The bizarrely active hurricane season of 2012 draws to a close

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:50 PM GMT on November 30, 2012

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The long and highly destructive hurricane season of 2012 has finally drawn to a close. The hurricane season of 2012 will long be remembered for spawning Hurricane Sandy--a freakish storm that was the largest, most powerful, and second most destructive Atlantic hurricane on record. But this year's hurricane season had a number of unique attributes, making it one of the most bizarre seasons I've witnessed. Despite featuring a remarkable nineteen named storms--tied for the third highest total since record keeping began in 1851--this year's hurricane season had just one major hurricane. That storm was Hurricane Michael, which stayed at Category 3 strength for a scant six hours. This is the least number of major hurricanes in a season since the El Niño year of 1997, which had only Category 3 Hurricane Erika. There were no Category 4 or 5 hurricanes in 2012, for just the 3rd time since the active hurricane period we are in began in 1995. The only two other years since 1995 without a Category 4 or stronger hurricane were the El Niño years of 2006 and 1997. Both of those seasons had around half the number of named storms of 2012--nine in 2006, and eight in 1997. The relative lack of strong storms in 2012 helped keep the Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) down to 128, about 30% above average.


Figure 1. Hurricane Sandy at 10:10 am EDT October 28, 2012. Image credit: NASA/GSFC.

A near-average year for number of tropical cyclones hitting the U.S.
Since the active hurricane period we've been in began in 1995, the U.S. has averaged getting hit by 4 named storms per year, with an average of 1.7 of these being hurricanes, and 0.6 being major Category 3 and stronger hurricanes. This year, we were hit by 3 named storms (Beryl, Debby, and Isaac). One of these was a hurricane (Isaac). Sandy didn't count as a hurricane strike on the U.S., since it transitioned to an extratropical cyclone a few hours before landfall. No major hurricanes hit the U.S., making 2012 the 7th consecutive year without a major hurricane strike. The only other time we've had a streak that long occurred between 1861 - 1868, during the decade of the Civil War.


Figure 2. Vertical instability over the tropical Atlantic in 2004 - 2012 (blue line) compared to average (black line.) The instability is plotted in °C, as a difference in temperature from near the surface to the upper atmosphere (note that the same scale is not used in all the plots, making the black climatological line appear different, when it is really the same for each plot.) Thunderstorms grow much more readily when vertical instability is high. Instability was near average during the August - October peak of hurricane season in 2004 - 2009, but was much lower than average during the hurricane seasons of 2010 - 2012. There was an unusual amount of dry, sinking air in the tropical Atlantic during 2010 - 2012, and the resulting low atmospheric instability reduced the proportion of tropical storms that have intensified into hurricanes. Vertical instability from 2004 - 2011 is taken from NOAA/RAMMB and for 2012 from NOAA/SSD.

Unusually stable air over the Tropical Atlantic in 2012
For the third consecutive hurricane season, 2012 featured an unusual amount of dry, sinking air over the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean Sea. Due to warmer-than-average sea surface temperatures and an active African Monsoon that generated plenty of African waves, a remarkably high number of tropical storms managed to form, but the unusually stable air in the hurricane genesis regions made it difficult for the storms to become strong. When we did see storms undergo significant intensification, it tended to occur outside of the tropics, north of 25°N, where there was not as much dry, sinking air (Sandy's intensification as it approached landfall in Cuba was an exception to this rule.) If we look at the last nine hurricane seasons (Figure 2), we can see that the hurricane seasons of 2010, 2011, and 2012 all featured similar levels of highly stable air over the tropical Atlantic. This is in marked contrast to what occurred the previous six years. The past three seasons all featured a near-record number of named storms (nineteen each year), but an unusually low ratio of strong hurricanes. Steering patterns the past three years also acted to keep most of the storms out to sea. Is this strange pattern something we'll see more of, due to climate change? Or is it mostly due to natural cycles in hurricane activity? I don't have any answers at this point, but the past three hurricane seasons have definitely been highly unusual in a historical context. I expect the steering currents to shift and bring more landfalling hurricanes to the U.S. at some point this decade, though.


Figure 3. Sea water floods the Ground Zero construction site at the World Trade Center, Monday, Oct. 29, 2012, in New York City. Image credit: AP.

