Sandy the 11th U.S. billion-dollar disaster of 2012

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:26 PM GMT on November 09, 2012

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Devastating Hurricane Sandy was the eleventh billion-dollar weather-related disaster in the U.S. so far this year, and the most expensive, said insurance broker AON Benfield in their November 8, 2012 Catastrophe Report. This puts 2012 in second place for most U.S. billion-dollar weather disasters behind 2011, when NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) counted fourteen such disasters. AON Benfield rated seventeen events as billion-dollar weather disasters in 2011, so the actual number of such disasters has considerable uncertainty depending upon who is doing the estimates. NCDC has not yet released their official figures for 2012's billion-dollar weather disasters, and we might expect that their total could be 20% lower than AON Benfield's, judging by what happened in 2011. This would give 2012 nine billion-dollar weather disasters, which would still put 2011 in second place for most billion-dollar weather disasters. Although damages due to weather-related disasters are increasing, we cannot yet say climate change is to partially to blame. There are too many other complicating factors such as increases in wealth and population that may be responsible for the rise in damages, and there is too much noise in the data to see the signal of climate change, as I explain in my January 2012 post, "Damage losses and climate change". We are better off looking at the atmosphere itself to find evidence of climate change, and there are plenty of examples of that--such as the record loss of Arctic sea ice this summer.


Figure 1. The escalators down to the South Ferry subway station in Lower Manhattan's Financial District lie flooded in the wake of Hurricane Sandy's storm surge on October 29, 2012. Total economic damage from Hurricane Sandy has been estimated at $30 - $50 billion by EQECAT. Image credit: New York MTA and Associated Press.


Figure 2. The U.S. has experienced eleven weather-related disasters costing at least $1 billion in 2012, according to data taken from the AON Benfield October 2012 Catastrophe Report. AON Benfield has not made a damage estimate for the 2012 Midwest drought, but according to National Crop Insurance Services, crop insurance losses alone will total $20 billion. The total cost of the drought could be more than $77 billion, said Purdue University economist Chris Hurt in August. As Nick Sundt of the WWF summarizes in a nice blog post, this year will probably be the second most costly year since 1980 in terms of billion-dollar weather-related disasters.


Figure 3. Number of weather-related U.S. billion-dollar disasters per year (blue bars) from 1980 - 2012, and the total cost of these disasters (red and dark blue lines, with the red line showing the inflation-adjusted costs.) Image credit: NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)

Winter Storm Brutus bringing blizzard conditions to Montana
Winter Storm Brutus is bringing blizzard conditions to Northeast Montana, with heavy snow and high winds that have gusted to 45 mph. Brutus has dumped a widespread area of 4 - 6 inches of snow over large portions of Montana since Thursday afternoon, with 7 - 10 inches reported in the Great Falls area and 17" in the mountains near Glacier National Park. According to the Glasgow, MT NWS Facebook page, the current storm has the potential to be a top-ten snowfall event for the area, with records going back 115 years. The storm will affect Montana and western North Dakota through Saturday morning, then push north-northeastwards into Canada.

Top ten 2-day snow events in Glasgow, Montana history:

1 15.0" 4/18/1896
2 14.3" 12/27/2003
3 14.1" 4/ 3/1940, 4/ 2/1940
5 14.0" 11/19/1941
6 13.4" 10/13/2008
7 13.3" 11/ 6/2000
8 13.0" 10/12/2008, 4/ 9/1995, 1/26/1916

The Atlantic hurricane season is not over yet
There are still three weeks left in the Atlantic hurricane season, and the way this year has gone, I wouldn't be surprised to see the season's 20th named storm--Tropical Storm Valerie--sometime this month. One potential candidate is a concentrated area of heavy thunderstorms that has developed about 800 miles west-northwest of the Cape Verde Islands, off the coast of Africa. However, wind shear is a high 20 - 30 knots over the disturbance, and any development should be slow. Our two most reliable models, the GFS and ECMWF, do not develop the disturbance, and show it drifting slowly to the northwest over the next few days. In their 7 am EST Tropical Weather Outlook, NHC gave the disturbance just a 20% chance of developing into a tropical cyclone by Sunday morning.

