Hurricane Sandy's huge size: freak of nature or climate change?

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:10 PM GMT on November 13, 2012

Share this Blog
58
+

Hurricane Sandy was truly astounding in its size and power. At its peak size, twenty hours before landfall, Sandy had tropical storm-force winds that covered an area nearly one-fifth the area of the contiguous United States. Since detailed records of hurricane size began in 1988, only one tropical storm (Olga of 2001) has had a larger area of tropical storm-force winds, and no hurricanes has. Sandy's area of ocean with twelve-foot seas peaked at 1.4 million square miles--nearly one-half the area of the contiguous United States, or 1% of Earth's total ocean area. Most incredibly, ten hours before landfall (9:30 am EDT October 30), the total energy of Sandy's winds of tropical storm-force and higher peaked at 329 terajoules--the highest value for any Atlantic hurricane since at least 1969. This is 2.7 times higher than Katrina's peak energy, and is equivalent to five Hiroshima-sized atomic bombs. At landfall, Sandy's tropical storm-force winds spanned 943 miles of the the U.S. coast. No hurricane on record has been wider; the previous record holder was Hurricane Igor of 2010, which was 863 miles in diameter. Sandy's huge size prompted high wind warnings to be posted from Chicago to Eastern Maine, and from Michigan's Upper Peninsula to Florida's Lake Okeechobee--an area home to 120 million people. Sandy's winds simultaneously caused damage to buildings on the shores of Lake Michigan at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, and toppled power lines in Nova Scotia, Canada--locations 1200 miles apart!

Largest Atlantic tropical cyclones for area covered by tropical storm-force winds:

Olga, 2001: 780,000 square miles
Sandy, 2012: 560,000 square miles
Lili, 1996: 550,000 square miles
Igor, 2010: 550,000 square miles
Karl, 2004: 430,000 square miles



Figure 1. Hurricane Sandy’s winds (top), on October 28, 2012, when Sandy was a Category 1 hurricane with top winds of 75 mph (this ocean surface wind data is from a radar scatterometer on the Indian Space Research Organization’s (ISRO) Oceansat-2.) Hurricane Katrina’s winds (bottom) on August 28, 2005, when Katrina was a Category 5 hurricane with top winds of 175 mph (data taken by a radar scatterometer on NASA’s defunct QuickSCAT satellite.) In both maps, wind speeds above 65 kilometers (40 miles) per hour are yellow; above 80 kph (50 mph) are orange; and above 95 kph (60 mph) are dark red. The most noticeable difference is the extent of the strong wind fields. For Katrina, winds over 65 kilometers per hour stretched about 500 kilometers (300 miles) from edge to edge. For Sandy, winds of that intensity spanned an region of ocean three times as great--1,500 kilometers (900 miles). Katrina was able to generate a record-height storm surge over a small area of the Mississippi coast. Sandy generated a lower but highly destructive storm surge over a much larger area, due to the storm's weaker winds but much larger size. Image credit: NASA.

How did Sandy get so big?
We understand fairly well what controls the peak strength of a hurricane's winds, but have a poor understanding of why some hurricanes get large and others stay small. A number of factors probably worked together to create a "prefect storm" situation that allowed Sandy to grow so large, and we also must acknowledge that climate change could have played a role. Here are some possible reasons why Sandy grew so large:

1) Initial size of the disturbance that became Sandy was large
Sandy formed from an African tropical wave that interacted with a large area of low pressure that covered most of the Central Caribbean. Rotunno and Emanuel (1987) found that hurricanes that form from large initial tropical disturbances like Sandy did tend to end up large in size.


Figure 2. The initial disturbance that spawned Sandy, seen here on October 20, 2012, was quite large.

2) High relative humidity in Sandy's genesis region
The amount of moisture in the atmosphere may play an important role in how large a hurricane gets (Hill and Lackmann, 2009.) Sandy was spawned in the Caribbean in a region where the relative humidity was near 70%. This is the highest humidity we saw during 2012 during the formation of any Atlantic hurricane.

