Why did Hurricane Sandy take such an unusual track into New Jersey?

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:33 PM GMT on October 31, 2012

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We're used to seeing hurricane-battered beaches and flooded cities in Florida, North Carolina, and the Gulf Coast. But to see these images from the Jersey Shore and New York City in the wake of Hurricane Sandy is a shocking experience. New Jersey only rarely gets hit by hurricanes because it lies in a portion of the coast that doesn't stick out much, and is too far north. How did this happen? How was a hurricane able to move from southeast to northwest at landfall, so far north, and so late in hurricane season? We expect hurricanes to move from east to west in the tropics, where the prevailing trade winds blow that direction. But the prevailing wind direction reverses at mid-latitudes, flowing predominately west-to-east, due to the spin of the Earth. Hurricanes that penetrate to about Florida's latitude usually get caught up in these westerly winds, and are whisked northeastwards, out to sea. However, the jet stream, that powerful band of upper-atmosphere west-to-east flowing air, has many dips and bulges. These troughs of low pressure and ridges of high pressure allow winds at mid-latitudes to flow more to the north or to the south. Every so often, a trough in the jet stream bends back on itself when encountering a ridge of high pressure stuck in place ahead of it. These "negatively tilted" troughs have winds that flow from southeast to northwest. It is this sort of negatively tilted trough that sucked in Sandy and allowed the hurricane to take such an unusual path into New Jersey.


Figure 1. Inlet section of Atlantic City, N.J., after Hurricane Sandy. Image credit: 6 ABC Action News.

The 1903 Vagabond Hurricane
The only other hurricane to hit New Jersey since 1851 besides Sandy was the 1903 Category 1 Vagabond Hurricane. According to Wikipedia, the Vagabond Hurricane caused heavy damage along the New Jersey coast ($180 million in 2006 dollars.) The hurricane killed 57 people, and endangered the life of President Theodore Roosevelt, who was sailing on a yacht near Long Island, NY, when the hurricane hit. However, the Vagabond Hurricane hit in September, when the jet stream is typically weaker and farther to the north. It is quite extraordinary that Sandy was able to hit New Jersey in late October, when the jet stream is typically stronger and farther south, making recurvature to the northeast much more likely than in September.


Figure 2. The path of the 1903 Vagabond Hurricane, the only other hurricane to hit New Jersey since 1851.

The blocking ridge that steered Sandy into New Jersey
A strong ridge of high pressure parked itself over Greenland beginning on October 20, creating a "blocking ridge" that prevented the normal west-to-east flow of winds over Eastern North America. Think of the blocking ridge like a big truck parked over Greenland. Storms approaching from the west (like the fall low pressure system that moved across the U.S. from California to Pennsylvania last week) or from the south (Hurricane Sandy) were blocked from heading to the northeast. Caught in the equivalent of an atmospheric traffic jam, the two storms collided over the Northeast U.S., combined into one, and are now waiting for the truck parked over Greenland to move. The strength of the blocking ridge, as measured by the strength of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), was quite high--about two standard deviations from average, something that occurs approximately 5% of the time. When the NAO is in a strong negative phase, we tend to have blocking ridges over Greenland.


Figure 3. Jet stream winds at a pressure of 300 mb on October 29, 2012, as Hurricane Sandy approached the coast of New Jersey. Note that the wind direction over New Jersey (black arrows) was from the southeast, due to a negatively tilted trough of low pressure over the Eastern U.S. caused by a strong blocking ridge of high pressure over Greenland. Image credit: NOAA/ESRL.