A better candidate to become Valerie is an area of low pressure that is predicted to develop between Bermuda and Puerto Rico by the middle of next week. The GFS model shows this low becoming a subtropical cyclone as it gets pulled to the north or north-northeast late next week.

Jeff Masters

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Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 20539
472. Barefootontherocks 4:39 PM GMT on November 09, 2012 +1

Quoting hydrus:
I hope your right, but 200 years is far fetched in my eyes. The region gets its share of storms, and I would not be surprised if something like Sandy struck them again next year with the worlds weather changing the way it is.

Thanks for the response.

Saw roughly 400 years ago for historical comparison here and at weatherhistorian's blog. I picked 200 as a compromise. I can't help observing that we humans, in the US and possibly elsewhere, are cycling through that part of the circle where "middle of the road" seems a lost art......I believe the Earths weather has changed significantly the past 30 years, cant imagine what things will be like in 200.-hydrus.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 20539
I can think of one reason why the NWS should not go down the road of naming severe winter storms - homeowner insurance. Check out what insurance companies do when a storm is named, they increase the deductible. Many companies have been authorized by state agencies to increase the deductible if the storm is named. It is called the "Named storm Deductible". I also think it is one of the reasons why Hurricane Sandy was downgraded to a "severe storm" when it made landfall. For all the wonderful reasons to develop a system of naming storms, increasing homeowner costs should not be one of them!
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Quoting NttyGrtty:
RE: post 49

Oh, come on! That's funny. Lighten up Francis. The post was very amuzing...

Who is Francis? Not me...
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RE: post 49

Oh, come on! That's funny. Lighten up Francis. The post was very amuzing...
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Quoting CybrTeddy:
What's the deal with some of you people about this whole TWC-naming-winter storms deal anyways? Because the NWS doesn't back it up? Who cares, I think it's a great idea. We named hurricanes starting in the 1950s, with names like Dog, Easy, Fox, etc. It gives us weather nerds something to track in the post-season. The fact that people are putting everyone who agrees with The Weather Channel, such as Dr. Masters, as drinking TWC's kool-aid is astoundingly stupid. If you want to leave, leave. Now, is TWC's decision a way to get views and increase interest in their shows? Certainly, that's called being a business. Get used to it, but I can tell you for a fact regardless of the name, people being affected by these storms could care less about what name is given to it.
Because TWC isn't official and the storm list are ugly Greek names.

Matter of fact why won't people use my system?.The number system.

Here's how it works.The year and number.

Example:storm 1,012-13
the other storm 2,012-13 and so on and so on

there?.
Member Since: August 14, 2010 Posts: 10 Comments: 16439


Member Since: July 12, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 5998
Each storm is going to hit in a different place, at a different time, with different levels of development and redevelopment and the dollar will have variable value, so I get there is lots of noise in estimating damage value differences specifically from climate change.

BUT in the same way you can say more CO2 traps more heat due to physics, you can say warmer oceans have more energy to create stronger hurricanes. Ocean temperature data is pretty straight forward.

This morning I found good graphs that were ocean specific, here is an overall temp graphic.
http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs/hadsst2/diagno stics/global/nh sh/annual_bar.png

if the ocean is 0.3F warmer due to climate change in the North Atlantic, there is over 1790 ktons of additional energy in the top 1.6 inches of the ocean (edit> under Sandy).
Or and 89.5% of an atom bombs worth of additional energy due to climate change in the top foot of water under Hurricane Sandy.

Storm diameter 1040miles = 23.668 trillion sq ft.
ocean temp up 0.3 F * 23.668 trillion sq ft = 7.1004 trillion BTU = 1,790 ktons.
1 gallon fills a sq ft to 1.6"

Does that sound like there is a possibility that the storm was not strengthened by the additional heat? and that extra speed, wave height, and rain just missed all the valuable parts of the east coast? Explain that to me.

You may want to revise the location and dates for Sandy's damage. It was not just the NE and not just on October 29th.

#45 I thought it was funny.
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Also, if I seem grumpy today - I am. :P

I've caught the flu, so I've got a 101 degree fever, chills, all the unpleasant stuff. I haven't gotten a flu shot in years!
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RE: post 45

I am so tired of Al Gore bashing. The photo wasn't amusing and neither are you. POOF!