3) Passage over Cuba
Sandy struck Cuba as an intensifying Category 2 hurricane with 110 mph winds. While the core of the storm was over Cuba, it was cut off from the warm ocean waters surrounding Cuba. Most of Sandy's large circulation was still over the ocean, though, and the energy the storm was able to extract from the ocean went into intensifying the spiral bands over water. When Sandy's core re-emerged over water, the hurricane now had spiral bands with heavier thunderstorm activity as a result of the extra energy pumped into the outer portion of the storm during the eye's passage over land. This extra energy in the outer portions of Sandy may have enabled it to expand in size later.

4) Interaction with a trough of low pressure over the Bahamas
As Sandy passed through the Bahamas on October 25, the storm encountered strong upper-level winds associated with a trough of low pressure to the west. These winds created high wind shear that helped weaken Sandy and destroy the eyewall. However, Sandy compensated by spreading out its tropical storm-force winds over a much wider area. Between 15 and 21 UTC on October 25, Sandy's area of tropical storm-force winds increased by more than a factor of two.

5) Leveraging of the Earth's spin
As storms move towards Earth's poles, they acquire more spin, since Earth's rotation works to put more vertical spin into the atmosphere the closer one gets to the pole. This extra spin helps storms grow larger, and we commonly see hurricanes grow in size as they move northwards.

6) Interaction with a trough of low pressure at landfall
As Sandy approached landfall in New Jersey, it encountered an extratropical low pressure system to its west. This extratropical storm began pumping cold air aloft into the hurricane, which converted Sandy into an extratropical low pressure system, or "Nor'easter". The nature of extratropical storms is to have a much larger area with strong winds than a hurricane does, since extratropical storms derive their energy from the atmosphere along a frontal boundary that is typically many hundreds of miles long. Thus, as Sandy made landfall, the hurricane's strongest winds spread out over a larger area, causing damage from Indiana to Nova Scotia.

Are we likely to see more such storms in the future?
Global warming theory (Emanuel, 2005) predicts that a 2°C (3.6°F) increase in ocean temperatures should cause an increase in the peak winds of the strongest hurricanes of about about 10%. Furthermore, warmer ocean temperatures are expected to cause hurricanes to dump 20% more rain in their cores by the year 2100, according to computer modeling studies (Knutson et al., 2010). However, there has been no published work describing how hurricane size may change with warmer oceans in a future climate. We've seen an unusual number of Atlantic hurricanes with large size in recent years, but we currently have no theoretical or computer modeling simulations that can explain why this is so, or if we might see more storms like this in the future. However, we've seen significant and unprecedented changes to our atmosphere in recent decades, due to our emissions of heat-trapping gases like carbon dioxide. The laws of physics demand that the atmosphere must respond. Atmospheric circulation patterns that control extreme weather events must change, and we should expect extreme storms to change in character, frequency, and intensity as a result--and not always in the ways our computer models may predict. We have pushed our climate system to a fundamentally new, higher-energy state where more heat and moisture is available to power stronger storms, and we should be concerned about the possibility that Hurricane Sandy's freak size and power were partially due to human-caused climate change.

References
Emanuel, K. (2005). Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years. Nature, 436(7051), 686-688.

Hill, Kevin A., and Gary M. Lackmann (2009), "Influence of environmental humidity on tropical cyclone size," Monthly Weather Review 137.10 (2009): 3294-3315.

Knutson, T. R., McBride, J. L., Chan, J., Emanuel, K., Holland, G., Landsea, C., ... & Sugi, M. (2010). Tropical cyclones and climate change. Nature Geoscience, 3(3), 157-163.

Rotunno, R., & Emanuel, K. A. (1987). An air–sea interaction theory for tropical cyclones. Part II: Evolutionary study using a nonhydrostatic axisymmetric numerical model. J. Atmos. Sci, 44(3), 542-561.

