Damaging Katrina-level storm surges are twice as likely in warm years

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 5:22 PM GMT on November 26, 2012

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Perhaps the most stunning images in the wake of Hurricane Sandy were the sight of the roller coaster from the Casino Pier in Seaside Heights, New Jersey lying in the Atlantic Ocean. The images reminded us that hurricane storm surges are capable of causing tremendous destruction along the coast, and one of the main concerns on how global warming might affect hurricanes is the potential for stronger hurricanes to create larger storm surges. We expect that global warming should make the strongest hurricanes stronger, since hurricanes are heat engines that take heat energy out of the ocean and converts it to wind energy. These stronger winds will be capable of piling up higher storm surges. However, it is controversial whether or not we have observed an increase in the strongest hurricanes, since hurricane winds are hard to observe. Our long-term hurricane data base is generally too low in quality and covers too short a period of time to make very good estimates of how climate change may be affecting hurricane winds. However, a new 2012 paper, "Homogeneous record of Atlantic hurricane surge threat since 1923" by Grinsted et al., looked at storm surge data from six tide gauges along the U.S. coast from Texas to New Jersey, and concluded that the number of moderately large hurricane and tropical storm surge events has increased since 1923. Moderately large storm surge events are on pace to nearly double by the year 2100, compared to 20th century levels. Moreover, 1-in-9 year to 1-in-30 year Katrina-level storm surge events are twice as likely to occur in warm years compared to cool years, and thus global warming may be able to dramatically increase the frequency of highly damaging extreme storm surge events. Since sea level is steadily rising due to global warming, these future storm surges will also be riding in on top of an elevated ocean surface, and will thus be able to do even greater damage than in the past. Expect to see many more shocking storm surge damage photos in the coming decades, unless we wise up, retreat from areas highly vulnerable to storm surge, and invest in increased shoreline protection measures.


Figure 1. The Casino Pier in Seaside Heights, N.J. taken during a search and rescue mission by 1-150 Assault Helicopter Battalion, New Jersey Army National Guard on Oct. 30, 2012. Image credit: U.S. Air Force photo by Master Sgt. Mark C. Olsen.


Figure 2. Top: Observed long-term frequency of moderately large storm surge events from hurricanes and tropical storms measured at six tide gauges along the U.S. East Coast (inset map). The thick line is a 5-year moving average. These type of surge events occurred an average of 5.4 times/year between 1923 - 2008, and are on pace to increase to 9.5 events per year by 2100. Bottom: Departure of Earth's annual mean surface temperature from average, shaded to show warmer and colder than median temperatures. Large storm surge events increase in probability during warmer than average years. Image credit: Grinsted et al. 2012, "A homogeneous record of Atlantic hurricane surge threat since 1923."

Using storm surge to evaluate damage normalization studies
Damage from landfalling storms can be used to estimate if hurricanes are growing stronger with time, but damage estimates must first be corrected to account for changes in wealth and population over time. A 2008 study by Pielke et al. found that although hurricane damages had been doubling every ten years in recent decades, there were no increases in normalized hurricane damages in the U.S. from 1900 - 2005. They used census and economic data to adjust for how increases in populations and wealth may have affected hurricane damages over time. However, Grinsted et al. (2012) questioned whether or not this was done correctly. They found that storm surge heights of U.S. hurricanes and tropical storms correlated very well with metrics that looked at storm intensity, when looking at many decades of data to see long-term trends. However, the researchers found that while short-term trends in normalized hurricane damage estimated by Pielke et al. (2008) did correlate well historical storm surges, these normalized damages had poor correlation with the storm surge record, when looking at decades-long time scales. This implies that the corrections were biased. Dr. Stephan Lewandowsky of the University of Western Australia makes the case that efforts such as the one done by Pielke et al. (2008) to normalize disaster losses are probably biased too low, since they only look at factors that tend to increase disaster losses with time, but ignore factors that tend to decrease disaster losses. These ignored factors include improvements in building codes, better weather forecasts allowing more preparation time, and improved fire-fighting ability. He writes, "Most normalization research to date has not accounted for those variables because they are extremely difficult to quantify. (And most researchers have been at pains to point that out; e.g., Neumayer & Barthel, 2011, pp. 23-24.) In effect, normalization research to date largely rests on the oddly inconsistent pair of assumptions that (a) we have built up enormous wealth during the 20th century but (b) did so without any technological advance whatsoever." Grinsted et al. (2012) suggest that it may be possible to use their storm surge data to correct biased hurricane damage estimates, though. Take home message: studies showing no increase in normalized damage from storms have high uncertainty, and it is possible that higher economic damages due to stronger hurricanes are indeed occurring.