Most notable events of the Hurricane Season of 2012
Hurricane Sandy was truly astounding in its size and power. At its peak size, twenty hours before landfall, Sandy had tropical storm-force winds that covered an area nearly one-fifth the area of the contiguous United States. Since detailed records of hurricane size began in 1988, only one tropical storm (Olga of 2001) has had a larger area of tropical storm-force winds, and no hurricanes has. Sandy's area of ocean with twelve-foot seas peaked at 1.4 million square miles--nearly one-half the area of the contiguous United States, or 1% of Earth's total ocean area. Most incredibly, ten hours before landfall (9:30 am EDT October 30), the total energy of Sandy's winds of tropical storm-force and higher peaked at 329 terajoules--the highest value for any Atlantic hurricane since at least 1969. This is 2.7 times higher than Katrina's peak energy, and is equivalent to five Hiroshima-sized atomic bombs. At landfall, Sandy's tropical storm-force winds spanned 943 miles of the the U.S. coast. No hurricane on record has been wider; the previous record holder was Hurricane Igor of 2010, which was 863 miles in diameter. Sandy's huge size prompted high wind warnings to be posted from Chicago to Eastern Maine, and from Michigan's Upper Peninsula to Florida's Lake Okeechobee--an area home to 120 million people. Sandy's winds simultaneously caused damage to buildings on the shores of Lake Michigan at Indiana Dunes National Lake Shore, and toppled power lines in Nova Scotia, Canada--locations 1200 miles apart!


Figure 4. Hurricane Isaac lit up by moonlight as it spins towards the city of New Orleans, LA, on August 26, 2012. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite captured these images with its Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The "day-night band" of VIIRS detects light in a range of wavelengths from green to near-infrared and uses light intensification to enable the detection of dim signals. Image Credit: NASA/NOAA, Earth Observatory.

Hurricane Isaac hit Louisiana as a Category 1 hurricane with 80 mph winds on August 28, but the storm's massive wind field brought a storm surge characteristic of a Category 2 hurricane to the coast. A storm surge of 11.1 feet was measured at Shell Beach, LA and higher surges were reported in portions of Louisiana. Fortunately, the new $14.5 billion upgrade to the New Orleans levee system kept the city dry. Isaac killed 9 people in the U.S., and 29 in the Caribbean.

Hurricane Ernesto hit Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula as a Category 1 hurricane with 85 mph winds on August 7. The storm killed 12 and did at least $250 million in damage.

Tropical Storm Debby formed on June 23, the earliest formation date on record for the season's 4th storm. The previous record was Dennis, on July 5, 2005. Debby killed seven and did over $300 million in damage, but helped relieve drought conditions over Northern Florida and Southern Georgia.

Tropical Storm Beryl, which made landfall on May 28 near Jacksonville Beach, FL with 70 mph winds, was the strongest tropical storm to make landfall in the U.S. prior to June 1. Beryl killed two but did minimal damage.

Nadine lasted for 21.75 days as a named storm, the 5th longest-lasting tropical storm in the Atlantic basin.

It was the 3rd year in a row with 19 named storms.

No named storms existed during the month of July and November, but we still managed big numbers.

Only 7 seasons have had more hurricanes than 2012.

The season had two named storm before the official June 1 start of hurricane season, only the 3rd time that has occurred.

Eight named storms formed in August, which tied 2004 for the most to form in that month.

Typhoon Bopha a threat to the Philippines
In the Western Pacific, where typhoon season commonly brings several storms in December, we have impressive Typhoon Bopha. Bopha is expected to head west-northwest and intensify over the weekend, potentially arriving in the Philippines on Tuesday as a powerful Category 3 typhoon. Bopha formed at an unusually low latitude for a tropical cyclone--near 4°N. Storms forming that close to the Equator don't get much help from the Earth's spin to get spinning, and it is rare to see a tropical cyclone forming southwards of 5°N.

The Colorado State University hurricane forecast team, led by Phil Klotzbach and Bill Gray, has a more in-depth summary of the 2012 hurricane season.

Jeff Masters

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the science has been out there for a long time. at this point, if people aren't convinced, it's because they're not interested in being convinced and willfully disbelieve.

there's really no need to coddle those people with niceties. i'm not saying that insults are called for, but the whole 'you'll convince the skeptics if you're just nice about it' shtick makes no sense. nice, nasty, they don't want to listen either way.

