Why did Hurricane Sandy take such an unusual track into New Jersey?

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:33 PM GMT on October 31, 2012

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We're used to seeing hurricane-battered beaches and flooded cities in Florida, North Carolina, and the Gulf Coast. But to see these images from the Jersey Shore and New York City in the wake of Hurricane Sandy is a shocking experience. New Jersey only rarely gets hit by hurricanes because it lies in a portion of the coast that doesn't stick out much, and is too far north. How did this happen? How was a hurricane able to move from southeast to northwest at landfall, so far north, and so late in hurricane season? We expect hurricanes to move from east to west in the tropics, where the prevailing trade winds blow that direction. But the prevailing wind direction reverses at mid-latitudes, flowing predominately west-to-east, due to the spin of the Earth. Hurricanes that penetrate to about Florida's latitude usually get caught up in these westerly winds, and are whisked northeastwards, out to sea. However, the jet stream, that powerful band of upper-atmosphere west-to-east flowing air, has many dips and bulges. These troughs of low pressure and ridges of high pressure allow winds at mid-latitudes to flow more to the north or to the south. Every so often, a trough in the jet stream bends back on itself when encountering a ridge of high pressure stuck in place ahead of it. These "negatively tilted" troughs have winds that flow from southeast to northwest. It is this sort of negatively tilted trough that sucked in Sandy and allowed the hurricane to take such an unusual path into New Jersey.


Figure 1. Inlet section of Atlantic City, N.J., after Hurricane Sandy. Image credit: 6 ABC Action News.

The 1903 Vagabond Hurricane
The only other hurricane to hit New Jersey since 1851 besides Sandy was the 1903 Category 1 Vagabond Hurricane. According to Wikipedia, the Vagabond Hurricane caused heavy damage along the New Jersey coast ($180 million in 2006 dollars.) The hurricane killed 57 people, and endangered the life of President Theodore Roosevelt, who was sailing on a yacht near Long Island, NY, when the hurricane hit. However, the Vagabond Hurricane hit in September, when the jet stream is typically weaker and farther to the north. It is quite extraordinary that Sandy was able to hit New Jersey in late October, when the jet stream is typically stronger and farther south, making recurvature to the northeast much more likely than in September.


Figure 2. The path of the 1903 Vagabond Hurricane, the only other hurricane to hit New Jersey since 1851.

The blocking ridge that steered Sandy into New Jersey
A strong ridge of high pressure parked itself over Greenland beginning on October 20, creating a "blocking ridge" that prevented the normal west-to-east flow of winds over Eastern North America. Think of the blocking ridge like a big truck parked over Greenland. Storms approaching from the west (like the fall low pressure system that moved across the U.S. from California to Pennsylvania last week) or from the south (Hurricane Sandy) were blocked from heading to the northeast. Caught in the equivalent of an atmospheric traffic jam, the two storms collided over the Northeast U.S., combined into one, and are now waiting for the truck parked over Greenland to move. The strength of the blocking ridge, as measured by the strength of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), was quite high--about two standard deviations from average, something that occurs approximately 5% of the time. When the NAO is in a strong negative phase, we tend to have blocking ridges over Greenland.


Figure 3. Jet stream winds at a pressure of 300 mb on October 29, 2012, as Hurricane Sandy approached the coast of New Jersey. Note that the wind direction over New Jersey (black arrows) was from the southeast, due to a negatively tilted trough of low pressure over the Eastern U.S. caused by a strong blocking ridge of high pressure over Greenland. Image credit: NOAA/ESRL.

Arctic sea ice loss can cause blocking ridges
Blocking ridges occur naturally, but are uncommon over Greenland this time of year. According to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center, blocking near the longitude of Greenland (50°W) only occurs about 2% of the time in the fall. These odds rise to about 6% in winter and spring. As I discussed in an April post, Arctic sea ice loss tied to unusual jet stream patterns, three studies published in the past year have found that the jet stream has been getting stuck in unusually strong blocking patterns in recent years. These studies found that the recent record decline in Arctic sea ice could be responsible, since this heats up the pole, altering the Equator-to-pole temperature difference, forcing the jet stream to slow down, meander, and get stuck in large loops. The 2012 Arctic sea ice melt season was extreme, with sea ice extent hitting a record lows. Could sea ice loss have contributed to the blocking ridge that steered Sandy into New Jersey? It is possible, but we will need to much more research on the subject before we make such a link, as the studies of sea ice loss on jet stream patterns are so new. The author of one of the new studies, Dr. Jennifer Francis of Rutgers, had this say in a recent post by Andy Revkin in his Dot Earth blog: "While it’s impossible to say how this scenario might have unfolded if sea-ice had been as extensive as it was in the 1980s, the situation at hand is completely consistent with what I’d expect to see happen more often as a result of unabated warming and especially the amplification of that warming in the Arctic."