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Quoting CybrTeddy:
What's the deal with some of you people about this whole TWC-naming-winter storms deal anyways? Because the NWS doesn't back it up? Who cares, I think it's a great idea. We named hurricanes starting in the 1950s, with names like Dog, Easy, Fox, etc. It gives us weather nerds something to track in the post-season. The fact that people are putting everyone who agrees with The Weather Channel, such as Dr. Masters, as drinking TWC's kool-aid is astoundingly stupid. If you want to leave, leave. Now, is TWC's decision a way to get views and increase interest in their shows? Certainly, that's called being a business. Get used to it, but I can tell you for a fact regardless of the name, people being affected by these storms could care less about what name is given to it.


I'm sure people bitched when they named hurricanes as well.

And I am sure if the weather channel was trying to boost thier ratings, it would be because they lost so much with thier crappy reality shows.
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What's the deal with some of you people about this whole TWC-naming-winter storms deal anyways? Because the NWS doesn't back it up? Who cares, I think it's a great idea. We named hurricanes starting in the 1950s, with names like Dog, Easy, Fox, etc. It gives us weather nerds something to track in the post-season. The fact that people are putting everyone who agrees with The Weather Channel, such as Dr. Masters, as drinking TWC's kool-aid is astoundingly stupid. If you want to leave, leave. Now, is TWC's decision a way to get views and increase interest in their shows? Certainly, that's called being a business. Get used to it, but I can tell you for a fact regardless of the name, people being affected by these storms could care less about what name is given to it.
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Quoting riblet2000:
Brutus? Really??

WU has totally sold out to TWC's marketing department. Sad to see such a great site go to crap so fast.

Not renewing this year if it keeps up.


boo hoo. Go whine some more
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Brutus? Really??

WU has totally sold out to TWC's marketing department. Sad to see such a great site go to crap so fast.

Not renewing this year if it keeps up.
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TROPICAL WEATHER OUTLOOK
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL
100 PM EST FRI NOV 9 2012

FOR THE NORTH ATLANTIC...CARIBBEAN SEA AND THE GULF OF MEXICO...

CLOUDINESS...SHOWERS...AND THUNDERSTORMS CENTERED ABOUT 800 MILES
WEST-NORTHWEST OF THE CAPE VERDE ISLANDS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH A
SURFACE TROUGH INTERACTING WITH A LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM IN THE MIDDLE
AND UPPER LEVELS OF THE ATMOSPHERE. DEVELOPMENT...IF ANY...SHOULD
BE SLOW TO OCCUR DUE TO STRONG VERTICAL WIND SHEAR...AND THIS
SYSTEM HAS A LOW CHANCE...20 PERCENT...OF BECOMING A TROPICAL
CYCLONE DURING THE NEXT 48 HOURS.

ELSEWHERE...TROPICAL CYCLONE FORMATION IS NOT EXPECTED DURING THE
NEXT 48 HOURS.

$$
FORECASTER BEVEN
Member Since: April 29, 2009 Posts: 75 Comments: 14070
Thanks Doc,

Good luck tonight.
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Quoting EricGreen:
Dr. Masters,

In case the NBC interviewers ask about AGW and Sandy, here's some before and after data which shows that the Atlantic was rather warm before Sandy, then much cooler after:

http://www.osdpd.noaa.gov/data/sst/anomaly/2012/a nomw.10.25.2012.gif

http://www.osdpd.noaa.gov/data/sst/anomaly/2012/a nomw.10.29.2012.gif

http://www.osdpd.noaa.gov/data/sst/anomaly/2012/a nomw.11.1.2012.gif

Of course, all that extra warm water in the Gulf Stream couldn't possible have been caused by AGW, now could it?...:-)





Warm AMO?
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Thank You Dr. Good luck this evening and have a good weekend..................

Will you be in your local NBC affiliate or flying in to NY to see some damage first hand?
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Quoting Skyepony:
Finally got my beach pics up. Sandy brought us so much sand...millions of dollars of sand. She was so well named. I know she was hell on the NE~ but here, We got a hurricane day with little damage & all that beach renourishment. She did East Central Florida quite a bit of good.