Quoting Neapolitan:
Breed more of 'em, too; maggots love all things sweet and sticky... ;-)

The "battle" over climate change isn't about convincing the unconvinceable; if it were, generous helpings of sugar and spice and everything nice would indeed be called for, and you'd likely see nothing but polite and politically-correct commentary all around. But this isn't that. No, this is a battle between those who support established science and want to see action to prevent a CO2 catastrophe, and those who've proven they will stop at nothing to prevent that science from being heard just so the fossil fuel-only paradigm can be perpetuated. So, yes, there is harsh rhetoric at times, but that's only because opprobium has been earned. And, yes, there is ridicule, but that's only because denialists are deserving of ridicule.

Plutorising makes a great point, and one with which I agree: blunting one's blades in fear that the opponent might get cut works only in favor of the opponent.
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Quoting TomballTXPride:
But could see where your coming from, Neo. Sandy might have been one of the most powerful cuz of her size. I guess the word I was initially thinking of was intense. In that case, then she has to retreat closer to the back of the line. LOL


Only as measured by wind speed, her minimum pressure of 940 millibars makes her one of the top 20 most intense to make landfall in the US.
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Bopha's clearly having a good day:



UW - CIMSS
ADVANCED DVORAK TECHNIQUE
ADT-Version 8.1.3
Tropical Cyclone Intensity Algorithm

----- Current Analysis -----
Date : 30 NOV 2012 Time : 183000 UTC
Lat : 4:28:55 N Lon : 142:53:23 E


CI# /Pressure/ Vmax
6.3 / 942.7mb/122.2kt


Final T# Adj T# Raw T#
6.3 6.4 6.8

Estimated radius of max. wind based on IR :N/A km

Center Temp : -22.2C Cloud Region Temp : -78.6C

Scene Type : EYE

Positioning Method : RING/SPIRAL COMBINATION

Ocean Basin : WEST PACIFIC
Dvorak CI > MSLP Conversion Used : PACIFIC

Tno/CI Rules : Constraint Limits : 1.7T/6hr
Weakening Flag : OFF
Rapid Dissipation Flag : OFF

C/K/Z MSLP Estimate Inputs :
- Average 34 knot radii : 77km
- Environmental MSLP : 1005mb

Satellite Viewing Angle : 6.2 degrees

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Quoting Pipejazz:
If you have 5 minutes, please read the piece on how Anti-Science is putting democracy in jeopardy in the October 2012 Scientific American at this Link

As noted in the last blog, I cringe that anti-science is no longer a hyphenated term. A good view of how it is mainstream, to our detriment.


broken link, I'll get it otherwise.
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THIS SYSTEM HAS A LOW
CHANCE...20 PERCENT...OF BECOMING A TROPICAL OR SUBTROPICAL CYCLONE
DURING THE NEXT 48 HOURS.
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TROPICAL WEATHER OUTLOOK...CORRECTED
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL
100 PM EST FRI NOV 30 2012

CORRECTED TO ADD SYSTEM

FOR THE NORTH ATLANTIC...CARIBBEAN SEA AND THE GULF OF MEXICO...

A BROAD AREA OF LOW PRESSURE HAS FORMED OVER THE CENTRAL ATLANTIC
OCEAN ABOUT 1300 MILES EAST-NORTHEAST OF THE LEEWARD ISLANDS AND IS
PRODUCING DISORGANIZED SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS. SOME DEVELOPMENT
OF THIS LOW IS POSSIBLE OVER THE NEXT COUPLE OF DAYS AS IT MOVES
GENERALLY TO THE NORTH AT 10 TO 15 MPH. THIS SYSTEM HAS A LOW
CHANCE...20 PERCENT...OF BECOMING A TROPICAL OR SUBTROPICAL CYCLONE
DURING THE NEXT 48 HOURS.

TROPICAL CYCLONE FORMATION IS NOT EXPECTED DURING THE NEXT 48 HOURS.

$$
FORECASTER BLAKE


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Invest 91L. One more for 2012? Perhaps, well organized on satellite.
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Quoting Bielle:


If it is "insulting" to point out that a particular statement is, well, silly, then so be it. A smoldering fire is every bit as dangerous (and perhaps more so if it is ignored) than a "5 alarm". Ask a fireman. If I say something silly, that makes you laugh, please feel free to point it out.



can i start with this statement??
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Quoting yonzabam:


Yeh, what's a global rise of 6C by 2100 getting some folks so worked up about? Heck, that's less than the difference in temperature between South Carolina and Florida.

