The bizarrely active hurricane season of 2012 draws to a close

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:50 PM GMT on November 30, 2012

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The long and highly destructive hurricane season of 2012 has finally drawn to a close. The hurricane season of 2012 will long be remembered for spawning Hurricane Sandy--a freakish storm that was the largest, most powerful, and second most destructive Atlantic hurricane on record. But this year's hurricane season had a number of unique attributes, making it one of the most bizarre seasons I've witnessed. Despite featuring a remarkable nineteen named storms--tied for the third highest total since record keeping began in 1851--this year's hurricane season had just one major hurricane. That storm was Hurricane Michael, which stayed at Category 3 strength for a scant six hours. This is the least number of major hurricanes in a season since the El Niño year of 1997, which had only Category 3 Hurricane Erika. There were no Category 4 or 5 hurricanes in 2012, for just the 3rd time since the active hurricane period we are in began in 1995. The only two other years since 1995 without a Category 4 or stronger hurricane were the El Niño years of 2006 and 1997. Both of those seasons had around half the number of named storms of 2012--nine in 2006, and eight in 1997. The relative lack of strong storms in 2012 helped keep the Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) down to 128, about 30% above average.


Figure 1. Hurricane Sandy at 10:10 am EDT October 28, 2012. Image credit: NASA/GSFC.

A near-average year for number of tropical cyclones hitting the U.S.
Since the active hurricane period we've been in began in 1995, the U.S. has averaged getting hit by 4 named storms per year, with an average of 1.7 of these being hurricanes, and 0.6 being major Category 3 and stronger hurricanes. This year, we were hit by 3 named storms (Beryl, Debby, and Isaac). One of these was a hurricane (Isaac). Sandy didn't count as a hurricane strike on the U.S., since it transitioned to an extratropical cyclone a few hours before landfall. No major hurricanes hit the U.S., making 2012 the 7th consecutive year without a major hurricane strike. The only other time we've had a streak that long occurred between 1861 - 1868, during the decade of the Civil War.


Figure 2. Vertical instability over the tropical Atlantic in 2004 - 2012 (blue line) compared to average (black line.) The instability is plotted in °C, as a difference in temperature from near the surface to the upper atmosphere (note that the same scale is not used in all the plots, making the black climatological line appear different, when it is really the same for each plot.) Thunderstorms grow much more readily when vertical instability is high. Instability was near average during the August - October peak of hurricane season in 2004 - 2009, but was much lower than average during the hurricane seasons of 2010 - 2012. There was an unusual amount of dry, sinking air in the tropical Atlantic during 2010 - 2012, and the resulting low atmospheric instability reduced the proportion of tropical storms that have intensified into hurricanes. Vertical instability from 2004 - 2011 is taken from NOAA/RAMMB and for 2012 from NOAA/SSD.

Unusually stable air over the Tropical Atlantic in 2012
For the third consecutive hurricane season, 2012 featured an unusual amount of dry, sinking air over the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean Sea. Due to warmer-than-average sea surface temperatures and an active African Monsoon that generated plenty of African waves, a remarkably high number of tropical storms managed to form, but the unusually stable air in the hurricane genesis regions made it difficult for the storms to become strong. When we did see storms undergo significant intensification, it tended to occur outside of the tropics, north of 25°N, where there was not as much dry, sinking air (Sandy's intensification as it approached landfall in Cuba was an exception to this rule.) If we look at the last nine hurricane seasons (Figure 2), we can see that the hurricane seasons of 2010, 2011, and 2012 all featured similar levels of highly stable air over the tropical Atlantic. This is in marked contrast to what occurred the previous six years. The past three seasons all featured a near-record number of named storms (nineteen each year), but an unusually low ratio of strong hurricanes. Steering patterns the past three years also acted to keep most of the storms out to sea. Is this strange pattern something we'll see more of, due to climate change? Or is it mostly due to natural cycles in hurricane activity? I don't have any answers at this point, but the past three hurricane seasons have definitely been highly unusual in a historical context. I expect the steering currents to shift and bring more landfalling hurricanes to the U.S. at some point this decade, though.


Figure 3. Sea water floods the Ground Zero construction site at the World Trade Center, Monday, Oct. 29, 2012, in New York City. Image credit: AP.