Arctic sea ice loss can cause blocking ridges
Blocking ridges occur naturally, but are uncommon over Greenland this time of year. According to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center, blocking near the longitude of Greenland (50°W) only occurs about 2% of the time in the fall. These odds rise to about 6% in winter and spring. As I discussed in an April post, Arctic sea ice loss tied to unusual jet stream patterns, three studies published in the past year have found that the jet stream has been getting stuck in unusually strong blocking patterns in recent years. These studies found that the recent record decline in Arctic sea ice could be responsible, since this heats up the pole, altering the Equator-to-pole temperature difference, forcing the jet stream to slow down, meander, and get stuck in large loops. The 2012 Arctic sea ice melt season was extreme, with sea ice extent hitting a record lows. Could sea ice loss have contributed to the blocking ridge that steered Sandy into New Jersey? It is possible, but we will need to much more research on the subject before we make such a link, as the studies of sea ice loss on jet stream patterns are so new. The author of one of the new studies, Dr. Jennifer Francis of Rutgers, had this say in a recent post by Andy Revkin in his Dot Earth blog: "While it’s impossible to say how this scenario might have unfolded if sea-ice had been as extensive as it was in the 1980s, the situation at hand is completely consistent with what I’d expect to see happen more often as a result of unabated warming and especially the amplification of that warming in the Arctic."

Jeff Masters

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Quoting dabirds:
121) That's a good one, especially being Halloween - Ben and his horde may be back! Seriously though, I can imagine that's another issue they'll have to deal with, as if they didn't have enough already.

ILwthr - 14mph from NW with 18 gusts in S C IL, have avoided the freeze so far, in town anyway.


Hey dabirds,

Oh my that NLCS had to be tough to swallow...guh! Still had to be a fun ride when no one gave them a chance to begin with ;).

Yes it was windy yesterday. Have lots of twigs and leaves to rake up. Waiting on a good rain, its been a while since we had some. Though the last few months have been gracious. Waiting for that snow now.

I have had 5 or 6 frosts already and 1 hard freeze.
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Quoting CaicosRetiredSailor:
Bananas...



Like this?

You know what I mean! They grow, produce, die and put up a sucker to regenerate. Here in the Keys we call it walking. I also have a plant that walked itself out of it's pot and planted itself in the yard. Edit: I meant Produce fruit.
Member Since: March 28, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 1532
I'm looking at pictures of the damage along NJ/NY coasts. A whole lot of land is now lost to the sea. On the Bolivar penninsula after Hurricane Ike the State of Texas took ownership of land that as within a certain boundary of the high tide mark. I wonder if NY/NJ have similar laws. If so, property owners are totally out of luck.

These are the difficult days. Getting food, water, shelter, services back for such a huge number of people all at once is an enormous challenge. My thoughts and prayers are with all those hit by this, including the man with a broken leg in Ohio. Disasters are exactly what they say they are - horrible.
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Bananas...

Quoting kwgirl:
I could grow some but I hate the plant. It walks all over the place...


Like this?

Member Since: July 12, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 5984
Quoting Gaara:


As someone from CT without power and with property damage, I do.
Stay strong and get in line asap with your insurance agent. Then look around. You will find someone else who is worse off. It will help you put things in perspective. When I lost a lot of things in Wilma, I learned that I really didn't need them. It uncluttered my life.
Member Since: March 28, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 1532
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:

iam watchin WPB there are no threats at this time
i would say so if there was


Thank you. I feel much safer now. :)
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140) Just heard from a lineman friend from here in C IL that he's out east, not sure where exactly. Couldn't agree more, those guys deserve a lot of credit! Working double shifts or more in less than ideal conditions usually.
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159. Gaara
Quoting ncstorm:
I wonder if people in NY, MD, VA, PA, DC, NC, CT and NJ who have lost property and family members and currently without power care about the Artic Sea Ice?


As someone from CT without power and with property damage, I do.

But, then again, I'm also a poster on this blog.
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Quoting Jedkins01:



They aren't messy around here, maybe because they don't actually grow real bananas here in Central Florida, it's not quite tropical enough I guess. I personally love how they look, I like tropical plants in the yard.
There are plenty of other types of tropical plants. I try to grow natives so I don't have to water. I had to cut down a beautiful coconut tree because it was becoming so big and producing so many coconuts that it was becoming a danger. What do you mean about real bananas? Do your trees fruit? If not, then it is something other than a banana tree.
Member Since: March 28, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 1532
Quoting kwgirl:
Because they are messy, draw rats and they walk. I want a plant to stay where I plant it. Plus everytime I had a bunch ready for picking, someone stole them. So why bother.