References
Grinsted, A., J. C. Moore, and S. Jevrejeva, 2012, "A homogeneous record of Atlantic hurricane surge threat since 1923," PNAS 2012, doi:10.1073/pnas.1209542109

Pielke et al., 2008, "Normalized Hurricane Damage in the United States: 1900–2005", Natural Hazards Review, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp. 29-42.

Links
In this remarkable home video, 15-year-old Christofer Sochacki captures the evening high tide on the day Superstorm Sandy struck Union Beach, New Jersey. The later part of the video shows how high waves on top of a 8-foot storm surge can lead to a punishing assault on beach-front structures.

Jeff Masters

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Not only is the picture in my town, but it is on my street. All lost to Sandy!
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Quoting Xyrus2000:


You obviously do not subscribe to any science research journals.


You might want to read this article, just saying.

http://natpo.st/TvKCcL
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.
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827. WunderAlertBot (Admin)
JeffMasters has created a new entry.
Ryan Maue‏@RyanMaue

[b]4-day forecast rainfall from GFS 12z, San Fran northward could see 4-6'' inches or more. Higher elevations > 1 foot.[/b]
http://twitter.com/RyanMaue/status/273820258400346 113/photo/1/large
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If your right 100% of the time you most be spending a lot of time talking to yourself. J/K
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Nice big Cyclone...
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Quoting VR46L:


But he is not very popular with some folk around here . But I think he is good but that's only my opinion


I wouldn't know him from Adam..
If he is a good met. maybe some here threatened by him/her..
and that may be the popularity prob..
Anyway I always give someone a chance..not everyone is right 100% of the time..


Eureka,Cali...
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 6894
Squall line next week could be strong. This will probably be the first of a few severe weather events coming our way.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21869
Quoting schistkicker:
Actually, since global temperatures are rising when other natural processes would tend toward cooling temperatures, multiple recent studies attribute more than 100% of the observed warming to human activities.
Link
Quoting StormPro:


Is it mathematicaly possible to have a value greater than 100% ?

Yes, depending on the context and the situatuation, it is possible for comparing quantities where one quantity can be larger than 100% of another.
For climate change - attribution of global warming, in particular - evidence has suggested that humans may be responsible for more than 100% of the observed warming since the 1900-1950 timeframe.

How can this be possible? If climate change only had two possible modes, stable or warming, this wouldn't be possible. But global temperatures can remain roughly stable, warm, or cool. If non-human factors are causing a net cooling effect of 0.25C/century and human factors are causing a net warming effect of 1.25C/century, then human factors would be contributing 125% to the observed warming of 1.00C/century.
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Ryan Maue‏@RyanMaue

Atmospheric river moisture for Fri/Sat over NorCal is still associated w/low near Int'l Dateline, +36 hrs... http://twitter.com/RyanMaue/status/273813925039050 753/photo/1/large
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818. VR46L
Quoting pcola57:




But he is not very popular with some folk around here . But I think he is good but that's only my opinion
Member Since: March 1, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 6950
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 6894
Quoting ScottLincoln:

He's a meteorologist named Ryan Maue. :)


Thanks ScottLincoln.. :)
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815. VR46L
Quoting StormPro:

Slow here...waiting for the ban hammer to drop on me once more LOL...46 and still cloudy in NOLA


I don't see why ,I dont see anything wrong with what you said ...

Anyways BOPHA RAMMB image

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Quoting pcola57:
>But who is this " RyanMaue@RyanMaue " ?

He's a meteorologist named Ryan Maue. :)
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49 and cloudy here..Stormpro have you been bad today?..LOL.. :)

My local WU weather


Webcam from my area..




Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 6894
indeed. i mean, the PDO is a decadal oscillation. and it's just that, an oscillation; a swing up and a swing down, with a period of a few decades, around an average. an equilibrium. the PDO doesn't cause a warming trend measurable over 100 years. that's caused by more energy being put into the system, unless you want to argue there's some unknown natural oscillation that operates over a 200 year or so cycle, increasing temperature almost a full degree C and then dropping it the same, which i would love to see evidence of. i mean, we see no such thing in the proxy record (tree rings, ice cores etc) at all, but anything's possible.

pointing to the PDO as the culprit is like me pointing to my pregnant wife's belly getting bigger and bigger over the course of nine months, and arguing 'no, it's not a baby, it's just that her stomach gets full after she eats dinner and then shrinks back after she's done digesting'.

Quoting schistkicker:
@ Yoboi #650:

It's not the PDO, no matter how much Roy Spencer wishes it were so.
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Quoting pcola57:
Is the blog sloooow for anyone else here?
I'm having trouble posting anything.. :(

Slow here...waiting for the ban hammer to drop on me once more LOL...46 and still cloudy in NOLA
Member Since: August 4, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 606
Is the blog sloooow for anyone else here?
I'm having trouble posting anything.. :(
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 6894
Oh..cool..thanks 'cause I see you quote him alot..
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 6894
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 6894
Quoting pcola57:


Hey Luisport,
I see your keeping up with the stormand thats great,
But who is this " RyanMaue‏@RyanMaue " ?
it's my favourite meteo guy from weatherbell
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806. etxwx
Quoting indianrivguy:


The principal problem is that many people in the world do not have sufficient land to grow, or income to purchase, enough food.


Good morning all...

Good post indianrivguy...I snipped it just to accent the bolded sentence because this directly addresses something I was reading last night. In many parts of the world the arable land is the coastal land. When sea level rises, that land is gone. Our midwestern breadbasket may be able to adapt (up to a point) with different crops and agricultural methods, but many developing countries will not have that option. Most do not have the resources to build dikes and sea gates like the Netherlands. The land that feeds much of the population will be in the ocean.

As you said, not a rosy future...
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Quoting Luisport:
Ryan Maue%u200F@RyanMaue

California storm will be historical for rain totals. Late-autumn Bering Sea blocks Gulf of Alaska lows focus downstream atmospheric river


Hey Luisport,
I see your keeping up with the storm and thats great,
But who is this " RyanMaue@RyanMaue " ?
Member Since: August 13, 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 6894
Some people on the internet must be quite a failure in life to want to be such a know it all online. I have a plan ...everyone, state facts, not cherry picked ideas and manipulated statictics. Both sides of the AGW "argument" (I would have loved to say discussion but......)use little bits of an entire data set, study or hypothosis to argue, scream and complain about the other side. Jesus people! Put your collective heads together and brainstorm a viable solution instead of just bi%^hing and fingerpointing. It would be nice and productive to try to come up with a solution (instead of using evil electricity to say we need to do away with all fossil fuels) instead of wasting all the effort in bashing people and their point of view. Temp dropping....43 here in NOLA. Have a nice day!

(P.S. I know I have been guilty of jabbing others too so I am admitting my guilt and asking for forgivness)
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Quoting beell:
Is this a fair comparison? If so, how accurate would you rate the 8-14 Day Temperature Outlooks taken at 4 day intervals?

(Click any graphic for full image)


Left: CPC 8-14 Day Temperature Outlook Issued 10/24-Valid 11/01 through 11/07.
Right: NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis-Surface Temperature Anomaly 11/01 through 11/07.



Left: CPC 8-14 Day Temperature Outlook Issued 10/28-Valid 11/05 through 11/11.
Right: NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis-Surface Temperature Anomaly 11/05 through 11/11.



Left: CPC 8-14 Day Temperature Outlook Issued 11/01-Valid 11/09 through 11/15.
Right: NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis-Surface Temperature Anomaly 11/09 through 11/15.



Left: CPC 8-14 Day Temperature Outlook Issued 11/05-Valid 11/13 through 11/19.
Right: NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis-Surface Temperature Anomaly 11/13 through 11/19.



