Moderate-strength Nor'easter may hit Sandy-devastated areas Wednesday

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:16 PM GMT on November 02, 2012

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Storm-weary U.S. residents pounded by Superstorm Sandy may have a new storm to contend with next Wednesday: an early-season Nor'easter is expected to impact the mid-Atlantic and New England with strong winds and heavy rain. Our two top models, the European (ECMWF) and GFS (run by the National Weather Service), both predict that an area of low pressure will move off the coast of South Carolina on Tuesday evening. Once over the warm waters off the coast, the low will intensify, spreading heavy rains over coastal North Carolina on Tuesday night and Wednesday morning. The storm will accelerate to the north-northeast on Wednesday and pull in cold air from Canada. The storm is predicted to intensify into a medium-strength Nor'easter with a central pressure of 992 mb by Wednesday afternoon, when it will be centered a few hundred miles south of Long Island, NY. The European model, which did an exemplary job forecasting Hurricane Sandy, predicts a stronger storm that will stay just offshore and bring a 12-hour period of strong winds of 40 - 45 mph to the coasts of Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, and New York on Wednesday morning and afternoon. The GFS model and 06Z NOGAPS model runs from 06Z (2 am EDT) this morning have a weaker storm that is farther offshore, with the main impact of the Nor'easter occurring Wednesday evening in coastal Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Maine. The Nor'easter will likely bring a swath of 2 - 4" of rain to the coast, and the potential for more than a foot of snow to mountain areas of the New England. The storm is still five days away, and five-day forecasts of the path and intensity of Nor'easters usually have large errors. Nevertheless, residents and relief workers in the region hit by Sandy should anticipate the possibility of the arrival on Wednesday of a moderate-strength Nor'easter with heavy rain, accompanied by high winds capable of driving a 1 - 2 foot storm surge with battering waves.


Figure 1. Predicted wind speed for Wednesday morning, November 7, 2012, from the 00Z (8 pm EDT) run of the ECMWF model made on November 2, 2012. Winds tropical storm-force (40 - 45 mph) are predicted to extend from coastal Maryland to the east tip of Long Island, NY.


Figure 2. Forecast track error for four of our top models used to predict Hurricane Sandy. The GFS model performed the best for 1 - 3 day forecasts, but the European (ECMWF) model far out-performed all models at longer-range 4 - 5 day forecasts. This may be due to the fact the model was able to successfully predict the timing of the arrival of a trough of low pressure over the Eastern U.S. that acted to steer Sandy to the north and then northwest. Image credit: Morris Bender, NOAA/GFDL.


Figure 3. Forecast track error for four of our top models used to predict Hurricane Sandy, for their runs that began at 00Z October 25, 2012. The GFDL and ECMWF models made great forecasts that correctly showed Sandy making landfall in Southern New Jersey in five days. The GFS and HWRF models made good 1 - 3 day forecasts, but failed to anticipate Sandy's northward turn towards the U.S. coast. Image credit: Morris Bender, NOAA/GFDL.

Links
Impressive loop of 1-minute visible satellite imagery spanning 6 days of Sandy's life.

A one-day time lapse video from a New York City webcam showing Sandy's impact on the city. It's eerie to see the city suddenly plunged into darkness.

First round of damage assessment aerial imagery collected by NOAA's National Geodetic Survey on Oct. 31 along the New Jersey coast.


Figure 4. Flooding in Haiti from Hurricane Sandy. Image credit: The Lambi Fund of Haiti.

Charities mobilize for Sandy
Sandy's death toll of 98 in the U.S. makes the storm one of the 30 most deadly hurricanes to affect the U.S.. The outpouring of charitable donations in the wake of the terrible storm has been great to see. NBC is hosting a benefit concert at 8 pm tonight (Friday), and the main owners of The Weather Channel have agreed to match donations of up to $1 million to the American Red Cross, with all donations to benefit people in the hard-hit areas of the U.S. To have your donation matched, please visit www.redcross.org/sandy, or text SANDY to 90999. I also recommend my favorite disaster relief charity, Portlight.org. They are focusing their response efforts exclusively on the post-Sandy needs of people with disabilities.Check out the Portlight blog to see what they're up to.