The new tidal pool/trench is where the beach used to end & the ocean began. Sandy brought far more beach than I've ever seen in this area. Not only is the sand bar new, the old beach is ~five foot higher than it used to be. It used to be 9 stairs down to the beach here now it's only 4. Click on the pic to see the whole series. These were taken in Indialantic, FL on 11-4. Heard mass Sandy sand renourishment happened all the way south to Vero Beach. Not sure what the entire area of great benefit was. Seen nothing in the media about it other than the initial damage of 25mill & pics a few days before these of eroded beach even Indialantic, that looks nothing like it does now. As the storm left it pumped sand up as it moved out according to beach dwelling friends. Looks like the federal 25mill in sand money is still being asked for. They could use a bulldozer to do some rearranging & there will be some beach front claims but I don't know about 25million in federal sand money..



Thanks for that Skye..
Great pics.. :)
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Climate change, Insurance, and the Coast:

http://nccoast.org/Article.aspx?k=ec29d101-3b72-4 e09-910b-4ae94f9d295e
Member Since: July 12, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 5998
Appropriate to be on NBC...
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Thanks Dr. Masters!
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7928
Largo (and any others interested) 60 w/ 48 dew pt, 30.02 (slightly dropping) S winds @ 17, 21 gusts in S Central IL - late Indian Summer?
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Such an event occurred 12,800 years ago when a vast lake – created from melting glaciers at the end of last Ice Age – overflowed and poured into the north Atlantic, blocking the Gulf Stream. Europe froze – almost instantly, said Patterson.
Member Since: August 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 37058
Dr. Masters,

In case the NBC interviewers ask about AGW and Sandy, here's some before and after data which shows that the Atlantic was rather warm before Sandy, then much cooler after:

http://www.osdpd.noaa.gov/data/sst/anomaly/2012/a nomw.10.25.2012.gif

http://www.osdpd.noaa.gov/data/sst/anomaly/2012/a nomw.10.29.2012.gif

http://www.osdpd.noaa.gov/data/sst/anomaly/2012/a nomw.11.1.2012.gif

Of course, all that extra warm water in the Gulf Stream couldn't possible have been caused by AGW, now could it?...:-)

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31. Skyepony (Mod)
Finally got my beach pics up. Sandy brought us so much sand...millions of dollars of sand. She was so well named. I know she was hell on the NE~ but here, We got a hurricane day with little damage & all that beach renourishment. She did East Central Florida quite a bit of good.

The new tidal pool/trench is where the beach used to end & the ocean began. Sandy brought far more beach than I've ever seen in this area. Not only is the sand bar new, the old beach is ~five foot higher than it used to be. It used to be 9 stairs down to the beach here now it's only 4. Click on the pic to see the whole series. These were taken in Indialantic, FL on 11-4. Heard mass Sandy sand renourishment happened all the way south to Vero Beach. Not sure what the entire area of great benefit was. Seen nothing in the media about it other than the initial damage of 25mill & pics a few days before these of eroded beach even Indialantic, that looks nothing like it does now. As the storm left it pumped sand up as it moved out according to beach dwelling friends. Looks like the federal 25mill in sand money is still being asked for. They could use a bulldozer to do some rearranging & there will be some beach front claims but I don't know about 25million in federal sand money..

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Quoting TomballTXPride:

Jed ~ You make a nice point. We need to strip this puppy down to the bare bones to really look at the issue at hand. However, I would still like to shed a little light on why perhaps the billion dollar disaster stat is not necessarily the most accurate assessment on determining the percentage man is contributing to the number extreme events we've been seeing.

When giant storms impact a region as densely populated as the Northeast, unfortunately a billion dollar disaster is almost a given.

Population density. Top map is NY and NJ. Bottom map is TX.

">

Let's go median household income now. Top map NY, NJ. Bottom map is area hurricane Ike impacted back in 2008.








There were also multiple warnings about the impact that a storm like Sandy would have on the northeast coast. I would think that individuals and state will would've learnt their lesson and make more preparation for future storms like Sandy. The state may very well need to implement no build zones in some of the major impact areas.
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Member Since: August 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 37058
Member Since: August 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 37058
Quoting 900MB:


Yogi might work for Yellowstone, and Rocky, a Philadelphia storm for sure.


hahaha :)
Member Since: August 21, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 7304
Thanks Jeff...
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Quoting TomballTXPride:

Jed ~ You make a nice point. We need to strip this puppy down to the bare bones to really look at the issue at hand. However, I would still like to shed a little light on why perhaps the billion dollar disaster stat is not necessarily the most accurate assessment on determining the percentage man is contributing to the number extreme events we've been seeing.

