RTSplayer:


T# kts mph kph category wpac pressure.

7.5 155 178 287 Cat 5 879mb


Google Earth will probably get good satellite photos of the region after the disaster.

There may be a few of these coastal towns scoured clean to their foundations, as they appear to be literally built right up to the beach.

I don't know what they do there, but I hope everyone evacuated some place else. At least mudslides are hit or miss. The type of storm surge and wind they are going to see on the coast is not.
879? Sheez, that's lower than Wilma. And the winds are still probably catching up with the pressure drop.
Member Since: November 25, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 489
How much of a factor is surge in Bopha?
What is the elevation near where it's hitting?
It's been through several EWRCs
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Aaah, blog is online again? Good. It has been down for me. Anyone else?
Member Since: October 25, 2008 Posts: 52 Comments: 5712
Ok, who has the webcam feeds?? :D
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Quoting PalmBeachWeather:
This coming Friday.December 7th
I hope she makes it back
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
Bopha contains maximum sustained winds of 180 mph or higher judging by satellite intensity estimates. As I mentioned the other day, the area the storm is going to hit is very highly populated, not very accustomed to storms of this magnitude, or really any storms for that matter, and has very poor preparation skill. The combination of very destructive winds and torrential rain in the core of Bopha will cause massive devastation and death.

03/1430 UTC 7.5N 128.0E T7.5/7.5 BOPHA -- West Pacific

Final T# Adj T# Raw T#
7.5 7.5 7.5


T# kts mph kph category wpac pressure.

7.5 155 178 287 Cat 5 879mb


Google Earth will probably get good satellite photos of the region after the disaster.

There may be a few of these coastal towns scoured clean to their foundations, as they appear to be literally built right up to the beach.

I don't know what they do there, but I hope everyone evacuated some place else. At least mudslides are hit or miss. The type of storm surge and wind they are going to see on the coast is not.
Member Since: January 25, 2012 Posts: 33 Comments: 1520
Predictions of Worldwide Famine

Nostradamus predicted drought and disaster along 48 degrees latitude around the world. His quatrains reference a lack of food, and great famine. Most of the grain belts are found at this latitude. Lack of food from the major breadbaskets of the world — largely in the United States — would result in worldwide famine. Famine is mentioned numerous times in the quatrains of Nostradamus.



According to an interview of author John Hogue in the History Channel’s documentary, Nostradamus 2012, if the U.S. were to stop supplying food to the world 100 countries would be affected and 400,000 people would die in just one short year on the continent of Africa alone.

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Quoting PalmBeachWeather:
She was due back at work Friday, but not sure of her departure date.
This coming Friday.December 7th
Member Since: October 3, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 5824
Quoting FtMyersgal:


Sure does PBW. I hope your friend has already left
She was due back at work Friday, but not sure of her departure date.
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Quoting 1900hurricane:
I posted this at the tail end of the last blog and figured it was worth reposting.

One strange thing I have noticed with Bopha is that since the last eyewall replacement cycle, the eye has been relatively cool for a storm of this intensity. If you look at the water vapor loop I have below, notice the eye doesn't really have the black or brownish color that the most intense tropical cyclones do. I wonder if this may be holding back the intensity a bit. However, with the appearance of Bopha at the moment, I'm afraid that any detriment that the coolish eye has on the system is somewhat minor and remains extremely powerful. It also appears that the eye is trending towards warming a bit, which may mean continued intensification.



Yeah. The last EWRC on this one has been quite impressive over the last 12 hours despite the temp. That cluster of high tops on the south part of the core look to be quite cool but at the same time very organized. Not sure if another replacement cycle is imminent before landfall but at any rate the winds and surge from this storm are going to be bad.
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Quoting ILwthrfan:


Agreed. Dr. Masters seems to fear the same possibility...

"Washi triggered devastating flooding that killed 1268 people. Washi was merely a tropical storm, and Bopha is likely to hit at Category 4 or 5 strength"

Granted this storm is moving very quickly, 6-10 inches of rain in a 150 mile swath is going to be a good bet within 6-12 hours of passage.