Sandy's greatest devastation occurred in Haiti, where rains of up to 20 inches in 24 hours unleashed rampaging flood waters that killed at least 54, left 200,000 homeless, wiped out thousand of acres of crops, and killed massive numbers of livestock. For impoverished families in Haiti still struggling to recover from the earthquake in 2010 and Hurricane Isaac in August, Sandy was devastating. These crops are the very essence of rural Haitian’s livelihoods, and there are fears widespread starvation will result. A disaster relief charity in Haiti that I've contributed to for many years, The Lambi Fund of Haiti, is seeking donations to help farmers purchase local seeds so that they can replant their crops in the wake of this latest terrible Haitian catastrophe.

I'll have an update this weekend on the coming Nor'easter.

Jeff Masters

Floods due to Sandy (WunderLecha)
The waters of Sagua la Grande river crossing the National highway in Ranchuelo, Cuba
Floods due to Sandy
Tree damage in Tucker County, W.V. (beaudodson)
Thousands of trees were damaged in West Virginia by the heavy/wet snow. Many were without power for days.
Tree damage in Tucker County, W.V.
Remnants of Sandy (stoneygirl)
These are a few of the incredible clouds associated with Hurricane Sandy. I am blessed because I didn't have any damage. Thank you God. Sending all my thoughts and prayers to NY and NJ where the devastation will take years to recover from.
Remnants of Sandy

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Quoting hydrus:
Hello Kori..Good to see you being feisty as ever, but you said " statistics bind " therefore it is my job to critique how much the statistics actually bind to the facts presented in the future when all the data on sandy is presented. How can you possibly say that Sandy was just another low pressure system when its pressure was the lowest ever recorded in the region, even rivaling the Great 38 hurricane.?


Ask any statistician and I'm sure they would agree with me. Same with Ike: for all intents and purposes, it was a Category 3 hurricane; the radar and satellite presentation definitely supported it. Officially, however, the storm went down in the record books as a Category 2.

Again, I get what you're saying, but facts are facts, and statistics are amongst facts.
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Quoting hydrus:
Hello Kori..Good to see you being feisty as ever, but you said " statistics bind " therefore it is my job to critique how much the statistics actually bind to the facts presented in the future when all the data on sandy is presented. How can you possibly say that Sandy was just another low pressure system when its pressure was the lowest ever recorded in the region, even rivaling the Great 38 hurricane.?


ouch...don't let the steak burn too much Hydrus

I am as eager as many for Sandy's CHANGES in the post analysis and for all the others...
except for those who think there will not be
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
Quoting KoritheMan:


I don't recall saying they did. His original claim was that Sandy could eclipse Ike as the second costliest United States hurricane (indeed, going by raw damage figures, it already has). My retort was trying to accentuate the fact that, like it or not, statistics bind us.

Take for example, the pre-Dolly tropical wave in July of 2008. The incipient disturbance carried sustained tropical storm force winds long before it ever got a name. But we have a specific criterion that needs to be met in order for disturbances to be rightfully called cyclones. Same principle here. Our personal feelings do not get in the way of that.

So yes, Sandy was damaging. Yes, Sandy was tragic. Yes, Sandy was heartbreaking. But statistically speaking, she was just another non-tropical low pressure system, albeit one that caused considerable damage and loss of life.
Hello Kori..Good to see you being feisty as ever, but you said " statistics bind " therefore it is my job to critique how much the statistics actually bind to the facts presented in the future when all the data on sandy is presented. How can you possibly say that Sandy was just another low pressure system when its pressure was the lowest ever recorded in the region, even rivaling the Great 38 hurricane.?
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I'll have a good and pleasant night sleep from now on
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
Atlantic TWO out already...

000
ABNT20 KNHC 030523
TWOAT

TROPICAL WEATHER OUTLOOK
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL
200 AM EDT SAT NOV 3 2012

FOR THE NORTH ATLANTIC...CARIBBEAN SEA AND THE GULF OF MEXICO...