When giant storms impact a region as densely populated as the Northeast, unfortunately a billion dollar disaster is almost a given.

Population density. Top map is NY and NJ. Bottom map is TX.

">

Let's go median household income now. Top map NY, NJ. Bottom map is area hurricane Ike impacted back in 2008.










Indeed, one must also consider as man continues to advance in technology and urban growth, damage amounts and total potential damage to be done will continue to increase. A 200 mph hurricane hitting Tampa Bay in the early 1900's wouldn't be as big of a deal as a category 1 hitting today in the same place. It's pretty simple.

Meteorology, is a growing field, and will continue to grow in the modern world because of this. What we have just discussed is part of the reason, the other reason is that in a modern world people demand and expect more and greater services. Knowing the weather properly is one of them. Also as technology increases, the tools meteorologists have at their disposal also improves thus another reason for the growth in meteorology.



The world is changing fast, by the time I'm 30, probably all children will need to take physics and calculus because society is becoming so technologically dependent. This will cause problems as not all people's brain is designed for such. Not everyone can be a tech geek, a scientist, or an engineer. I know many who struggle to even understand college Algebra, much less application of physics and calculus. The technology people use is quickly outpacing the average individuals understanding of where it came from and how it works. The future ahead will bring as many obstacles, what I have discussed is one that I think many have not considered.



Alright, yes my comment kind of strayed off topic, but, I just figured I'd mention some related things as well, lol.

Member Since: August 21, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 7304
Insurance companies are going to love these statistics..
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Thanks for the update Dr. Masters
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Quoting Jedkins01:



Gandalf, Yogi, and Rocky to me are even more embarrassing...


Unlike some here, I have not expressed my lack of enthusiasm for TWC naming winter storms because I simply have a strange criticism of TWC in general. In, fact, I myself have always been confused why their is a collective criticism for the TWC here, because I have always thought they were pretty solid overall. However, this recent decision of naming winter storms I am quite embarrassed by, especially the choices for names. I was embarrassed to have the channel on yesterday with my family in the room as TWC was reporting on "Brutus" bringing snow to Montana. In my opinion it stoops the network to lower than what I've always known them to be.




Yogi might work for Yellowstone, and Rocky, a Philadelphia storm for sure.
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Quoting the good doctor:
"and there is too much noise in the data to see the signal of climate change"
Seems to me that is one more signal of AGW
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Congrats, Dr. Masters, on the NBC News interview. Or maybe I should congratulate NBC News for their "get"!
Can't wait to see the reaction on the blog here after your climate change talk!
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It's a very nice and cool day here in Jamaica.
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Quoting Minnemike:
i want to see side by side lists of classification criteria for the two following events:
Hurricane
Winter Storm
Can someone fill in the blanks? maybe that will calm my sense of disgust about y'all know what...



my thoughts exactly :)
Member Since: August 21, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 7304
Quoting 900MB:
Rather than retiring names of winter storms, can we just retire the idea of naming winter storms. I mean, Winter Storm Nemo? Really?

Athena -- The Greek goddess of wisdom, courage, inspirations, justice, mathematics and all things wonderful

Brutus -- Roman Senator and best known assassin of Julius
Caesar -- Title used by Roman and Byzantine Emperors 

Draco -- The first legislator of Athens in Ancient
Euclid -- A mathematician in Ancient Greece, the Father of Geometry
Freyr -- A Norse god associated with fair weather, among other things

Gandolf -- A character in a 1896 fantasy novel in a pseudo-medieval countryside

Helen – In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy was the daughter of Zeus

Iago -- Enemy of Othello in Shakespeare’s play, Othello

Jove -- The English name for Jupiter, the Roman god of light and sky.