They aren't messy around here, maybe because they don't actually grow real bananas here in Central Florida, it's not quite tropical enough I guess. I personally love how they look, I like tropical plants in the yard.


I could see how a lot of over ripe bananas laying around fermenting in yard could get nasty though lol.
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Quoting Jedkins01:



Why are you killing banana plants? I love them.
Because they are messy, draw rats and they walk. I want a plant to stay where I plant it. Plus everytime I had a bunch ready for picking, someone stole them. So why bother.
Member Since: March 28, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 1532
121) That's a good one, especially being Halloween - Ben and his horde may be back! Seriously though, I can imagine that's another issue they'll have to deal with, as if they didn't have enough already.

ILwthr - 14mph from NW with 18 gusts in S C IL, have avoided the freeze so far, in town anyway.
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Good afternoon. Looks like there's gonna be some serious heat building for many soon:



The new 1 month outlook pretty much mirrors the 6-10 day outlook above:



Btw, the NWS has confirmed a microburst occurred in Wareham, MA last night in association with a line of severe storms that moved through.
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Quoting kwgirl:
I could grow some but I hate the plant. It walks all over the place. It took Wilma's flood to kill the banana plants in my yard and that was after I tried it with muriatic acid. Take my word for it, don't try it at home.



Why are you killing banana plants? I love them.
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Quoting LargoFl:
good I have six of them in my backyard lol
I could grow some but I hate the plant. It walks all over the place. It took Wilma's flood to kill the banana plants in my yard and that was after I tried it with muriatic acid. Take my word for it, don't try it at home.
Member Since: March 28, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 1532
Quoting Neapolitan:
From the Department of Energy's most recent situation report released at 10 CDT today:

DOE

Not sure why they don't tally the last two columns, so I did; the "Peak Outages Reported in DOE SitReps" column adds up to 8,428,078 customers without power at peak, and 2,178,681 customers for whom power has been restored.


In answer to your question, possibly because the peak occurred at different times in different states. It appears that MI is still on its way to a peak as there are now 51K more people there w/o power than there were at "the peak". Just guessing though.
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experienced old timer we are smarter than the rat atlantic just refuses to sleep
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Quoting GeoffreyWPB:

iam watchin WPB there are no threats at this time
i would say so if there was
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 163 Comments: 52206
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Quoting indianrivguy:

Climate-Change Denying Senator James Inhofe Wins 2012 Rubber Dodo Award




It couldn't go to a better dodo. Unless you want to send one to each of the people who sent him back to Washington.
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Quoting BADHYPEAGAIN:
the rats are taking over new york city by the thousands
so what are you doing here
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 163 Comments: 52206
Quoting pottery:

So, any word on what the problem is there ?


Link
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Quoting pottery:

So, any word on what the problem is there ?


Workers were trying to clear a derailed tanker car full of Butadiene and it ignited and exploded.

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Quoting TropicTraveler:


In my work we've had chemical hazard disaster training and this kind of accident/incident it is important to get the word out for people to stay indoors, turn off air venting systems, and protect yourself from airborne chemicals which can be deadly. Glad to see warnings out for this. Had an incident at a company where I worked where chlorine gas line ruptured and children at a nearby school were harmed and ended up in serious condition in the hospital. If the hazard is near, we were told to use masks, duct tape edges of doors and windows, and seal ourselves inside till the all clear hits.

So, any word on what the problem is there ?
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Quoting Doppler22:
Ummmmmmmm what?????

URGENT - IMMEDIATE BROADCAST REQUESTED
SHELTER IN PLACE WARNING
KENTUCKY EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY LOUISVILLE KENTUCKY
RELAYED BY NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE LOUISVILLE KY
214 PM EDT WED OCT 31 2012

THE FOLLOWING MESSAGE IS TRANSMITTED AT THE REQUEST OF THE
KENTUCKY EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY AND METROSAFE IN LOUISVILLE
KENTUCKY.