TROPICAL CYCLONE FORMATION IS NOT EXPECTED DURING THE NEXT 48 HOURS.

$$
FORECASTER ROBERTS

Slow day at the office?
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Quoting KoritheMan:


Yes, and it was even more boring because it wasn't a tropical cyclone. ;)



you made me laugh....I see where where you're driving at
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
Quoting hydrus:
No problem....imagine 1983..Other than Alicia you would blog about a cloud..:)


Don't forget, Barry gave Florida a little scare. Er, I mean raindrops.
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Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:


did you ever do one for Jose??? lol


Yes, and it was even more boring because it wasn't a tropical cyclone. ;)
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Quoting KoritheMan:
Blog update on Rosa. Boring I know. I was bored too.
No problem....imagine 1983..Other than Alicia you would blog about a cloud..:)
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Quoting hydrus:
Statistics are numbers that have no control over actual events. Especially with the current trend of unusual weather around the globe.


I don't recall saying they did. His original claim was that Sandy could eclipse Ike as the second costliest United States hurricane (indeed, going by raw damage figures, it already has). My retort was trying to accentuate the fact that, like it or not, statistics bind us.

Take for example, the pre-Dolly tropical wave in July of 2008. The incipient disturbance carried sustained tropical storm force winds long before it ever got a name. But we have a specific criterion that needs to be met in order for disturbances to be rightfully called cyclones. Same principle here. Our personal feelings do not get in the way of that.

So yes, Sandy was damaging. Yes, Sandy was tragic. Yes, Sandy was heartbreaking. But statistically speaking, she was just another non-tropical low pressure system (AT LANDFALL) albeit one that caused considerable damage and loss of life.
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Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:
I've never seen this one before...



this one I have
I guess thats better than the -100,s...I thought I saw a snowman shiver at -70..:)
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Quoting KoritheMan:
Blog update on Rosa. Boring I know. I was bored too.


did you ever do one for Jose??? lol
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
I've never seen this one before...



this one I have
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
Quoting hydrus:
I didnt mean to sound crass, but discussing the amount of monetary damage 4 days after the fact seems groundless.


agreed. That is a little unfitting at the moment.
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:


yes...thank you Hydrus..

who cares anyway... I already donated to the Red Cross

I NKOW THAT FOR STATISTICAL/INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES MANY OF YOU WILL SAY...YES I CARE
I didnt mean to sound crass, but discussing the amount of monetary damage 4 days after the fact seems groundless. ...or 5 days..
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Quoting KoritheMan:

But they can be reasonably so, and the damage wrought by the storm is decidedly more thematic than the initial prognosis of $20 billion.


Who came up with the $50 billion thing anyway??? Wikipedia?
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
Quoting KoritheMan:

You can't argue statistics. Obviously, technicalities a storm do not make, and the widespread economic devastation and human casualties associated with this storm will be long-remembered, but Sandy is NOT the second costliest United States hurricane.
Statistics are numbers that have no control over actual events. Especially with the current trend of unusual weather around the globe.
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Quoting hydrus:
Yes, and if it was half of that we would be fortune. Who cares what the total ends up to begin with? There is a large loss of life and damage and people need help.


yes...thank you Hydrus..

who cares anyway... I already donated to the Red Cross

I KNOW THAT FOR STATISTICAL/INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES MANY OF YOU WILL SAY...YES I CARE
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
436. Skyepony (Mod)
Quoting CybrTeddy:


Repost: don't know why my last post went nuts on me.

I was over the Exploration center when they parked Atlantis out there, got to meet the Sierra Nevada, SpaceX, and NASA guys out there and talked a lot with them. They're quite good folks.

The parade was *awful* to take pictures in, I was infront of the Astronaut memorial - couldn't get a picture without a tree, or some guys arm in the way.


There is some pretty awesome people out there.