Most notable events of the Hurricane Season of 2012
Hurricane Sandy was truly astounding in its size and power. At its peak size, twenty hours before landfall, Sandy had tropical storm-force winds that covered an area nearly one-fifth the area of the contiguous United States. Since detailed records of hurricane size began in 1988, only one tropical storm (Olga of 2001) has had a larger area of tropical storm-force winds, and no hurricanes has. Sandy's area of ocean with twelve-foot seas peaked at 1.4 million square miles--nearly one-half the area of the contiguous United States, or 1% of Earth's total ocean area. Most incredibly, ten hours before landfall (9:30 am EDT October 30), the total energy of Sandy's winds of tropical storm-force and higher peaked at 329 terajoules--the highest value for any Atlantic hurricane since at least 1969. This is 2.7 times higher than Katrina's peak energy, and is equivalent to five Hiroshima-sized atomic bombs. At landfall, Sandy's tropical storm-force winds spanned 943 miles of the the U.S. coast. No hurricane on record has been wider; the previous record holder was Hurricane Igor of 2010, which was 863 miles in diameter. Sandy's huge size prompted high wind warnings to be posted from Chicago to Eastern Maine, and from Michigan's Upper Peninsula to Florida's Lake Okeechobee--an area home to 120 million people. Sandy's winds simultaneously caused damage to buildings on the shores of Lake Michigan at Indiana Dunes National Lake Shore, and toppled power lines in Nova Scotia, Canada--locations 1200 miles apart!


Figure 4. Hurricane Isaac lit up by moonlight as it spins towards the city of New Orleans, LA, on August 26, 2012. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite captured these images with its Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The "day-night band" of VIIRS detects light in a range of wavelengths from green to near-infrared and uses light intensification to enable the detection of dim signals. Image Credit: NASA/NOAA, Earth Observatory.

Hurricane Isaac hit Louisiana as a Category 1 hurricane with 80 mph winds on August 28, but the storm's massive wind field brought a storm surge characteristic of a Category 2 hurricane to the coast. A storm surge of 11.1 feet was measured at Shell Beach, LA and higher surges were reported in portions of Louisiana. Fortunately, the new $14.5 billion upgrade to the New Orleans levee system kept the city dry. Isaac killed 9 people in the U.S., and 29 in the Caribbean.

Hurricane Ernesto hit Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula as a Category 1 hurricane with 85 mph winds on August 7. The storm killed 12 and did at least $250 million in damage.

Tropical Storm Debby formed on June 23, the earliest formation date on record for the season's 4th storm. The previous record was Dennis, on July 5, 2005. Debby killed seven and did over $300 million in damage, but helped relieve drought conditions over Northern Florida and Southern Georgia.

Tropical Storm Beryl, which made landfall on May 28 near Jacksonville Beach, FL with 70 mph winds, was the strongest tropical storm to make landfall in the U.S. prior to June 1. Beryl killed two but did minimal damage.

Nadine lasted for 21.75 days as a named storm, the 5th longest-lasting tropical storm in the Atlantic basin.

It was the 3rd year in a row with 19 named storms.

No named storms existed during the month of July and November, but we still managed big numbers.

Only 7 seasons have had more hurricanes than 2012.

The season had two named storm before the official June 1 start of hurricane season, only the 3rd time that has occurred.

Eight named storms formed in August, which tied 2004 for the most to form in that month.

Typhoon Bopha a threat to the Philippines
In the Western Pacific, where typhoon season commonly brings several storms in December, we have impressive Typhoon Bopha. Bopha is expected to head west-northwest and intensify over the weekend, potentially arriving in the Philippines on Tuesday as a powerful Category 3 typhoon. Bopha formed at an unusually low latitude for a tropical cyclone--near 4°N. Storms forming that close to the Equator don't get much help from the Earth's spin to get spinning, and it is rare to see a tropical cyclone forming southwards of 5°N.

The Colorado State University hurricane forecast team, led by Phil Klotzbach and Bill Gray, has a more in-depth summary of the 2012 hurricane season.

Jeff Masters

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You know something is up with the weather when TWC is in town. That, as well as sandbag stations and evac. centers. Oh, well. Truckee may get a little soggy tomorrow, but at least we're not on Palau - I don't know how anyone could survive something like that.
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Quoting bappit:

But of course.
The user community here doesn't like off-topic postings, even on threads that Dr. Master mentions global warmings. Given that this typhoon is threatening such devastation, I would hope discussions stick to that for the near future.
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Quoting AussieStorm:

If you couldn't tell, I was talking about the Philippines. From what I have read from James Reynold who is in Kororo Palau, they are getting prepared. They do know it's on it's way and people have evacuated low lying areas to higher areas. Hotels have opened there doors to residents that evacuated those low lying areas.