The Atlantic is quiet, but a Nor'easter expected next week
The Atlantic is quiet, with no threat areas to discuss. An area of low pressure is predicted to develop just north of Bermuda on Wednesday, and the GFS model predicts that this low could become a subtropical cyclone as moves north-northeastwards out to sea late in the week.

The long-range models are in increasing agreement that a Nor'easter will develop near the North Carolina coast on Sunday, then move north to northeastwards early next week. High winds, heavy rain, and coastal flooding could affect the mid-Atlantic coast and New England coasts next Monday and Tuesday due to this storm, but it appears likely that the Nor'easter will stay farther out to sea than the last Nor'easter and have less of an impact on the region devastated by Sandy. Ocean temperatures off the coast of North Carolina were cooled by about 4°F (2.2°C) due to the churning action of Hurricane Sandy's winds, but are still warm enough at 22 - 24°C to potentially allow the Nor'easter to acquire some subtropical characteristics. I doubt the storm would be able to become a named subtropical storm, but it could have an unusual amount of heavy rain if it does become partially tropical. The Nor'easter is still a long ways in the future, and there is still a lot of uncertainty on where the storm might go.

Jeff Masters

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 861 - 811

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20Blog Index


Quoting wxgeek723:
Hate to break it to you disaster-hungry folk
Speculation = disaster craving?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Hate to break it to you disaster-hungry folk, but I think the 7.7 in BC during Hurricane Sandy was 'the event' for the west coast of North America for the time being.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
859. yoboi
Quoting Xulonn:
I don't know much about Bastardi, except that Fox News apparently likes him as do many WU posters.

It is glaringly obvious from the up-thread quote by of Bastardi that he has either has difficulty comprehending the difference between correlation vs causality, or chooses to ignore it. He also displays a poor understanding of the difference between temperature and heat transfer/storage. Some of the heat of global warming is manifested in other sinks in the biosphere, most significantly the hydrosphere. A simple, narrow focus on lower atmosphere temperatures as the sole indicator of GW without considering the masking effect of exogeneous factors indicates a very poor understanding of climate science. Bastardi's understanding of climate science seems to be extremely flawed when compared with Dr. Masters comprehensive knowledge of both meteorology and climate science.






how old is that graph?
Member Since: August 25, 2010 Posts: 7 Comments: 2329
Quoting hydrus:
Both those faults are potentially devastating. They have been relatively inactive, and I pray that it continues that way.


Well, mainly cause it wouldn't take a real big one to do a lot of damage there. England had a small one in the S/E a number of years back, like 4.9 or something...and it did a lot of damage just because buildings here are NOT made for earthquakes! What is shocking, is italy...the one they had there where the geologists were prosecuted..they should have prosecuted the government for not bringing in retro-fitting codes for an earthquake prone country! That was a relatively mild quake to do so much damage...and convict the geologists, oh dear.

There have been a few 4 or 5's in N Wales in the last 30 years...and the thought of such a small one scares me because of the buildings here. Would just hope it was deep one to compensate! I have told my daughter if there ever was one, to just get under her tall bed...as the biggest risk is the chimney falling in.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
857. yoboi
Quoting Neapolitan:
If the earth were rapidly cooling--which it most definitely is not--the one proven method by which we could warm it back up just as rapdily would be to synthesize and pump more than 3.4 million metric tons of CO2 into the atmosphere every hour of every day. There's virtually no doubt among scientists that that has, and would, do the trick....


have you ever taken the time to determine how much co2 ya push into the atmosphere????
Member Since: August 25, 2010 Posts: 7 Comments: 2329

Quoting yoboi:



what is the flavor they pushing this week???
The "Kori" flavor, my very own brand. Home office agreed to start mass producing it worldwide.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
I don't know much about Bastardi, except that Fox News apparently likes him as do many WU posters.