I ended up with atleast 100 pics. Was a sight to see it in front of Headquarters & then when it headed on out to the Industrial area. Very surreal. The others were saying good-bye. They'd fly away. {Poor Enterprise}. This was more like a retirement party.
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Quoting KoritheMan:

And I'm still saying that. However, I think you are missing my point.


I might...I mean she was just an hour away from landfall not 12 hours or 1 day..come on...I want to see the post analysis.

I still think she was a hurricane at landfall anyway..and yes I can argue on... :/
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:


that is an estimate
Yes, and if it was half of that we would be fortune. Who cares what the total ends up to begin with? There is a large loss of life and damage and people need help.
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Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:


an estimate is not accurate
But they can be reasonably so, and the damage wrought by the storm is decidedly more thematic than the initial prognosis of $20 billion.
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Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:


I don't understand you guys...here people were saying that it didn't matter if Sandy was a hurricane at landfall or not because the effects were the same
And I'm still saying that. However, I think you are missing my point.
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Quoting KoritheMan:

You can't argue statistics. Obviously, technicalities a storm do not make, and the widespread economic devastation and human casualties associated with this storm will be long-remembered, but Sandy is NOT the second costliest United States hurricane.


I don't understand you guys...here people were saying that it didn't matter if Sandy was a hurricane at landfall or not because the effects were the same
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
Quoting KoritheMan:

Do you have any reason to assume it is inaccurate?


an estimate is not accurate
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873

Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:


??? it doen not matter
You can't argue statistics. Obviously, technicalities a storm do not make, and the widespread economic devastation and human casualties associated with this storm will be long-remembered, but Sandy is NOT the second costliest United States hurricane.
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Quoting KoritheMan:

Technically it's not, because it was extratropical at landfall.


??? it doen not matter
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
Quoting Neapolitan:
Why would it keep me busy? Watts' site contains as much intelligence as an episode of Jersey Shore, and about as much truthful and honest scientific content; if I want my fill of nonsensical, spittle-flecked blather, I'll watch Snooki get drunk and pass out in some liquor store parking lot.
man this is funny. I needed a good laugh.
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Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:


that is an estimate
Do you have any reason to assume it is inaccurate?
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Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:
Sandy could take Ike's record for the second costliest hurricane on record

:(
Technically it's not, because it was extratropical at landfall.
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Quoting CybrTeddy:


Already has, over 50 billion dollars in damage.


that is an estimate
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:


LOL! You would have to ask Grothar that question!


Ouch!
Member Since: September 4, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 45
Quoting Skyepony:


I was there. Won my placard in the draw. Would have been worth paying for though. That was unforgettable. We were over by Headquarters, the Cabana/Bolden signing Atlantis over to Delaware North ceremony. I took a pic of the document. NASA is keeping ownership.

When the others flew off. There was photo op when it parked, then it would be a pic or 2 when it flew off & back by. The parade just was ridiculous for taking pics.


Repost: don't know why my last post went nuts on me.

I was over the Exploration center when they parked Atlantis out there, got to meet the Sierra Nevada, SpaceX, and NASA guys out there and talked a lot with them. They're quite good folks.

The parade was *awful* to take pictures in, I was infront of the Astronaut memorial - couldn't get a picture without a tree, or some guys arm in the way.
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Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:
Sandy could take Ike's record for the second costliest hurricane on record

:(


Already has, over 50 billion dollars in damage.
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Quoting NJcat3cane:
yes.. that entire north end was under 5 feet plus of water

How did Barnegat Light fare?
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By Miguel Llanos, NBC News
Updated 11:20 p.m. ET:

The death toll in the United States from Superstorm Sandy rosed to 109 victims on Friday, as Pennsylvania reported four additional deaths and New York City reported two more fatalities. Mayor Michael Bloomberg warned: "There could be more fatalities."
Member Since: July 12, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 6069
417. Skyepony (Mod)
Quoting CybrTeddy:


Awesome. Those tickets weren't cheap, but they were beyond worth it. I got some hi-resolution shots with my good camera (that other one is from the iPhone), with a telescopic lens, got pictures so close to the tiles you can read the serial numbers on them.