I am aware and I was talking about both as well. Neither have anything remotely close to good building codes and minimal Category 1-type winds has a history of causing a lot of damage there. Winds tonight are expected to be near 150 mph (sustained) in Palau, and will be similar in intensity...maybe a little weaker...for its Tuesday landfall in the Philippines.
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Quoting AussieStorm:


Exaggeration much!!!!!!

Super Typhoon Mike killed 748 people in the Philippines, Mike hit as a Cat 5. Tropical storms tend to be more deadly than typhoons as tropical storms dump tremendous amounts of rainfall as they are not moving very quickly unlike typhoons which normally travel at a steady pace of around 20-30km/h, a tropical storm can travel as slow as 1-10mph which allows for the accumulation of high rainfall
There are 21,000 people in Palau. That nation is poorly prepared for a major typhoon. And the parts of the Philippenes that Bopha is forecast to track over are not used to such storms.
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Quoting AGWcreationists:
I'd rather stick to discussing this typhoon.

But of course.
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Sorry if it has already been post
Link
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

Except the area the storm will be hitting is now here near accustomed to typhoons, much less ones with winds of 125 knots. This area and the island of Palau have very bad buildings codes...most houses are made of wood with a tin roof. The strongest winds Palau has ever experienced is 89 mph. They are expecting sustained winds of 150 mph tonight.

It's not being called a one in a million typhoon for no reason.

If you couldn't tell, I was talking about the Philippines. From what I have read from James Reynold who is in Kororo Palau, they are getting prepared. They do know it's on it's way and people have evacuated low lying areas to higher areas. Hotels have opened there doors to residents that evacuated those low lying areas.
Member Since: September 30, 2007 Posts: 9 Comments: 15937
Quoting AussieStorm:


Exaggeration much!!!!!!

Super Typhoon Mike killer 748 people in the Philippines. Tropical storms tend to be more deadly than typhoons as tropical storms dump tremendous amounts of rainfall as they are not moving very quickly unlike typhoons which normally travel at a steady pace of around 20-30km/h, a tropical storm can travel as slow as 1-10mph which allows for the accumulation of high rainfall

Except the area the storm will be hitting is now here near accustomed to typhoons, much less ones with winds of 125 knots. This area and the island of Palau have very bad buildings codes...most houses are made of wood with a tin roof. The strongest winds Palau has ever experienced is 89 mph. They are expecting sustained winds of 150 mph tonight.

It's not being called a one in a million typhoon for no reason.
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Bopha:

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A wu community member, shoreacres, (Thank you) brought this by my wu blog. The "Coalition to Restore Coastal Louisiana" website could have some biases, I don't know, but their article includes a link to a 300-page .pdf file containing a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers report on the flooding from Hurricane Isaac. some here might be interested in reading.

Corps of Engineers Report Addresses Isaac Flooding
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Dave on his landslide blog:

2 December 2012
Typhoon Bopha – a very real landslide threat for the Philippines
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Pineapple Express:

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Quoting AGWcreationists:
I'd rather stick to discussing this typhoon. We could see thousands of deaths from it. Hopefully for Palau it move to the north of the islands.


Exaggeration much!!!!!!

Super Typhoon Mike killed 748 people in the Philippines, Mike hit as a Cat 5. Tropical storms tend to be more deadly than typhoons as tropical storms dump tremendous amounts of rainfall as they are not moving very quickly unlike typhoons which normally travel at a steady pace of around 20-30km/h, a tropical storm can travel as slow as 1-10mph which allows for the accumulation of high rainfall
Member Since: September 30, 2007 Posts: 9 Comments: 15937

UW - CIMSS
ADVANCED DVORAK TECHNIQUE
ADT-Version 8.1.3
Tropical Cyclone Intensity Algorithm

----- Current Analysis -----
Date : 02 DEC 2012 Time : 003000 UTC
Lat : 6:15:13 N Lon : 137:27:26 E