It is glaringly obvious from the up-thread quote by of Bastardi that he has either has difficulty comprehending the difference between correlation vs causality, or chooses to ignore it. He also displays a poor understanding of the difference between temperature and heat transfer/storage. Some of the heat of global warming is manifested in other sinks in the biosphere, most significantly the hydrosphere. A simple, narrow focus on lower atmosphere temperatures as the sole indicator of GW without considering the masking effect of exogeneous factors indicates a very poor understanding of climate science. Bastardi's understanding of climate science seems to be extremely flawed when compared with Dr. Masters comprehensive knowledge of both meteorology and climate science.

Quoting Skeptical Science:

Removing other Exogeneous Factors

In addition to removing the ENSO signlal, Foster and Rahmstorf (2011) used multiple linear regression to remove the effects of solar and volcanic activity from the surface and lower troposphere temperature data.

When removing these short-term effects, the warming trend has barely even slowed since 1998 (0.163°C per decade from 1979 through 2010, vs. 0.155°C per decade from 1998 through 2010, and 0.187°C per decade for 2000 through 2010).



Figure 6: Average of all five data sets (GISS, NCDC, HadCRU, UAH, and RSS) with the effects of ENSO, solar irradiance, and volcanic emissions removed (Foster and Rahmstorf 2011)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
854. wxmod
Quoting nymore:
The bigger quakes lately are on subduction zone areas, the San Andreas fault is a strike-slip fault two totally different mechanisms


Why in the world do you say that? The mechanism is the continent moving. If a subduction zone is moving, the same tension is being put on the strike-slip. The forces at play are kinda big.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
853. yoboi
Quoting pottery:

"Eternity"....

that's what I heard anyway.



lol
Member Since: August 25, 2010 Posts: 7 Comments: 2329
852. yoboi
Quoting AussieStorm:


I wonder if Nea would ever put his many many words into action in his local/county area. Actions speak louder than words, right.



a good leader leads by example....
Member Since: August 25, 2010 Posts: 7 Comments: 2329
.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Remove duplicate post
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting TomballTXPride:

You protect your interests at heart. Others protect their bottom line. Deep pockets are dark and dirty.


True enough on both sides! But I'd rather everyone be pro-Earth than anything...maybe I should be a druid LOL
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting wxmod:


Every day!
God bless you. I knew there are still good people in the world.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 20507
Quoting TomballTXPride:

Much less risk in NC, that's for sure. Although now I'm hearing much of that energy from the New Madrid is being transferred to the Wabash Valley Fault line to the north and east up near the Ohio river and Indiana.
Yeah, I remember a 5.2 quake from Wabash Vally Fault in Illinois few years ago, but I didn't feel that one. I never felt an quake until the one that shook DC area.
Member Since: August 1, 2011 Posts: 28 Comments: 7902
Quoting yoboi:



what is the flavor they pushing this week???
There all pretty good with a couple a shots mixed in...whats the diff.?
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 20507
Quoting wxmod:
For a long time major earthquakes were mostly in the Asia Pacific and Indian Ocean. Now it's our turn. There is a lot of pressure building on the San Andreas Fault.



Well, correct me if I'm wrong, but the plate at the San Andreas fault is moving north/south. The Asian boundary of the ring of fire is expanding east/west..the opening fissure creating islands. That kind of plate boundary will create more big quakes I think. Slip faults are worst for big quakes, but where the crust is opening up and creating new land is still most active. I spent half my life trying to move from earthquake zones! LOL Though, can still get hit with mid-continental stress!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
844. wxmod
Quoting hydrus:
there is only 37 days left...dont sweat it.....have brew and some shrimp.


Every day!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting yoboi:



what is the flavor they pushing this week???

"Eternity"....

that's what I heard anyway.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting TomballTXPride:

They've been saying that about the New Madrid fault and the Charleston fault now for a long time....