I was there. Won my placard in the draw. Would have been worth paying for though. That was unforgettable. We were over by Headquarters, the Cabana/Bolden signing Atlantis over to Delaware North ceremony. I took a pic of the document. NASA is keeping ownership.

When the others flew off. There was photo op when it parked, then it would be a pic or 2 when it flew off & back by. The parade just was ridiculous for taking pics.
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Sandy could take Ike's record for the second costliest hurricane on record

:(
Member Since: April 23, 2011 Posts: 104 Comments: 14873
Quoting yoboi:


lol that is true...


I have thoroughly enjoyed our discussion this evening, yoboi. Thanks!

I am out, for the night. Everyone take care and stay safe.
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Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:


Hi, Barefoot!

I do not know if these links were in reference to any calls on increased hurricane land falls or not, but I checked each one and found no reference to such a statement. Also, at the bottom of the last link, it says, "April Fools!" LOL, Dr. Masters has a sense of humor!
None of them call for it. That is not my point. But it is discussed. The 2010 Doc M article posted separately (Link added) Global warming and the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes: model results (April 5, 2010) discusses not increased landfalls but increased dollar damage from "high end" hurricanes. Also cites the Pielke guy who wrote the WSJ article yoboi posted and you quoted.

Haha. That is my favorite Doc M April Fool blog.

I don't recall Doc M ever writing (a blog) that viewed global warming as responsible for weather extremes. Posted something about that at Angela Fritz's a few blogs back, with links to blogs where he wrote about that. I'm not going to go get them though. lol
Member Since: April 29, 2006 Posts: 159 Comments: 19393
Quoting oracle28:


Ya think?

It's abundantly clear that "man-made global warming" is the newest religion.


Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 178 Comments: 56141
412. yoboi
Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:


LOL! You would have to ask Grothar that question!


lol that is true...
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Quoting NJcat3cane:
How come when you upload a picture i lose my comment count? lol not like i had that many but still haha


Someone warned you of that earlier this evening... it happened when you created a blog, I believe :)
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Quoting yoboi:


why was it so high 50 million yrs ago???


LOL! You would have to ask Grothar that question!
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Quoting Barefootontherocks:
And here's a few of Doc M's blogs on the subject of climate change aka global warming and Atlantic hurricanes...

Global warming and hurricanes part 1: The natural cycle (December 19, 2005)

Global warming and hurricanes part 2: An increase in late season activity (January 9, 2006)

Hurricane scientists divided on global warming issue (April 27, 2006) This article cites Pielke, the same person at comment 347, the WSJ article. (See comment 390)

This blog is a must read:

Cyclopsychic research breakthrough proves hurricanes/global warming connection


Hi, Barefoot!

I do not know if these links were in reference to any calls on increased hurricane land falls or not, but I checked each one and found no reference to such a statement. Also, at the bottom of the last link, it says, "April Fools!" LOL, Dr. Masters has a sense of humor!
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Quoting yoboi:



so ya only listen to people with your agenda??? why not have an open mind with respected research???? i am posting respected people findings...


Ya think?

It's abundantly clear that "man-made global warming" is the newest religion.
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407. yoboi
Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:


That is an interesting article and I would agree, 100%, that no single weather related event would be a proving point that AGW is the root cause of said event. ... This is, however, only an opinion piece and no scientific evidence is introduced to back the opinion. What needs to be looked at the long term trends to see if there is an indication that the climate is changing. Have the world's severe weather related events become more frequent, more durable and happening in regions that are not normally associated with such extreme events? Should this be true, then you must come to the conclusion that something has changed in the global climate. This does not show certainty that it is a man induced change, but only that there has been a change. We must look at what could be behind the change. What has changed? We know that the planet's climate has changed in the past and we have a fairly good grasp on what could initiate a climate change.

1. A change in Earth's orbit. This is cyclical and we know the cycle. Earth's orbit is not a circular orbit but, rather, an elliptical orbit. We know where the planet is in that cycle and it is not a rapid warming/cooling cycle.