Jeff Masters

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A near-record low barometric pressure occurred with Sandy offshore Monday afternoon. The pressure bottomed at 27.76 inches. For a storm north of Cape Hatteras, N.C., Hurricane Gladys of 1977 holds the record at 27.73 inches. Gladys was a Category 4 hurricane which remained off the coast of the U.S.
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Quoting playapics:


November is still prime hurricane season...EVERYWHERE!!...I don't get your point!?

Henry


I don't get yours either, I never said it wasn't part of the hurricane season, but it's not known to be very active. The Jet Stream is usually too low and cooler SSTs generally pervade. I'm merely pointing out the fact that, as Largo said, the season's not over and that activity in November has been trending upwards lately.

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Quoting bwi:


I'm in MD, and we're very concerned. Thanks to Dr. Masters' blog, I learned about the interaction of climate change with both tropical and non-tropical weather. Because of the higher likelihood of heavy precipitation events and storms, due the warmer water and other GW effects, I outfitted our house for generator power. I figured the enhanced likelihood of both tropical storms (although I presumed that early-season July and August storms would be the problem, not late October!) and also heavier-precip winter storms would justify the cost.

My prep paid off during Snowmageddon, this summer's derecho, Irene, and now Sandy.

Fortunately, our house is on high ground, so we're resistant to freshwater flooding and well above the current surge zone. However, if global warming accelerates to an extreme pace and there is dramatic melting of terrestrial ice and a sea-level rise of more than 5 meters (I don't think it will in my lifetime, but the way things are going you never know) we could have oceanfront property!

I'd rather not take that chance, however, so we've mostly converted our day-to-day transport to person powered (bikes). We still have a car for long trips and hauling big items, but bike commuting is the easiest way I know to make a big difference in CO2 emissions. And I follow blogs like Dr. Masters to keep up with the science best I can, despite the distractions from commenters who either can't comprehend or do not care to deal with the climate changes taking place and their causes.
Thank you for your caring for us and the planet by cycling. I have been cycling for 20+ years and recycling for 30+ years, so you are in good company...many of us care, too.
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Quoting pottery:
A surprising, and welcomed, blow-up of convective activity just East of Trinidad this morning and continuing.
A couple showers with lightening and some stiff breezes in squalls came through earlier.

About time !
Send more !!
Hi pottery, hope you get some rain
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folks this headline is misleading..yes the airports are open..but no planes there..had to fly them away to keep them safe from sandy.................................Airports and stock exchange reopen; New Jersey devastated
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A surprising, and welcomed, blow-up of convective activity just East of Trinidad this morning and continuing.
A couple showers with lightening and some stiff breezes in squalls came through earlier.

About time !
Send more !!
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Quoting LostTomorrows:


I think the NHC is just throwing in the towel after Sandy, but this thing is in a prime environment... just ask Sandy. And recent years have seen at least one storm develop in or even after November, with some seeing storms cross over into Novembr but not form that year... it's become more common place. If we consider all of the above, than 8 of the last 10 years have seen named storms at least at some point in November.


November is still prime hurricane season...EVERYWHERE!!...I don't get your point!?

Henry
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looks still warm over in Texas today..................
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Quoting LostTomorrows:


I think the NHC is just throwing in the towel after Sandy, but this thing is in a prime environment... just ask Sandy. And recent years have seen at least one storm develop in or even after November, with some seeing storms cross over into Novembr but not form that year... it's become more common place. If we consider all of the above, than 8 of the last 10 years have seen named storms at least at some point in November.
yes the season is not over yet
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Quoting LargoFl:
funny tho, NHC isnt mentioning it in the 2pm


I think the NHC is just throwing in the towel after Sandy, but this thing is in a prime environment... just ask Sandy. And recent years have seen at least one storm develop in or even after November, with some seeing storms cross over into November but not form that month... it's become more common place. If we consider all of the above, than 8 of the last 10 years have seen named storms at least at some point after Nov 1.
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Quoting playapics:
Just to put "Sandy's" regional impact into scale...a woman in Toronto, Ontario Canada lost her life when a "Business Depot" sign blew off of it's moorings and struck and tragically caused fatal injuries to her.