Gee, thanks. I grew up in the New Madrid zone, live in Charleston, and have a child in college just east of Los Angeles. I'm sure I'll sleep well tonight.
In other news, my sister who lives outside of NYC got power back last Tuesday just in time for the snowstorm on Wednesday. And this morning's high tide here in Charleston was really really high. I crossed the Ashley river almost two hours after high tide, and in the 24+ years we've lived here I have never seen it that high. I shudder to think what it was like two hours before.
Returning you now to your regularly scheduled programming.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
841. yoboi
Quoting KoritheMan:

Yup.



what is the flavor they pushing this week???
Member Since: August 25, 2010 Posts: 7 Comments: 2329
840. yoboi
Quoting AussieStorm:




lol

Nea, do you have me on ignore????




neap does not have ya on ignore he knows he can't bully you....
Member Since: August 25, 2010 Posts: 7 Comments: 2329

Quoting yoboi:



do you use your wal mart discount on kool-aid???
Yup.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

So you'd rather have a blog with people talking about something set in stone all the time? That's no fun. Of course people are going to be about certain aspects of global warming; it's a debatable topic. That doesn't mean we should just ignore the topic at hand.

Did i say that, I said the insults need to stop. It's like friggin school yard in here.
Debating is fine but arguing is not. It's like whoever can shout the loudest winds. It's all about getting ones point across not who can shout the loudest. The good thing i see about the AGW/CC debate is people are seriously looking at other ways to create energy from other sources other than oil and coal. The faster we faze these two out the better for the whole planet. but of course it need to be financially viable from 3rd grade countries to 1st grade countries. What's the point of 1st grade countries cleaning up there act if the 2nd and 3rd grade countries don't. That would be like plugging a whole in a dam when it's abut to over-top.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting yoboi:



do you use your wal mart discount on kool-aid???
Do they really still sell Kool Aid?......far out..
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 20507
Quoting TomballTXPride:

What if I don't have or want kids?

Your'e Doomed anyway.
It's written. By wxmod. And the Inca. The die is cast. Sorry.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting AussieStorm:
When are some guy on here going to grow some "wheels" and grow up, geez. this blog is worse than a pre-school class just before nap time.

Why do we like to argue about the same stuff here. every time AGW/CC comes up we hear the same things over and over again. PEOPLE..... grow the heck up. If you want to argue and trade silly school yard insults, do it elsewhere.

There will always be 2 sides to every argument and until either side backs down, the argument will continue forever.


I admit, I cringe when the fine Doc mentions it at all in a blog! LOL Or when anyone else does for that matter. I come from the perspective that we must be contributing, but it's a mix of natural forces and us....cause our pollution would surely not have 'any' effect. But I'm more anti-leeching-power companies than anything! LOL
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
834. yoboi
Quoting KoritheMan:
If I were sensitive, I could come up with a much better approach than this. Trust me.

I don't waste my time on people like Doug, though. Experience has shown it's a useless endeavor.



do you use your wal mart discount on kool-aid???
Member Since: August 25, 2010 Posts: 7 Comments: 2329
Just for the record, believe it or not, we did have a tropical depression (25W) form and dissipate in the West Pacific today:

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting eyeofbetsy:


I guess that does it then. Goodbye cruel world.
there is only 37 days left...dont sweat it.....have brew and some shrimp.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 20507
Quoting TomballTXPride:

They've been saying that about the New Madrid fault and the Charleston fault now for a long time....
Both those faults are potentially devastating. They have been relatively inactive, and I pray that it continues that way.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 20507
Quoting wxmod:
For a long time major earthquakes were mostly in the Asia Pacific and Indian Ocean. Now it's our turn. There is a lot of pressure building on the San Andreas Fault.

The bigger quakes lately are on subduction zone areas, the San Andreas fault is a strike-slip fault two totally different mechanisms
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
826. wxmod
Quoting pottery:

Sounds pretty Dread.
I'm happy it does not apply to me.....


Perfect. LOL!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting hydrus:
I have said before not many things manage there affairs as well as a tree does. Besides, trees are actually easy to get along with, they are alot of bark and no bite.