CI# /Pressure/ Vmax
7.2 / 919.2mb/146.0kt


Final T# Adj T# Raw T#
6.6 5.9 5.9

Estimated radius of max. wind based on IR :N/A km

Center Temp : -24.0C Cloud Region Temp : -72.3C

Scene Type : EYE

Positioning Method : SPIRAL ANALYSIS

Ocean Basin : WEST PACIFIC
Dvorak CI > MSLP Conversion Used : PACIFIC

Tno/CI Rules : Constraint Limits : NO LIMIT
Weakening Flag : ON
Rapid Dissipation Flag : FLAG

C/K/Z MSLP Estimate Inputs :
- Average 34 knot radii : 115km
- Environmental MSLP : 1009mb

Satellite Viewing Angle : 7.9 degrees

Didn't quite hit the center so the Raw and Adj T#'s might be a little low:

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555. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Japan Meteorological Agency
Tropical Cyclone Advisory #51
TYPHOON BOPHA (T1224)
9:00 AM JST December 2 2012
=======================================

SUBJECT: Category Four Typhoon Near Caroline Islands

At 0:00 AM UTC, Typhoon Bopha (935 hPa) located at 6.2N 137.7E has 10 minute sustained winds of 100 knots with gusts of 140 knots. The cyclone is reported as moving west northwest at 12 knots.

Dvorak Intensity: T6.5

Storm Force Winds
================
80 NM from the center

Gale Force Winds
===============
210 NM from the center

Forecast and Intensity
=======================
24 HRS: 7.0N 132.9E - 100 knots (CAT 4/Very Strong Typhoon) Caroline Island
48 HRS: 8.6N 127.7E - 100 knots (CAT 4/Very Strong Typhoon) East of Mindanao (Philippines)
72 HRS: 10.7N 122.8E - 65 knots (CAT 3/Strong Typhoon) Overland Philippines
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554. Skyepony (Mod)
Bopha still holding at it's strongest so far...7.1, 899.7mb cloud tops have cooled by 5+º from peak down to -73.45º.
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Quoting Patrap:
Cold water def corelates to shrinkage.

: [




Significant shrinkage Jerry!
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Quoting TomTaylor:
hey guys

Sup, wonderful weather happening(for me, but idk about you).
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7948
Hey guys,

It's been a very wet week here in the west. Coastal mountain ranges along northern California and southern Oregon, as well as the western slopes of the Sierra Nevadas have seen around a foot of rain since Wednesday. These same locations are expecting about another half foot of rain through Monday. Further south where I am in Santa Barabara, California, we have had about an inch and a half of rain so far, with another half inch of rain expected. While this may not seem like much rain to most of you blog members, keep in mind our average rainfall for November is 1.5 inches. So we are getting 133% of our average November rain over the course of 5 days. Furthermore, while it hasn't been raining this entire time, it has been cloudy the entire time. I haven't seen the sun since Tuesday.

Last 7 Days of Rainfall




This is all thanks to the large longwave upper level trough which has sort of become cut off from the westerlies as a result of an extremely amplified ridge over the Bearing Sea region. This low has been parked off the Pacific Northwest and sending in a series of shortwaves into California, Oregon and Washington, with northern California and southern Oregon receiving the brunt of the rainfall. Furthermore, this large complex low has managed to tap into subtropical moisture, creating an "atmospheric river", or in other words, exceptional amounts of rain.

TPW Loop showing "Atmospheric River"


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Quoting bappit:

Actually I was thinking about CO2.
I'd rather stick to discussing this typhoon. We could see thousands of deaths from it. Hopefully for Palau it move to the north of the islands.
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Dry air has eaten away at Bopha's west side some. T#'s have dropped some and it's likely a little weaker than it was earlier today. If this becomes more of a trend than Palau just may escape without a worst case scenario. It'll still be a big hit, but any little bit helps:

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This is one very powerful typhoon. Hopefully the islands in its path are doing the necessary actions to prepare.
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Mornin Mate!

Those islands are going to be hurt. The open areas and the windward side of all the hillsides will be denuded. They've not had a storm in 36 years, a LOT of trees are coming down with their foliage. Doubt their building code is very serious that will be discovered.

Palau is Set to Get Lashed By A “One in A Million” Typhoon
Oceania TV ^ | 12/2/2012 (yeah, it's already Sunday there) | Kassi Berg

Posted on Saturday, December 01, 2012 6:28:19 PM by dirtboy

The air that now blankets Palau is warm, dry, still, and disturbingly ominous. Palau’s sky has reason to brood for in less than 24 hours Typhoon Bopha is predicted to make landfall on the tiny nation of the Republic of Palau with a near direct hit. This typhoon has been securing strength and intensity while at sea and is expected to be a monster typhoon with a violent entry.