Left: CPC 8-14 Day Temperature Outlook Issued 11/09-Valid 11/17 through 11/23.
Right: NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis-Surface Temperature Anomaly 11/17 through 11/23.


NCEP/NCAR Daily Composites
CPC 6-10 & 8-14 Day Data & Graphics Archive



They actually fared quite well if you ask me The only real only two noticeable differences were the below average anomalies in the Southeast U.S. that were not picked up in the 11/13-11/19 outlook.

Also the previous forecast 11/09-11/15 did not pick up on the cool anomalies over the Rockies, outside of that they show a good bit of accuracy.
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Quoting TomballTXPride:
Good morning, Gang.

Some generous rainfall amounts over KY yesterday.



And looking ahead for the next five days, the HPC suggests very dry over the heartland but deluge like conditions for much of the Pacific Northwest.



That HPC image is incredible. Now if only the jet stream would move south and spread some of that precip love across the rest of the US. The Northern Sierras and Cascades do a good job blocking/making an eastern rain shadow. Good for the ski resorts out West though.
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Quoting percylives:


Pretty good summation. I'd probably substitute "billions" where you have "millions" but not going to argue trivialities this morning.

Anyone who doesn't think this will be absolutely horrible in every way imaginable hasn't thought it through. The conditions that civilization requires perch on the tiniest of twigs and a hurricane approaches.

It will be a complete breakdown of civilization when the coffee, tea, cocoa, grain (bread & beer) & grape harvests start being affected by the stresses of climate change.

Coffee and tea, in particular, are important because of the caffeine which could very well be the reason modern civilization exists at all.
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Quoting StormPro:


Is it mathematicaly possible to have a value greater than 100% ?


If you think it's not mathematically possible, please hire me as your accountant. I'll make sure that your revenues never increase more than 100% in any given year by increasing your outlays... into my pocket.

Climate isn't a person you're murdering. It's a system with inputs and outputs. If natural variations outside the CO2 system would suggest cooling, and it's not cooling, then that warming signal due to anthropogenic CO2 would, necessarily, account for enough warming to overcome that cooling trend PLUS the observed warming. Thus greater than 100%.

Which you'd know if you'd looked at that link I posted, which referred to peer-reviewed datasets that prove this. Cute word games vs. data? Pretty obvious what a scientist would pick.
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Quoting ScottLincoln:


I am not sure if Dr. Roy Spencer claims that most of the warming is natural. Even if he did, that relates in no way to my post, as I just told you exactly why warming cannot be from the PDO. Known natural forcings to the earth's climate system favor a fairly stable, or slightly cooling, global climate. I believe this has been mentioned - to you specifically - numerous times?


Having "alot of peer review data" should not be confused with "having alot of peer review data in PDO causing climate change." He has very little, if any, that actually suggests this. The few analyses he has done on the subject didnt last long at all under scientific scrutiny. Who are these "NASA experts" that supposedly gave him this PDO-causes-climate-change data, anyway? Kinda sounds exaggerated or fabricated to this scientist.


@670 Scott, THANK YOU!!! Appreciate your voice of scientific reason.
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Quoting yoboi:



why was co2 levels lower pre use of catalytic converters???? that confuses me...


The link I posted doesn't mention anything about catalytic converters-- that's a non sequitur. I'm afraid I'm confused about your confusion.
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Quoting Neapolitan:
Pretty amazing:

They expect more tornados next days! Now Venice in danger!
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Quoting Luisport:
Jim Cantore‏@JimCantore

Here is the @youtube link of the Huge Tornado in Taranto, Italy (November 28, 2012): http://youtu.be/a-wkjemVZJ4 via
Pretty amazing:

Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13628
794. VR46L
Quoting StormPro:


Smiles...nothing was aimed at you!Just wanted to give the ol' man credit. Gro can get defensive when his morning geritol kicks in LOL



:) LOL
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Quoting TomballTXPride:
Big Picture:

click on image for animation

would be be talking about Cesar soon
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Quoting VR46L:


Gosh am I that bad ?LOL... I thought I only got like that when folk belittle me or folk I like .I fall into, the over emotional side of things and can get quite hurt ...Yeah all credit to Gro he is the blobmeister

anyways Gro's blob looking good in water vapour image.