Kahn -- Mongolian conqueror and emperor of the Mongol Empire

Luna -- The divine embodiment of the moon in Roman mythology

Magnus -- The Father of Europe, Charlemagne the Great, in Latin: Carolus Magnus 

Nemo -- A Greek boy’s name meaning “from the valley”, means “nobody” in Latin 

Orko -- The thunder god in Basque mythology

Plato -- Greek philosopher and mathematician, who was named by his wrestling coach

Q -- The Broadway Express subway line in New York City

Rocky -- A single mountain in the Rockies

Saturn -- Roman god of time, among other things who had a planet named after him

Triton -- In Greek mythology, the messenger of the deep sea, son of Poseidon

Ukko -- In Finnish mythology, the god of the sky and weather

Virgil -- One of ancient Rome’s greatest poets

Walda -- Name from Old German meaning “ruler”

Xerxes -- The fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Xerxes the Great

Yogi -- People who do yoga

Zeus -- In Greek mythology, the supreme ruler of Mount Olympus and the gods who lived there



Gandalf, Yogi, and Rocky to me are even more embarrassing...


Unlike some here, I have not expressed my lack of enthusiasm for TWC naming winter storms because I simply have a strange criticism of TWC in general. In, fact, I myself have always been confused why their is a collective criticism for the TWC here, because I have always thought they were pretty solid overall. However, this recent decision of naming winter storms I am quite embarrassed by, especially the choices for names. I was embarrassed to have the channel on yesterday with my family in the room as TWC was reporting on "Brutus" bringing snow to Montana. In my opinion it stoops the network to lower than what I've always known them to be.


Member Since: August 21, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 7304
i want to see side by side lists of classification criteria for the two following events:
Hurricane
Winter Storm
Can someone fill in the blanks? maybe that will calm my sense of disgust about y'all know what...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
"There are too many other complicating factors such as increases in wealth and population that may be responsible for the rise in damages, and there is too much noise in the data to see the signal of climate change, as I explain in my January 2012 post, "Damage losses and climate change". We are better off looking at the atmosphere itself to find evidence of climate change, and there are plenty of examples of that--such as the record loss of Arctic sea ice this summer."

The above quote from Dr. Masters blog post is making a great point.


Member Since: August 21, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 7304
Thanks Dr. Masters,
The GFS model developing the low pressure between Bermuda and Puerto Rico gets my vote as the last storm of the year..
Shear outlook for the area off the Cape Verda Islands looks strong and shear predictions this year seem to be pretty well spot on..
Sooo many Billion dollar disasters..
Wow..It used to be millions was the norm..
More must be done in diasater prevention IMO..
I'm reminded of a quote from Benjamin Franklin..
"By failing to prepare,you are preparing to fail"
Thanks again Dr. Masters
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Rather than retiring names of winter storms, can we just retire the idea of naming winter storms. I mean, Winter Storm Nemo? Really?

Athena -- The Greek goddess of wisdom, courage, inspirations, justice, mathematics and all things wonderful

Brutus -- Roman Senator and best known assassin of Julius
Caesar -- Title used by Roman and Byzantine Emperors 

Draco -- The first legislator of Athens in Ancient
Euclid -- A mathematician in Ancient Greece, the Father of Geometry
Freyr -- A Norse god associated with fair weather, among other things

Gandolf -- A character in a 1896 fantasy novel in a pseudo-medieval countryside

Helen – In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy was the daughter of Zeus

Iago -- Enemy of Othello in Shakespeare’s play, Othello

Jove -- The English name for Jupiter, the Roman god of light and sky.

Kahn -- Mongolian conqueror and emperor of the Mongol Empire

Luna -- The divine embodiment of the moon in Roman mythology

Magnus -- The Father of Europe, Charlemagne the Great, in Latin: Carolus Magnus 

Nemo -- A Greek boy’s name meaning “from the valley”, means “nobody” in Latin 

Orko -- The thunder god in Basque mythology

Plato -- Greek philosopher and mathematician, who was named by his wrestling coach

Q -- The Broadway Express subway line in New York City

Rocky -- A single mountain in the Rockies

Saturn -- Roman god of time, among other things who had a planet named after him

Triton -- In Greek mythology, the messenger of the deep sea, son of Poseidon

Ukko -- In Finnish mythology, the god of the sky and weather

Virgil -- One of ancient Rome’s greatest poets

Walda -- Name from Old German meaning “ruler”

Xerxes -- The fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Xerxes the Great

Yogi -- People who do yoga

Zeus -- In Greek mythology, the supreme ruler of Mount Olympus and the gods who lived there
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Thank you Dr Masters.
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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