Then there's the whole 50 mile swath of winds greater than 111 mph. Which is essentially a 50 mile wide EF2. That's not even getting into the 180 mph winds that are around the extreme center. Very dangerous situation indeed. This disaster may prove to be the worst of the year in terms of fatalities.
I hate to hear that
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Quoting PalmBeachWeather:
Looks scary gal


Sure does PBW. I hope your friend has already left
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
Bopha contains maximum sustained winds of 180 mph or higher judging by satellite intensity estimates. As I mentioned the other day, the area the storm is going to hit is very highly populated, not very accustomed to storms of this magnitude, or really any storms for that matter, and has very poor preparation skill. The combination of very destructive winds and torrential rain in the core of Bopha will cause massive devastation and death.



Agreed. Dr. Masters seems to fear the same possibility...

"Washi triggered devastating flooding that killed 1268 people. Washi was merely a tropical storm, and Bopha is likely to hit at Category 4 or 5 strength"

Granted this storm is moving very quickly, 6-10 inches of rain in a 150 mile swath is going to be a good bet within 6-12 hours of passage.

Then there's the whole 50 to 70 mile swath of winds greater than 111 mph. Which is essentially a 50 mile wide EF2. That's not even getting into the 180 mph winds that are around the extreme center. Very dangerous situation indeed. This disaster may prove to be the worst of the year in terms of fatalities. Prayers going out to Mindanoa...
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

100 knots 10-minute sustained is 115 knots, or 135 mph, 1-minute sustained. This is still WAY too low for Bopha.

If you haven't realized it yet, all non-NHC warning agencies suck. Except for maybe the JTWC, despite the fact that they're slow with everything.


They're not that bad. You just have to get use of the information that 120 knots is Category 5 cyclone with the 10 minute scale.
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Quoting FtMyersgal:
Thanks Dr. Masters. Prayers for the folks in Super Typhoon Bopha
Looks scary gal
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Thanks Dr. Masters. Prayers for the folks in Super Typhoon Bopha's path
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"Quatrain 98 in the Fifth book:
At a latitude of 48 degrees at the end of Cancer(July 22) there is a very great drought. Fish in the sea, river and lake boiled hectic, Bearn and Biggore (Southwest France) in distress from fire in the sky."



This is the grain belt around the world, and drought is destroying crops
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Quoting hydrus:
It does look stronger than 105 kts. I hope that there is a ERC before landfall. Probably to late for that .

Yeah, too late for an EWRC before landfall.
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Panel on New York’s Future After Sandy
by Earth Institute | 12.3.2012 at 10:52am


In Hurricane Sandy’s wake, debate is growing over how New York City and the region should rebuild and how best we can can adapt to climate change. The discussion continues this afternoon with a live webcast from Hunter College, where two Earth Institute scientists will join a panel on “Hurricane Sandy and Challenges to the NY Metropolitan Region.”

What did the storm tell us about extreme storm events and future climate in our region? What did it tell us about our vulnerabilities to future extreme events? What are the key opportunities and challenges of potential adaptation strategies?
...

The event takes place today (Dec. 3) from 2-5 p.m. at Roosevelt House, Hunter College, 47-49 East 65th Street (west of Park Avenue). It is by invitation only, but you can watch it streamed live on the web here.

http://blogs.ei.columbia.edu/2012/12/03/panel-on- new-yorks-future-after-sandy/
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Bopha contains maximum sustained winds of 180 mph or higher judging by satellite intensity estimates. As I mentioned the other day, the area the storm is going to hit is very highly populated, not very accustomed to storms of this magnitude, or really any storms for that matter, and has very poor preparation skill. The combination of very destructive winds and torrential rain in the core of Bopha will cause massive devastation and death.

03/1430 UTC 7.5N 128.0E T7.5/7.5 BOPHA -- West Pacific

Final T# Adj T# Raw T#
7.5 7.5 7.5
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 31572


Quoting AussieStorm:

Why don't they all use the same wind measurement of 1-minute sustained wind speed. I am really hating PAGASA right now. PAGASA FAIL PAGASA FAIL PAGASA FAIL PAGASA FAIL PAGASA FAIL


Don't have a clue why JMA can' t even use the correct 10 min sustained wind average either.

China = 120 knots
Taiwan = estimate 105 knots
Korea = 100 knots
Jakarta Indonesia = 100 knots

---
Don't look good with these. Right now China is the closest to 10 minute sustained winds.
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.I'm home today with a terrible backache.. Ugggh. Is Rachel Ray the only thing to watch??? OMG
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I hope my Fillipino friends that went home a few weeks ago is on her way back to the states
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I'm in Severe drought now in my part of SE TX even though they were behind on this, been in it since October.

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About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.