We'll just be able to grow more oranges, which means the price of orange juice will fall, and that's good news, ain't it?




for some people if it reaches that will be a good thing and for some no....big if
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Quoting DookiePBC:
From the Doc's entry:

"The hurricane season of 2012 will long be remembered for spawning Hurricane Sandy--a freakish storm that was the largest, most powerful, and second most destructive Atlantic hurricane on record."

Am I reading this wrong? I didn't think it was anywhere near the largest or most powerful on record.


Keep in mind,he's not talking in terms of strength,he's talking in terms of the area it covered and the amount of energy Sandy was releasing.
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Quoting dabirds:
Hope some of that moisture out west can make it into the Missouri basin and fill the resevoirs enough the Corps can release some of it. Otherwise, according to article in Post Dispatch today, barge traffic on Mississippi below StL to Cairo will be shutting down.

Currently the level at StL is -1 ft, expected to drop 4 ft in next two weeks, which will be at minimum level for barge traffic, they need 9 feet. Zero was set at a 14 ft level at Eads Bridge in 1863. Record low was -6.1 ft in Jan. of 1940. NWS expecting will hit that level later unless substantial rain north of StL occurs. It's not forecasted in that time frame.
If not for Issac's rains, would be even worse.


It would not take too much for the drought in the Upper Plains down to Texas to expand east of the Mississippi once again next spring.

This weather pattern this winter will be key in setting up any possible relief by next spring.



Got love this 60 degree weather dabirds!
Member Since: February 2, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1493
well Im glad the local tv news is finally mentioning the ice melt up north, me myself im unsure what real danger this would mean to me and my family BUT..what would concern me and mine..is ocean rise and heat buildup in the oceans which would mean stronger storms in the future,i did a little reading up on the artic a while back, ice melt IS a natural occurance over the earths history, just seems we humans for the first time are around to witness a change..now florida ..the land mass, has been under water several times the scientists say..i sure hope this isnt going to happen anytime soon, seems the ice melt is a slow but sure process, so it may not happen for hundreds of years..more than enough time for my future generations to prepare etc..the scare talk right now is just that..no one alive today will probably see the disasterous rise to the level that all seacoast cities will have to move inland...just my thought on this warming thing..if you do your research..it is a Normal thing for mother earth to do this..cold to hot,cold to hot..never staying in one extreme forever
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Quoting yoboi:



keep calling for that 5 alarm blaze when in reality it is only smoldering....


Yeh, what's a global rise of 6C by 2100 getting some folks so worked up about? Heck, that's less than the difference in temperature between South Carolina and Florida.

We'll just be able to grow more oranges, which means the price of orange juice will fall, and that's good news, ain't it?
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Quoting FunnelVortex:


How are we supposed to take you seriously when all you do is insult us?


If it is "insulting" to point out that a particular statement is, well, silly, then so be it. A smoldering fire is every bit as dangerous (and perhaps more so if it is ignored) than a "5 alarm". Ask a fireman. If I say something silly, that makes you laugh, please feel free to point it out.
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Hope some of that moisture out west can make it into the Missouri basin and fill the resevoirs enough the Corps can release some of it. Otherwise, according to article in Post Dispatch today, barge traffic on Mississippi below StL to Cairo will be shutting down.

Currently the level at StL is -1 ft, expected to drop 4 ft in next two weeks, which will be at minimum level for barge traffic, they need 9 feet. Zero was set at a 14 ft level at Eads Bridge in 1863. Record low was -6.1 ft in Jan. of 1940. NWS expecting will hit that level later unless substantial rain north of StL occurs. It's not forecasted in that time frame.
If not for Issac's rains, would be even worse.
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Quoting Inyo:


All fires start out 'smoldering'. Some people would apparently go back to bed if they woke up to a smoke alarm but saw that there was 'only' a small fire on their carpet. Maybe if they stay asleep it will go away...




lite up 100 gallaons of gas and see if it starts off smoldering.....i will give you the lighter
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CNN... Late breaking news...

Train cars with toxic cargo fall off New Jersey bridge

We humans are our own greatest enemy...sigh



"(CNN) -- A bridge failed in Paulsboro, New Jersey, on Friday, sending several train cars -- at least one leaking a toxic chemical -- crashing into a creek near the Delaware River."
Member Since: February 2, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1493
53. Inyo
Quoting Bielle:


I think that is one of the funniest remarks I have ever read from the anti-AGW cohorts. ". . . it is only smoldering".