+1 for Sandy...though it's really a negative...JUST SAYIN!!!
yes its hard for us to comprehend..the sheer size and scope of this storm, yes we can see the pics and maps but somehow it just does not register..15 states and canada..unbelievable...they will be talking about this storm 20 years from now
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Just to put "Sandy's" regional impact into scale...a woman in Toronto, Ontario Canada lost her life when a "Business Depot" sign blew off of it's moorings and struck and tragically caused fatal injuries to her.

+1 for Sandy...though it's really a negative...JUST SAYIN!!!
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Thanks for the explanation DRM. To everyone dealing with Sandy and her aftermath, hang in there. Looks like we're sending people to help also.

Southeast Texans heading to East Coast to help

BEAUMONT- By: Kalie Desimone/ KFDM News

50 billion dollars. that's how much some analysts say the superstorm will cost in property damage and lost business. Millions remain without power. Southeast Texans are coming to the rescue to help with the economic recovery and the restoration of power. Entergy trucks loaded with equipment, heading to the East Coast. "Probably a lot of flood waters, down power lines. That's the main reason we are going and trees damage. That's probably the main concern" says Frank Galassi.

Entergy is sending 22 men to Mays Landing New Jersey. An area hit hard by Sandy. "It's supposed to be the biggest storm they've ever had. There is a lot of people still there that did not evacuate which is a big concern as far as us getting around" says Galassi. 40 men with the power company left for the East Coast Saturday morning. The crews are part of a massive restoration effort. But the Entergy team isn't the only crew traveling to New Jersey and New York.

"We are establishing a list so that we can say people in Beaumont, Port Arthur and Orange area want to work" says Jewel Black. Jewel Black is recruiting workers at the Theodore Johns library in Beaumont. "When a natural disaster happens we want to go. We want to help FEMA" says Black. Help that requires a specific skill set. Hazmat clean up and running heavy machinery. "We need operators, we need labors" says Black.

And they need a lot of help. Hundreds of people. "Last night they said we need between 200 to 500 people" says Black. A job people with a special set of skills want and need in Southeast TTexas. Help with the clean up. What people on the east coast desperately need.

If you're interested in signing up with the Vision Builders Staffing Agency to help with natural disasters, you can come to a recruitment event this Saturday from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. at the L.L. Melton building. You must have a state issued ID card, cell phone and email address. In addition you'll need a 40 hour OSHA EPA hazardous material training certificate and valid passport. There is some other paperwork you'll need as well.

For more information call 1-866-503-3589.
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Nassau county Florida..................YULEE, Fla. (AP) — Two young panthers are being tracked in northeast Florida after Hurricane Sandy knocked down the enclosure fence where they were being raised.
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the northeast health depts are going to be working tons of overtime trying to avert a health diseaster, with pools of polluted water, slime and mold etc..remember its warm enough there for standing water to become putrid and disease ridden..such a wide area affected,they cant be everywhere at once with clogged streets and roads and collasped homes ..a nightmare
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98. whitewabit (Mod)
Quoting ILwthrfan:


Well here in Decatur we are getting Northwest winds..



And so is Peoria currently...



Yesterday was extemely breezy in my area out of the north, I think there may have been an extreme gradient. The entire state of Indiana was under a wind advisory yesterday. So just being two counties away...


Was much windier yesterday then it is today as you said.. and yes its a cold north wind blowing ..
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Quoting VAstorms:
As with all canes, I put a ton of people on my ignore list but this one may have topped them all for me. All of the ones who posted that, oh, it's not so bad in NY. Haven't heard from them since.



Oh, good! I read that so I'm not on the list :)

Seriously, the news out Hoboken and Battery Park is almost too much to believe. I have been to the Jersey Shore a few times, and I cannot recognize familier neighborhoods or even understand the scope of the damage yet. And the fact the storm was bad all the way inland to Ohio is probably the most boggling yet. If you aren't safe from tropical weather in Ohio, where can you go? I suppose by then the storm was post tropical, but still...
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50 people from the US have died from Hurricane Sandy

CNN

[Updated 2:41 p.m.] An update to the evacuation at New York City's Bellevue Hospital: The number of remaining patients who will be evacuated is about 700, and the process could take two days, a source familiar with the evacuation plan told CNN. Many critically ill patients were evacuated earlier.