LOUISVILLE METROSAFE ASKS THAT PEOPLE LIVING WITHIN A FIVE MILE
RADIUS OF DIXIE HIGHWAY AND KATHERINE STATION ROAD SHELTER IN
PLACE UNTIL THE ALL CLEAR IS GIVEN. AN EXPLOSION OCCURRED EARLIER
THIS AFTERNOON AT THE TRAIN DERAILMENT SITE. TO SHELTER IN
PLACE...CLOSE ALL DOORS AND WINDOWS AND TURN OFF ANY SYSTEM THAT
PULLS IN OUTSIDE AIR. STAY TUNED FOR UPDATES.


In my work we've had chemical hazard disaster training and this kind of accident/incident it is important to get the word out for people to stay indoors, turn off air venting systems, and protect yourself from airborne chemicals which can be deadly. Glad to see warnings out for this. Had an incident at a company where I worked where chlorine gas line ruptured and children at a nearby school were harmed and ended up in serious condition in the hospital. If the hazard is near, we were told to use masks, duct tape edges of doors and windows, and seal ourselves inside till the all clear hits.
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Quoting LargoFl:
good I have six of them in my backyard lol


A GOLD MINE !!!!

heheheheh
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When power gets restored across the NYC area, they should have a tickertape bucket truck parade for all the out of town and in town folks that are busting it 24/7 for them. Or more like 24/14.

Unless that makes city cleanup crews have to clean that up too.
Member Since: December 28, 2006 Posts: 113 Comments: 1495
Quoting pottery:

A recent study has concluded that Bananas will probably become the staple food for everyone........ (BBC news)
I quite enjoy a banana, but as a staple diet I think it lacks a little something. Even with ketchup and mustard.
good I have six of them in my backyard lol
Member Since: August 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 33272
Quoting hcubed:


And remember, nobody ever said that Sandy was directly caused by man - except maybe this guy:

"...FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: October 26, 2012
CONTACT: Blair FitzGibbon : 202-503-6141 : blair@fitzgibbonmedia.com
Statement by Brad Johnson, campaign manager of Forecast the Facts and ClimateSilence.org:

“If the candidates won’t listen to the voters demanding they break their climate silence, maybe they will listen to Mother Nature’s October Surprise. We know the candidates will be asked about Hurricane Sandy, and will express their sympathy with those affected. They will rightly applaud the first responders, the compassion of neighbors, and the strength and resolve of the American people. But what their role as national leaders demands that they also do is explain that Hurricane Sandy is a true Frankenstorm, a monster created by man tampering with nature with oil, coal, and gas pollution..."



------

I am not saying this statement below is correct... but at least you should support your position with an honest and accurate quote as seen below:
-------------

Statement on Hurricane Sandy and Climate Silence
Brad Johnson, campaign manager of Forecast the Facts and ClimateSilence.org:

"If the candidates won't listen to the voters demanding they break their climate silence, maybe they will listen to Mother Nature's October Surprise. We know the candidates will be asked about Hurricane Sandy, and will express their sympathy with those affected. They will rightly applaud the first responders, the compassion of neighbors, and the strength and resolve of the American people. But what they should also do, what their role as national leaders demands that they do, is explain why this is happening.

"Hurricane Sandy is a true Frankenstorm, a monster created by man tampering with nature. It is a scientific fact that oil, coal, and gas pollution are fueling freakish climate disasters. Barack Obama and Mitt Romney need to be honest with voters: we have to stop poisoning our weather and start saving our future."


http://forecastthefacts.org/press/releases/2012/1 0/26/statement-hurricane-sandy-and-climate-silence /
Member Since: July 12, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 5984
Quoting LargoFl:
the northeast health depts are going to be working tons of overtime trying to avert a health diseaster, with pools of polluted water, slime and mold etc..remember its warm enough there for standing water to become putrid and disease ridden..such a wide area affected,they cant be everywhere at once with clogged streets and roads and collasped homes ..a nightmare
NYC gets water from way upstate, Boston gets its water from way out in western MA (40+ miles from the city
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Member Since: August 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 33272
Quoting sunlinepr:
Sandy's surf energy impacting Rincon....