Smiles...nothing was aimed at you!Just wanted to give the ol' man credit. Gro can get defensive when his morning geritol kicks in LOL
Member Since: August 4, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 606
Jim Cantore‏@JimCantore

Here is the @youtube link of the Huge Tornado in Taranto, Italy (November 28, 2012): http://youtu.be/a-wkjemVZJ4 via
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790. VR46L
Quoting StormPro:


Interesting blob for sure...Gro named it as such yesterday so don't attack me lol. That is the type of over done alarmist side of this discussion that gets people so insensed...please, both sides, stick to facts and not over blown emotions. 45 and cloudy here in NOLA


Gosh am I that bad ?LOL... I thought I only got like that when folk belittle me or folk I like .I fall into, the over emotional side of things and can get quite hurt ...Yeah all credit to Gro he is the blobmeister

anyways Gro's blob looking good in water vapour image.

Member Since: March 1, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 6950


Hunting a man-eating croc in South Florida





By CURTIS MORGAN

Wildlife biologist Joe Wasilewski has hauled many scaly creatures out of South Florida lakes, canals and marshes over the years.

But the snappish four-footer he snared at the Redland Fruit & Spice Park was an unsettling surprise. It was a young crocodile, but not the typically timid native species. This was a Nile croc, infamous for its appetite for humans and savage attacks on wildebeest and other large animals along African rivers and watering holes.

The capture late last year appears to have been the first sighting — at least officially — of a Nile croc in the wilds of Florida. It wasn’t the last. In April, a botanist photographed a second Nile of similar size on a Krome Avenue canal bank, also in the Redland community south of Miami. After eluding capture for months, that croc is now in hiding, whereabouts unknown. A report of a third, caught in the same area three years ago, has surfaced since.

snip

“Nile crocodiles live at the same latitude in Africa that alligators do here, so watch out if they get established,” he said.

Member Since: September 23, 2006 Posts: 1 Comments: 2587
Jim Cantore‏@JimCantore

Violent Tornado!!! RT@Thunderlady70: RT@onweeronline: Tornado hits Italy: 20 wounded and 1 death #tornado #Italia http://www.onweer-online.nl/forum/topic/36676/onst uimig-weer-middenzuid-europa-en-balkan/376547/#mes sage376538 …
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Footage of Monster Tornado That Struck Taranto, Italy; Causing 20 Injuries and 1 Death

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Storm Forecast
Valid: Wed 28 Nov 2012 06:00 to Thu 29 Nov 2012 06:00 UTC
Issued: Tue 27 Nov 2012 21:52
Forecaster: PUCIK
A level 1 was issued for the western coastal areas of the Central Mediterranean area mainly for excessive rainfall and to the lesser degree for tornadoes.

SYNOPSIS

Quite active period including convective weather is forecast especially over the Central Mediterranean and around the Alpine range. A deep trough will stretch from Scandinavia into the western half of Mediterranean, undergoing a slow cut-off process near its southern base. A short-wave will rotate around the base towards north/northeast, situated at the exit region of mid/upper tropospheric jet-streak. Strong forcing will contribute to the cyclogenesis over the Ligurian Sea. A quasi-stationary warm front will stretch from Austria into Poland, while the cold front will rapidly move over the Central Mediterranean. Here, widespread DMC activity is forecast. Elsewhere, conditions will be too dry or stable.

DISCUSSION

... Central Mediterranean area ...

Deepening surface low will contribute to the strengthening southwesterly to southerly low-level flow, advecting moister airmass towards north. Strong forcing, in conjuction to the falling mid-tropospheric heights will contribute to the build-up of latent instability, which should stay rather marginal (apart from the southern half of the area, where more abundant LL moisture will be present). Perpendicular flow to the western coastal areas (of the Ligurian, Tyrrhenian, Adriatic and Ionian seas) will contribute to low-level ascent, that could concentrate the redevelopment of new cells of a parallel-stratiform MCS in a certain location. Subsequent training pattern in any of these areas identified by Level 1 could result in excessive precipitation. Especially in the northern areas, stratiform rain will likely dominate, but embedded convection could greatly increase the precipitation rates. Threat will shift towards southeast as the forecast period ensues and as the cooler and drier airmass spreads behind the progressing cold-front. Also, isolated tornado event is not ruled out with the strong LLS/DLS and low LCLs during this setup. So far, Level 1 seems to be enough because of the general lack of very high LL moisture content and also quick translation of the mid-level trough, which should not allow for very prolonged heavy rainfall.
http://www.estofex.org/
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Quoting biff4ugo:
StormPro
Is it mathematicaly possible to have a value greater than 100% ?