The hospital's generators are on the 13th floor, but the pumps that supply oil to the generators are in the basement under 8 feet of water, the source said.

[Updated 2:12 p.m.] New York City's Bellevue Hospital will evacuate the remaining 500 patients inside, according to an e-mail from a hospital group sent to New York-area hospitals. Many critically ill patients were already evacuated, but about 500 remained. Ambulances are lined up outside the hospital in preparation, CNN's Dr. Sanjay Gupta reports.

[Updated 1:43 p.m.] The city of Long Beach, New York, says residents should evacuate if they have not already done so and not return until services such as water, sewer and power have been restored. Buses will go through neighborhoods to pick up residents and take them to shelters, according to the city's Facebook page.

A curfew will be in effect from 7 p.m. Wednesday to 6 a.m. Thursday.
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Quoting LostTomorrows:


Shhhh that's the one I've been watching.
funny tho, NHC isnt mentioning it in the 2pm
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Quoting LargoFl:
guys the purple watch area is back again...........


Shhhh that's the one I've been watching.
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Rainfall days 1-5..................
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India Meteorological Department
Tropical Cyclone Advisory #22
CYCLONIC STORM NILAM (BOB02-2012)
20:30 PM IST October 31 2012
=========================================

At 15:00 PM UTC, Cyclonic Storm Nilam moved northwestward and now lays centered near 13.0N 79.5E, about 60 km west of Chennai, India. The system is likely to move further northwestward and weaken into a deep depression.
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EDIT: sorry for double post. I've been running into some bugs trying to comment today. Anyone else?
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guys the purple watch area is back again...........
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Quoting whitewabit:
Winds here in central Illinois (Peoria) have been 5-10 mph all morning .. Not getting the winds that are to the north ..
winds have died down here around tampa bay, they were around 25-30 yesterday and blowing a COLD wind..warmer today in the sunshine
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Quoting MrMixon:


If only it were that easy. The size and number of greenhouses we'd need (never mind the energy required to keep them climate-controlled) makes that solution financial impractical:



And they'd need to be really big to fit combine harvesters inside them.
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As all these events are going on, I am in a drought in SE TX in Galveston county. Ponds/Lakes are down 2-3 ft, some plants/shrubs are stressed, the yards and grass are stressed like summer. For the first time EVER, I had to water the front and back yard last evening as I would in summer on October 30th. NEVER had to do anything like that. It's getting worse by the day and no rain in sight.

Texas is heading for hell come next year if we don't start getting rains this upcoming winter/spring.
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Quoting NJ2S:
Its mayhem on the streets here in Hudson county no with most street lights out .... Scary to be on the roads even in daylight ppl drive crazy.
stay safe up there, it must be a nightmare at night
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Quoting JimmySD:
We already have an analog for how our climate is going to end up IF we get our act together now and mother nature doesn't throw any surprises at us (like a methane time-bomb). It's called the Pliocene. And while it's a world we wouldn't recognize, it is liveable.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pliocene_climate

If we don't get our act together the outcome could be MUCH more ugly. Think ocean anoxic event.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anoxic_event

Either way, as the decades roll on more and more of the coast is going to become uninhabitable.
..yes and at the same time, more and more people want to build right on the shoreline
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Quoting biff4ugo:
The next big question for hurricane survivors...Yes saltwater is bad on wiring but does salt water kill black mold?

Will colder northern temperatures help keep mold growth down?

Seriously, this is a hurricane related question.
When I got flooded in Wilma I had black mold, green mold and white mold grow. The white mold looked like encrusted salt, which I thought it was, until an expert in molds told me otherwise. I don't know about the temperature, because even though we had cool temps after Wilma, it soon became warm again. Plus the salt water does things the fresh water never did, or so it seemed to me. Every piece of furniture that was glued came apart. And I only had ankle deep water in the house. Of course that was two weeks into being a damp house. I only got the cleaners to come to the house after two weeks of calling.
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Quoting FunnelVortex:


Start growing crops in barn-sized greenhouses with controled conditions, problem solved.


If only it were that easy. The size and number of greenhouses we'd need (never mind the energy required to keep them climate-controlled) makes that solution financially impractical:

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Sandy's surf energy is still impacting Rincon....