As of 4am on December 2, 2012, this typhoon is predicted to sustain 150-mph winds and 180-mph gusts when it reaches Palau on early morning Monday. If that were not enough, storm force winds extend out from the center to 120 miles and maximum wave height is now estimated at 48 feet.

Typhoon Bopha defies all parameters with intense rainfall, huge diameters and fierce, harnessed winds. Yet, what makes Typhoon Bopha a “typhoon in a million” is that it has developed five-degrees from the equator, an area which is covered by the “Coriolis force.” The Coriolis effect forces a counterclockwise rotation for all storms in the Northern Hemisphere (storms south of the equator rotate clockwise). According to Wikpedia, since records began, only thirteen tropical cyclones have ever existed between 5°N and 5°S of the equator.

Palau lies on the edge of the typhoon belt and has never seen a typhoon of this magnitude
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Invest 91L:

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Quoting AGWcreationists:
Evacuation is a major hassle. Look at all the problems with the Rita evacuation in Texas.

And in fairness to those in NOLA with cars who did not evacuate, there was a major conflict between NOLA and other parts of the state about accepting NOLA refugees (read about that as well). Major racial component.

Let alone the worries about leaving your property unguarded with looters around afterwards.

In the end, it's not as simple for those on the ground as those outside the affected areas might think.


Actually I was thinking about CO2.
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543. Skyepony (Mod)
TRMM through the eye of BOPHA..click pick for a very large quicktime movie.
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Quoting bappit:

Interesting that people seem to always come up with some rationalization for not believing the awful news.
Quoting bappit:

Interesting that people seem to always come up with some rationalization for not believing the awful news.
Evacuation is a major hassle. Look at all the problems with the Rita evacuation in Texas.

And in fairness to those in NOLA with cars who did not evacuate, there was a major conflict between NOLA and other parts of the state about accepting NOLA refugees (read about that as well). Major racial component.

Let alone the worries about leaving your property unguarded with looters around afterwards.

In the end, it's not as simple for those on the ground as those outside the affected areas might think.

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00Z ATCF update says no change.

AL, 91, 2012120200, , BEST, 0, 277N, 425W, 25, 1010, LO, 34, NEQ, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1012, 150, 60, 0, 0, L, 0, , 0, 0, INVEST, M,
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Quoting AGWcreationists:
Source? Don't have a specific link. But I read many, many articles leading up to Katrina and about the conviction of many NOLA residents that Katrina would be like Ivan and many other hurricanes and veer away from the city. It did, but the surge was so strong Katrina flooded the city with a backhand punch.

I also read that, of the persons in NOLA who died in Katrina, just over half had a car in their driveway. Which means they could have left if they wanted to.

Interesting that people seem to always come up with some rationalization for not believing the awful news.
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539. Skyepony (Mod)
OSCAT of 91L a little earlier today.
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Quoting CybrTeddy:
Anyone got good webcams from Palau/areas in the path of Bopha?

James Reynolds is in Koror, Palau. Says they have boarded up and people that live in low lying houses have evacuated to hotels that are higher higher level. Also power is going to be turned off at 12pm and a curfew will be in place from 12pm also.

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Closeup image for Bopha:

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Quote from http://www.southtravels.com/pacific/palau/weather .html:


Weather and Climate
Palau enjoys a pleasantly warm climate all year round with an annual mean temperature of 82 degrees F. (27 C.). Rainfall can occur throughout the year, and the annual average is 150 inches.

The average relative humidity is 82%, and although rain falls more frequently between July and October, there is still much sunshine. Typhoons are rare as Palau is located outside the typhoon zone.



Ehmm ...

Poor Islands. Nearly 21.000 inhabitants.

Palau Profile BBC


Wikipedia
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Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:


I thought it was going down by 40%...

Why would it go down?
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Quoting Patrap:
Cold water def corelates to shrinkage.

: [



But the magic is that when it freezes, it correlates to expanding....

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Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:


I thought it was going down by 40%...


Nope. It's still 50%.
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Quoting Civicane49:
91L is still 50%.



I thought it was going down by 40%...
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Quoting nymore:
The source is Oceania TV, at least that is where I seen it

BTW what a good game between Bama and the Dawgs

I was wondering about the NOLA part.
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91L is still 50%.