Excellent!
heheheheheh
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
823. wxmod
Quoting TomballTXPride:

Sounds a little hokey. A little out there. Are you the guy that writes all those doomsday Hollywood movies? If so, please please come out with the day after tomorrow sequel. Pretty please.


If you have any kids, you are helping them toward their demise. If you are young, your kids won't outlive you.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting wxmod:


Not true on all counts. Global warming will release a Pandora's box that will destroy all economies and cause the largest migrations of humans and animals in history. There will be no jobs of any kind, no private property rights, no constitution, very little oxygen and very little food. For the survivalists, there's no hope for you either. Sorry.

Sounds pretty Dread.
I'm happy it does not apply to me.....
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting wxmod:


Not true on all counts. Global warming will release a Pandora's box that will destroy all economies and cause the largest migrations of humans and animals in history. There will be no jobs of any kind, no private property rights, no constitution, very little oxygen and very little food. For the survivalists, there's no hope for you either. Sorry.


I guess that does it then. Goodbye cruel world.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting TomballTXPride:

They've been saying that about the New Madrid fault and the Charleston fault now for a long time....
Growing up in Missouri, I couldn't sleep couple of nights fearing an 8.5 quake... glad I am in North Carolina now.
Member Since: August 1, 2011 Posts: 28 Comments: 7902
Quoting TomballTXPride:
I love it when those on here bash Joe B. for his take on history vs. hurricanes and then praise Jeff Master's and the others who have their take.

Could it have something to do with how they conform to their green-energy GW approach? Hmmm...

Last time I checked Jeff Master's isn't any more a climatologist than Joe Bastardi is....


Well what about me? LOL I'm not pro-renewables cause of AGW...I'm pro-renewables because I don't think we should pollute the planet in general and don't like paying extortionist power companies...so where does that leave me? Just in the middle, both sides hate me?! LOL
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting pottery:

It tried and was turned down.
They couldn't deal with the way it keeps branching out, avoiding the roots of the issues. Also, it's very green, and it leaves people confused and scared.
I have said before not many things manage there affairs as well as a tree does. Besides, trees are actually easy to get along with, they are alot of bark and no bite.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 20507
Quoting wxmod:
For a long time major earthquakes were mostly in the Asia Pacific and Indian Ocean. Now it's our turn. There is a lot of pressure building on the San Andreas Fault.


This is one point I actually agree with you on. When's the last time we had a magnitude 6.5+ quake hit the West Coast? And 6.5 isn't even that big. That fault has plenty of potential to produce a quake of anywhere from magnitude 7 to 9. The problem is it's not something we can really prepare for. We can make long term preparations like improving the building codes, which helps significantly, but there's no way to prepare for the actual event itself... It will catch a lot of people off guard no matter how we prepare.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
813. wxmod
Quoting eyeofbetsy:
the future will solve many of our pollution problems. You enjoy your current standard of living because of fossil fuels and like it or not they are here to stay. Not to mention these energy jobs are some of the best paying jobs.


Not true on all counts. Global warming will release a Pandora's box that will destroy all economies and cause the largest migrations of humans and animals in history. There will be no jobs of any kind, no private property rights, no constitution, very little oxygen and very little food. For the survivalists, there's no hope for you either. Sorry.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting wxmod:
For a long time major earthquakes were mostly in the Asia Pacific and Indian Ocean. Now it's our turn. There is a lot of pressure building on the San Andreas Fault.



I'm really not liking how this is setting up. Glad I don't live on the west coast, but I have family in Washington.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

So you'd rather have a blog with people talking about something set in stone all the time? That's no fun. Of course people are going to be about certain aspects of global warming; it's a debatable topic. That doesn't mean we should just ignore the topic at hand.
It makes me chuckle every time someone brings up the global warming and climate statistics and then posts that it is off topic...
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 20507

Viewing: 861 - 811

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

Local Weather

Mostly Cloudy
74 °F
Mostly Cloudy