2. An increase in solar energy. There have been no observations that would support that this would be the driver for the current climate trends. Also, sun spot activity is on 11 years cycles and have no long term trends on our climate. Some cycles are are stronger or more extended but, again these are short term trends and not long term trends.

3. A change in the tilt of the planet on its axis. Too easily measured and we know that this is not what is happening now.

4. Tectonic activity. There has been no increase in tectonic activity that would account for the current warming trend that climate is now undergoing.

5. Volcanic activity. This would actually have a short term cooling affect due to the amount of particulates that are thrown into the atmosphere. A super volcanic event, on the other hand, would have a dramatic affect on our climate. There have been no such events during our lifetime. I cannot think of any evidence of one during man's existence on this planet. They can be life ending events for nearly every species on Earth.

6. Extra-planetary strikes. Again, if large enough, these can be species ending events. We have not had any events occur that would be large enough to change our climate.

7. Large methane escape events from a shallow oceanic thermal inversion that would bring methane from the ocean floor to the surface. Again, no evidence that this is yet occurring.

So, if natural forces are not behind the current climate warming trends, then what is left? We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and that mankind's activities are releasing tons/day of CO2 into the atmosphere. CO2 produced from the burning of fossil fuels have a distinct chemical marker. This chemical marker is showing up in the atmosphere. - How do we know that recent CO2 increases are due to human activities?

Eventually, the facts become too apparent to ignore.


why was it so high 50 million yrs ago???
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406. yoboi
Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:


That is an interesting article and I would agree, 100%, that no single weather related event would be a proving point that AGW is the root cause of said event. ... This is, however, only an opinion piece and no scientific evidence is introduced to back the opinion. What needs to be looked at the long term trends to see if there is an indication that the climate is changing. Have the world's severe weather related events become more frequent, more durable and happening in regions that are not normally associated with such extreme events? Should this be true, then you must come to the conclusion that something has changed in the global climate. This does not show certainty that it is a man induced change, but only that there has been a change. We must look at what could be behind the change. What has changed? We know that the planet's climate has changed in the past and we have a fairly good grasp on what could initiate a climate change.

1. A change in Earth's orbit. This is cyclical and we know the cycle. Earth's orbit is not a circular orbit but, rather, an elliptical orbit. We know where the planet is in that cycle and it is not a rapid warming/cooling cycle.

2. An increase in solar energy. There have been no observations that would support that this would be the driver for the current climate trends. Also, sun spot activity is on 11 years cycles and have no long term trends on our climate. Some cycles are are stronger or more extended but, again these are short term trends and not long term trends.

3. A change in the tilt of the planet on its axis. Too easily measured and we know that this is not what is happening now.

4. Tectonic activity. There has been no increase in tectonic activity that would account for the current warming trend that climate is now undergoing.

5. Volcanic activity. This would actually have a short term cooling affect due to the amount of particulates that are thrown into the atmosphere. A super volcanic event, on the other hand, would have a dramatic affect on our climate. There have been no such events during our lifetime. I cannot think of any evidence of one during man's existence on this planet. They can be life ending events for nearly every species on Earth.

6. Extra-planetary strikes. Again, if large enough, these can be species ending events. We have not had any events occur that would be large enough to change our climate.

7. Large methane escape events from a shallow oceanic thermal inversion that would bring methane from the ocean floor to the surface. Again, no evidence that this is yet occurring.

So, if natural forces are not behind the current climate warming trends, then what is left? We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and that mankind's activities are releasing tons/day of CO2 into the atmosphere. CO2 produced from the burning of fossil fuels have a distinct chemical marker. This chemical marker is showing up in the atmosphere. - How do we know that recent CO2 increases are due to human activities?

Eventually, the facts become too apparent to ignore.


good point i will research it...
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Quoting yoboi:


oh so he is 93 what age range do ya need data from???

20-30 yrs old 30-40 yrs old?? 40-50 yrs old please inform me the age range....


His age has nothing to do with. The years past since he last worked in the field do.
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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