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Quoting JeffMasters:
Lost power at my house in Michigan this morning due to high winds from Sandy; 120,000 customers have lost power in MI so far from the storm. The scale of this storm is unbelievable.

Jeff Masters

I had power issues yesterday at my house. DTE reported 40,000-45,000 people still out this morning. Sandy was truly one big storm.
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As with all canes, I put a ton of people on my ignore list but this one may have topped them all for me. All of the ones who posted that, oh, it's not so bad in NY. Haven't heard from them since.
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Quoting jeffs713:

Black Mold will still develop with salt water - it isn't terribly sensitive to salt. As for temps - it may actually increase it... outside, there will be much less black mold growth. But inside, it will go crazy, due to ideal growing conditions 24/7 (since doors and windows stay closed when it is cold outside).


Yep. Mold is a bigger problem in a lot of cold places in the _winter_, in my experience, because everything is shut so airtight to keep the heat in. Especially in newer homes with super efficient windows etc. They're warmer, but the houses don't really breathe as easily.
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Ironically Michigan, as did other states, sent linemen East as Sandy approached...

Hurricane Sandy:
DTE Energy prepares to send workers to help restore power on East Coast

By BEN FREED Business Reporter 9 Comments
Posted on Mon, Oct 29, 2012 : 5:51 p.m.

DTE Energy has released 100 contract linemen to potentially be sent to the East Coast to help regional energy carriers regain power in the aftermath of hurricane Sandy this week, a company spokesman said.

The move comes as Sandy is moving toward land and could impact Southeast Michigan as well. A National Weather Service issued a wind advisory Monday that warning area residents that gusts could reach up to 50 mph Monday afternoon, strong enough to cause power outages.

DTE spokesman Alejandro Bodipo-Memba said the company’s first responsibility is to consumers here in Michigan, and that the company is still attempting to forecast the local need for linemen against the needs in East Coast states....
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75. 7544
caribiean blob looking pretty good today
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We already have an analog for how our climate is going to end up IF we get our act together now and mother nature doesn't throw any surprises at us (like a methane time-bomb). It's called the Pliocene. And while it's a world we wouldn't recognize, it is liveable.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pliocene_climate

If we don't get our act together the outcome could be MUCH more ugly. Think ocean anoxic event.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anoxic_event

Either way, as the decades roll on more and more of the coast is going to become uninhabitable.
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Quoting OracleDeAtlantis:
The truth is, meteorology is in uncharted territory right now, and this will be even truer in the months to come.

I don't need science to tell me that we're in trouble. My sixth sense already tells me that. I need science to tell THEM, that a lot of people are going to die if we don't do something very fast. We don't need to scare everyone by saying it's probably too late, but at least we might have time to make some plans for moving our crop lands if we start thinking about where the moisture will go as the planet heats up.

This whole argument that we can become self-sufficient on fossil fuels in the U.S. is suicide, but we're still debating it. This storm was a slam in the face from a higher power to anyone paying close attention, but you won't hear that from the preachers or the scientists, which means there's only one voice we should be listening to, and her fist is about to pound U.S. into oblivion.

Here's my crystal ball. The deserts will bloom, but the soil will prove insufficient to provide adequate harvests without a lot more planning. We need to look quickly and carefully at where it was wet, when it was dry, and vice-verse.

We need meteorology to speculate on where we'll be able to grow our food, now. That's the real forecast we'll need.





Start growing crops in barn-sized greenhouses with controled conditions, problem solved.
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See 15 hours of Sandy approach and landfall at my blog entry. Provides alternate insight of her unusual track.
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Quoting jskweather:
Yep. My brain was on Issac from reading another post. I knew it was wrong when I typed it. lol


I once posted here something here about Hurricane Gustav but I unintentionally put data about Wilma instead...I don't know why I did that... t's alright
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Quoting FL1980:



Here come the Climate Change Nut Jobs. Give it a rest already!