All fires start out 'smoldering'. Some people would apparently go back to bed if they woke up to a smoke alarm but saw that there was 'only' a small fire on their carpet. Maybe if they stay asleep it will go away...
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Quoting TomballTXPride:
why thnk you largo meant to post that myself...
np,glad to be back around, had a great thanksgiving for sure..hope you did also
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Quoting Bielle:


I think that is one of the funniest remarks I have ever read from the anti-AGW cohorts. ". . . it is only smoldering".


How are we supposed to take you seriously when all you do is insult us?
Member Since: October 20, 2012 Posts: 7 Comments: 2873
Quoting yoboi:



keep calling for that 5 alarm blaze when in reality it is only smoldering....


I think that is one of the funniest remarks I have ever read from the anti-AGW cohorts. ". . . it is only smoldering".
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Quoting Neapolitan:
Breed more of 'em, too; maggots love all things sweet and sticky... ;-)

The "battle" over climate change isn't about convincing the unconvinceable; if it were, generous helpings of sugar and spice and everything nice would indeed be called for, and you'd likely see nothing but polite and politically-correct commentary all around. But this isn't that. No, this is a battle between those who support established science and want to see action to prevent a CO2 catastrophe, and those who've proven they will stop at nothing to prevent that science from being heard just so the fossil fuel-only paradigm can be perpetuated. So, yes, there is harsh rhetoric at times, but that's only because opprobium has been earned. And, yes, there is ridicule, but that's only because denialists are deserving of ridicule.

Plutorising makes a great point, and one with which I agree: blunting one's blades in fear that the opponent might get cut works only in favor of the opponent.



keep calling for that 5 alarm blaze when in reality it is only smoldering....
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Quoting Neapolitan:
From Dr. Masters:

...the total energy of Sandy's winds of tropical storm-force and higher peaked at 329 terajoules--the highest value for any Atlantic hurricane since at least 1969. This is 2.7 times higher than Katrina's peak energy, and is equivalent to five Hiroshima-sized atomic bombs"

Sandy was 2.7 times more energetic--that is, more powerful--than Katrina. I'd say the former already surpassed the latter. And then some.


This might be a dumb question but how is a storm's energy calculated? Is it the wind energy spread over the diameter of the entire cyclone or just tropical storm force + wind zone? Also is rain energy part of the mix? when you have hundreds of millions of gallons of water convecting up and back down the storm I'd think that would be part of the energy output as well. Now if there was a way we could just capture all that in the form of electricity that would be awesome.
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Quoting bappit:

Catch more flies with honey.
Breed more of 'em, too; maggots love all things sweet and sticky... ;-)

The "battle" over climate change isn't about convincing the unconvinceable; if it were, generous helpings of sugar and spice and everything nice would indeed be called for, and you'd likely see nothing but polite and politically-correct commentary all around. But this isn't that. No, this is a battle between those who support established science and want to see action to prevent a CO2 catastrophe, and those who've proven they will stop at nothing to prevent that science from being heard just so the fossil fuel-only paradigm can be perpetuated. So, yes, there is harsh rhetoric at times, but that's only because opprobium has been earned. And, yes, there is ridicule, but that's only because denialists are deserving of ridicule.

Plutorising makes a great point, and one with which I agree: blunting one's blades in fear that the opponent might get cut works only in favor of the opponent.
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Quoting TomballTXPride:
But could see where your coming from, Neo. Sandy might have been one of the most powerful cuz of her size. I guess the word I was initially thinking of was intense. In that case, then she has to retreat closer to the back of the line. LOL


Wilma still has the lowest pressure in the basin.
Member Since: October 20, 2012 Posts: 7 Comments: 2873
Quoting aspectre:
Paying the price of living in the demon haunted world


The Demon Haunted World. Sagan's best book. Ever.
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Paying the price of living in the demon haunted world
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Quoting Pipejazz:
http://www.scientificamerican.com/author.cfm?id=3 17 9

Link

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id= antiscience-beliefs-jeopardize-us-democracy

Will any of these work?
Remove the space between the 7 and 9

www.scientificamerican.com/author.cfm?id=3179
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.
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 6814
http://www.scientificamerican.com/author.cfm?id=317 9

Link

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id= antiscience-beliefs-jeopardize-us-democracy

Will any of these work?
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Thanks, Dr. Masters! :)
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Quoting TomballTXPride:


Gotta concur. Until the Saffir-Simpson scale is revised in a way to dramatically take storm surge into account, Hurricane Sandy was FAR from being the most powerful.