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Published on Aug 30, 2012 by USCGImagery


Coast Guard Helicopter rescue during Isaac

NEW ORLEANS — The Coast Guard assisted residents in a flooded house in LaPlace, Wednesday, due to Tropical Storm Isaac.

A Coast Guard Air Station New Orleans MH-65C Dolphin helicopter and crew hoisted and transported a husband, wife and their two dogs to Air Station New Orleans. The family and their pets reported no injuries or medical concerns.

"The husband and wife and their two dogs were in an area where a lot of houses washed away," said Lt. Cmdr. Jorge Porto, Air Station New Orleans pilot. "They used a flashlight inside the house as a signaling device, which made all the difference in locating them effectively."

Watchstanders at Coast Guard Sector New Orleans command center received a report of two people and their two dogs inside a flooded house in LaPlace at 12:13 a.m.

The Coast Guard is working with federal, state and local response agencies to assist residents impacted by Tropical Storm Isaac.

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Hero Father-Son Team Makes Isaac Rescue

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SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS ASSOCIATED WITH A LOW PRESSURE
SYSTEM LOCATED OVER THE CENTRAL ATLANTIC OCEAN ABOUT 1080 MILES
SOUTHWEST OF THE AZORES HAVE CHANGED LITTLE IN ORGANIZATION SINCE
THIS MORNING. SOME DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOW...HOWEVER...IS STILL
POSSIBLE BEFORE IT MERGES WITH A FRONTAL SYSTEM IN A COUPLE OF
DAYS. THIS SYSTEM HAS A MEDIUM CHANCE...50 PERCENT...OF
BECOMING A TROPICAL OR SUBTROPICAL CYCLONE DURING THE NEXT 48 HOURS
AS IT MOVES GENERALLY NORTHWARD AT 10 TO 15 MPH.
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Please don't characterize Isaac as a storm that Louisiana sailed through. Isaac was another bizarre twist of this odd 2012 hurricane season: its slow speed and enormous surge caused disproportionate flooding outside the New Orleans levee system. Nearly 60,000 homes in Louisiana were damaged by Isaac, 5,600 of them severely. Some smaller communities outside the New Orleans levee system sustained worse flooding than they endured in Katrina. Laplace and Braithwaite, Louisiana, had extreme, and unexpected, flood damage, and. were it not for the actions of neighbors rescuing neighbors, many lives would have been lost.
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I don't think that some of the figures in Dr. Masters post are correct. Looking at from www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/Storm_pages/sandy2012/wind.h tml I can see that Sandy was a very asymmetrical storm so, for example, the 943 miles value may be only true in one direction. As a result only 600 miles of coastline received tropical storm winds (and I am counting all the coastline in Long Island Sound). In the same NOAA site it shows that tropical storm winds extended for about 270 miles inland which is big for a Cat 1 hurricane but it is nowhere near as big or as unusual as Dr. Masters is implying in his post (for example, Hurricane Ike's tropical storm winds extended for about 340 miles inland).
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Quoting bappit:

Source?
Quoting bappit:

Source?
Quoting bappit:

Source?
Source? Don't have a specific link. But I read many, many articles leading up to Katrina and about the conviction of many NOLA residents that Katrina would be like Ivan and many other hurricanes and veer away from the city. It did, but the surge was so strong Katrina flooded the city with a backhand punch.

I also read that, of the persons in NOLA who died in Katrina, just over half had a car in their driveway. Which means they could have left if they wanted to.
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Cold water def corelates to shrinkage.

: [

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Anyone got good webcams from Palau/areas in the path of Bopha?
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Quoting yonzabam:



If you heat something, it expands. That's true of water, and most of the sea level rise we have seen so far has been due to expansion of the water as it warms.

It's expected that sea level rise due to melting ice on land will soon overtake the rise due to thermal expansion, and become the principal factor.
Thank you for the explanation. I knew that, the part I bolded, but maybe others didn't, so I'm glad you posted it. My education in chemistry and physics is basic and latest was 1978. The principle stuck in my mind, but the phraseology is unfamiliar. I don't recall ever hearing the term, "thermal expansion."

I'd wonder if the increase in amount of liquid water molecules from glacier melt would also increase sea rise from thermal expansion. Or maybe melting glaciers reduce rise due to thermal expansion because the net effect is to cool the pool of water and contract it.
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Quoting bappit:

Source?
The source is Oceania TV, at least that is where I seen it

BTW what a good game between Bama and the Dawgs
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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