And remember, nobody ever said that Sandy was directly caused by man - except maybe this guy:

"...FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: October 26, 2012
CONTACT: Blair FitzGibbon : 202-503-6141 : blair@fitzgibbonmedia.com
Statement by Brad Johnson, campaign manager of Forecast the Facts and ClimateSilence.org:

“If the candidates won’t listen to the voters demanding they break their climate silence, maybe they will listen to Mother Nature’s October Surprise. We know the candidates will be asked about Hurricane Sandy, and will express their sympathy with those affected. They will rightly applaud the first responders, the compassion of neighbors, and the strength and resolve of the American people. But what their role as national leaders demands that they also do is explain that Hurricane Sandy is a true Frankenstorm, a monster created by man tampering with nature with oil, coal, and gas pollution..."
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TWC site...
>>>>>>EPIC DEVASTATION!!!<<<<<<<<

lol...relax
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Quoting SFLWeatherman:
Incredible aerial footage of Hurricane Sandy damage to Seaside Heights, N.J. ... a beachfront amusement park destroyed, a new inlet cut right through a neighborhood. These homes were not built on stilts like most barrier island buildings are in more hurricane-prone areas.


This sort of imagery is just more evidence that serious consideration needs to be given by governments and businesses, top to bottom, about how zoning laws and insurance companies are managed.

This is only the beginning. The real affects of AGW don't start to kick in until at least the first complete summer Arctic Sea Ice meltdown happens.

Arctic sea ice loss can cause blocking ridges
Blocking ridges occur naturally, but are uncommon over Greenland this time of year. According to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center, blocking near the longitude of Greenland (50°W) only occurs about 2% of the time in the fall. These odds rise to about 6% in winter and spring. As I discussed in an April post, Arctic sea ice loss tied to unusual jet stream patterns, three studies published in the past year have found that the jet stream has been getting stuck in unusually strong blocking patterns in recent years. These studies found that the recent record decline in Arctic sea ice could be responsible, since this heats up the pole, altering the Equator-to-pole temperature difference, forcing the jet stream to slow down, meander, and get stuck in large loops. The 2012 Arctic sea ice melt season was extreme, with sea ice extent hitting a record lows. Could sea ice loss have contributed to the blocking ridge that steered Sandy into New Jersey? It is possible, but we will need to much more research on the subject before we make such a link, as the studies of sea ice loss on jet stream patterns are so new. The author of one of the new studies, Dr. Jennifer Francis of Rutgers, had this say in a recent post by Andy Revkin in his Dot Earth blog: "While it’s impossible to say how this scenario might have unfolded if sea-ice had been as extensive as it was in the 1980s, the situation at hand is completely consistent with what I’d expect to see happen more often as a result of unabated warming and especially the amplification of that warming in the Arctic."



This agrees somewhat with my intuitive belief that the effects will be bigger storm in more locations more often, but not only that, "retrograde" storm tracks compared to climatology norms should become more common. We had many storms this year which broke some sort of climatology norm: direction of track, intensity at lattitude, absurd storm surges compared to SS wind intensity due to "very large, very low pressure category 1 storms".


I'm thinking this could become literally "normal" for a strong TS or large category 1 storm to hit the Jersey shore region as AGW goes forward, because of the persistent hot pockets in SST just off shore, combined with the blocking patterns.


Another interesting thing about both Sandy and Irene is they were "slow movers" compared to climatological norms for the effected regions. Historically storms are moving 25, 30, even 40 mph as they pass New England. Both Sandy and Irene just clunked along at 10 to 15mph for most of their track, which can lead to much higher wave setups, much higher precipitation, and more more prolonged winds.



I am also interested in why the consensus landfall intensity forecast was so poor for Sandy. At 2.5 to 3 days, Sandy had been forecast to landfall as a 60mph storm. Based on Kinetic Energy, a 90mph storm is 225% as energetic as a 60mph storm of the same size. So the error in terms of kinetic energy was about 125% of the forecast value!

The models, when adjusted for initialization errors, generally did very well on other storms, including Isaac.

Why was it so bad for Sandy? The hot pocket in the SST (compared to average,) was there, but other storms passed hot pockets this year and did not intensify so rapidly, or even at all. I figure the cold upper air in October has something to do with this, since Wilma did something similar.

Perhaps October storms don't follow the same rules as August and September storms. There seems to be a lot more uncertainty in every aspect of intensity and track.


Carl Parker on TWC stated that there may be several scientific papers written about the various events involving this storm, because it is so unique.
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67. NJ2S
Its mayhem on the streets here in Hudson county no with most street lights out .... Scary to be on the roads even in daylight ppl drive crazy.
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Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:


You mean Ike in 2008
Yep. My brain was on Issac from reading another post. I knew it was wrong when I typed it. lol
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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