If a power plant releases 10 tons of Carbon one year, and 25 tons of carbon the next year. What % increase is that? 150% That is more than 100 percent mathematically.

So if CO2 increases 10 units over all, and humans are responsible for a 25 units increase. How much of the increase are humans responsible for?
If other parts of the environment produce 15 units less, our fraction of the increase can be more than all of the total overall change.


Understood. Point taken but in the use over "over 100%' in terms of blame, causation, no you cannot have more than 100%. You cannot kill someone more than 100%, you cannot blame someone more than 100%. I was questioning the statement in the manner in which it was used sir
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Quoting VR46L:


I don't believe it is either Mathematically or Scientifically possible......<BR>

Anyways the Caribbean looks more interesting than it has in a month ...if it was August or September it sure would be interesting lol

Rainbow Image


Interesting blob for sure...Gro named it as such yesterday so don't attack me lol. That is the type of over done alarmist side of this discussion that gets people so insensed...please, both sides, stick to facts and not over blown emotions. 45 and cloudy here in NOLA
Member Since: August 4, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 606
http://youtu.be/Xzb7CXokqFU
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StormPro
Is it mathematicaly possible to have a value greater than 100% ?

If a power plant releases 10 tons of Carbon one year, and 25 tons of carbon the next year. What % increase is that? 150% That is more than 100 percent mathematically.

So if CO2 increases 10 units over all, and humans are responsible for a 25 units increase. How much of the increase are humans responsible for?
If other parts of the environment produce 15 units less, our fraction of the increase can be more than all of the total overall change.
Member Since: December 28, 2006 Posts: 115 Comments: 1592
Quoting greentortuloni:


Only two things I'd disagree with you on:

1. Technical point: We haven't even come close to reaching the amount of people we can feed. From food waste, to meat eating, to horrible farming practices, we could feed a lot more.

2. It isn't Darwinian any more than stepping on an ant hill helps surviving ants to be stronger. Darwinian implies that adaptation is possible and the strong have an edge. This is slaughter.


I think we have... We "can" and "do" produce enough food right this minute, but, IMO, that is about to change as drought rearranges food supplies. We lose some 5 million a year to starvation, not including malnourishment. Poverty is the killer here, and the reasons are generally political. This will only get worse as the "haves" protect what they have from the "have nots." All this will be exacerbated by the altered weather patterns.

2012 World Hunger

The world produces enough food to feed everyone. World agriculture produces 17 percent more calories per person today than it did 30 years ago, despite a 70 percent population increase. This is enough to provide everyone in the world with at least 2,720 kilocalories (kcal) per person per day according to the most recent estimate that we could find.(FAO 2002, p.9). The principal problem is that many people in the world do not have sufficient land to grow, or income to purchase, enough food.

Remember, these are 2002 numbers.. and are the most current I could find.

The rapidly changing weather dynamics will force changes and choices that looking ahead at them, I am glad the decision is not mine to make. Lots of people are hungry despite our "abundance."

In round numbers there are 7 billion people in the world. Thus, with an estimated 925 million hungry people in the world, 13.1 percent, or almost 1 in 7 people are hungry.

check out this graph;



Not a rosy future for a LOT of folks.

Member Since: September 23, 2006 Posts: 1 Comments: 2587
780. VR46L
Quoting StormPro:


Is it mathematicaly possible to have a value greater than 100% ?


I don't believe it is either Mathematically or Scientifically possible......


Anyways the Caribbean looks more interesting than it has in a month ...if it was August or September it sure would be interesting lol

Rainbow Image
Member Since: March 1, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 6950

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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