Now the largest and second most destructive, probably. Not gonna argue there. And I also think this has a chance to surpass Katrina in damages by the time all is said and done.
From Dr. Masters:

...the total energy of Sandy's winds of tropical storm-force and higher peaked at 329 terajoules--the highest value for any Atlantic hurricane since at least 1969. This is 2.7 times higher than Katrina's peak energy, and is equivalent to five Hiroshima-sized atomic bombs"

Sandy was 2.7 times more energetic--that is, more powerful--than Katrina. I'd say the former already surpassed the latter. And then some.
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Quoting FunnelVortex:


It is the largest in the atlantic basin, but I think Wilma is still the most powerful.


He does qualify with "Atlantic".
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Quoting TomballTXPride:


Gotta concur. Until the Saffir-Simpson scale is revised in a way to dramatically take storm surge into account, Hurricane Sandy was FAR from being the most powerful.

Now the largest and second most destruction, probably. Although I expect this has a chance to surpass Katrina by the time all is said and done.


Good Point Gal!
Member Since: March 1, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 6877
FunnelVortex and TomballTXPride...

Thanks...I probably shoulda amended my post to question whether it was the most powerful. Kinda forgot how big it was.
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Quoting DookiePBC:
From the Doc's entry:

"The hurricane season of 2012 will long be remembered for spawning Hurricane Sandy--a freakish storm that was the largest, most powerful, and second most destructive Atlantic hurricane on record."

Am I reading this wrong? I didn't think it was anywhere near the largest or most powerful on record.


It is the largest in the atlantic basin, but I think Wilma is still the most powerful.
Member Since: October 20, 2012 Posts: 7 Comments: 2873
From the Doc's entry:

"The hurricane season of 2012 will long be remembered for spawning Hurricane Sandy--a freakish storm that was the largest, most powerful, and second most destructive Atlantic hurricane on record."

Am I reading this wrong? I didn't think it was anywhere near the largest or most powerful on record.
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Quoting Pipejazz:
If you have 5 minutes, please read the piece on how Anti-Science is putting democracy in jeopardy in the October 2012 Scientific American at this Link

As noted in the last blog, I cringe that anti-science is no longer a hyphenated term. A good view of how it is mainstream, to our detriment.


broke link
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Member Since: October 20, 2012 Posts: 7 Comments: 2873
If you have 5 minutes, please read the piece on how Anti-Science is putting democracy in jeopardy in the October 2012 Scientific American at this Link

As noted in the last blog, I cringe that anti-science is no longer a hyphenated term. A good view of how it is mainstream, to our detriment.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
A little going away present:

BEGIN
NHC_ATCF
invest_al912012.invest
FSTDA
R
U
040
010
0000
201211301826
NONE
NOTIFY=ATRP
END
INVEST, AL, L, , , , , 91, 2012, DB, O, 2012113012, 9999999999, , , , , , METWATCH, , AL912012
AL, 91, 2012113000, , BEST, 0, 230N, 426W, 25, 1014, DB, 0, , 0, 0, 0, 0,
AL, 91, 2012113006, , BEST, 0, 237N, 427W, 25, 1014, DB, 0, , 0, 0, 0, 0,
AL, 91, 2012113012, , BEST, 0, 243N, 428W, 25, 1013, DB, 0, , 0, 0, 0, 0,
AL, 91, 2012113018, , BEST, 0, 248N, 429W, 25, 1012, LO, 34, NEQ, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1013, 150, 60, 0, 0, L, 0, , 0, 0, INVEST, M,

91L
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I hadn't seen Largo in a few days had been wondering about him.
Member Since: March 1, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 6877
Thanks Dr. Masters for the blog update..
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 6814
Thank you Dr. Masters
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Quoting plutorising:
pulled over from the last blog post

the idea of squelching opinion because it might be useful to propagandists is a bad one, imo, because encouraging self-censorship is one of the ways abusers intimidate.

Catch more flies with honey.

Edit: Catch more bears, too. LOL
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#7 Not abrasive at all.
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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