The island behind her is Desecheo, right?
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Quoting RTSplayer:


Not for all crops. It's been shown that for some crops the net increase in productivity is so high that it can pay for itself in a reasonable amount of time.

Further, eventually as world population continues to swell, priorities will need to be straightened. More food will be needed, regardless of other aspects of economics, and this will mean higher food price, and people will just have to do with less of the luxuries we've had.

We will need enough food to feed another 2 billion people within 2 or 3 decades, and most of that food will come from the Western Hemisphere.


At some point, real economics will outweigh the fake economics we have all lived under for decades, and food prices, and perhaps clothing prices, will become the primary driver of economy.

A recent study has concluded that Bananas will probably become the staple food for everyone........ (BBC news)
I quite enjoy a banana, but as a staple diet I think it lacks a little something. Even with ketchup and mustard.
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Looks like the US is turning out to be 'ground zero' for extreme weather due to gobal warming. Hurricanes, heatwaves, wildfires, droughts, floods, derechos and tornadoes all going off the climate Richter scale.

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Does anybody know if the guy from New Jersey that wanted to go out to dinner right after Sandy made landfall is OK? According to him Sandy was an over hyped storm. Hope he didn't do anything stupid and stayed indoors.
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.................GFS at 192 hours
Member Since: August 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 33272
Quoting MrMixon:


If only it were that easy. The size and number of greenhouses we'd need (never mind the energy required to keep them climate-controlled) makes that solution financial impractical:



Not for all crops. It's been shown that for some crops the net increase in productivity is so high that it can pay for itself in a reasonable amount of time.

Further, eventually as world population continues to swell, priorities will need to be straightened. More food will be needed, regardless of other aspects of economics, and this will mean higher food price, and people will just have to do with less of the luxuries we've had.

We will need enough food to feed another 2 billion people within 2 or 3 decades, and most of that food will come from the Western Hemisphere.


At some point, real economics will outweigh the fake economics we have all lived under for decades, and food prices, and perhaps clothing prices, will become the primary driver of economy.
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Should also mention that Atlantic Sea Surface Temps were running +5C above normal not far off the coast. I am sure that added fuel to the storm.
http://www.osdpd.noaa.gov/ml/ocean/sst/anomaly.ht ml
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"Immunocompromised people and elderly people are probably at highest risk for complications from mold exposure and these are the people who should stay away from water-logged buildings, especially for prolonged periods of time," Ram said.
Member Since: August 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 33272
Quoting whitewabit:


There is a mandatory evac 1.2 miles around the explosion site beside the warning you posted ..
OMG..it just goes on and on
Member Since: August 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 33272
125. whitewabit (Mod)
Quoting Doppler22:
Ummmmmmmm what?????

URGENT - IMMEDIATE BROADCAST REQUESTED
SHELTER IN PLACE WARNING
KENTUCKY EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY LOUISVILLE KENTUCKY
RELAYED BY NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE LOUISVILLE KY
214 PM EDT WED OCT 31 2012

THE FOLLOWING MESSAGE IS TRANSMITTED AT THE REQUEST OF THE
KENTUCKY EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY AND METROSAFE IN LOUISVILLE
KENTUCKY.

LOUISVILLE METROSAFE ASKS THAT PEOPLE LIVING WITHIN A FIVE MILE
RADIUS OF DIXIE HIGHWAY AND KATHERINE STATION ROAD SHELTER IN
PLACE UNTIL THE ALL CLEAR IS GIVEN. AN EXPLOSION OCCURRED EARLIER
THIS AFTERNOON AT THE TRAIN DERAILMENT SITE. TO SHELTER IN
PLACE...CLOSE ALL DOORS AND WINDOWS AND TURN OFF ANY SYSTEM THAT
PULLS IN OUTSIDE AIR. STAY TUNED FOR UPDATES.


There is a mandatory evac 1.2 miles around the explosion site beside the warning you posted ..
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Quoting Doppler22:
Ummmmmmmm what?????

URGENT - IMMEDIATE BROADCAST REQUESTED
SHELTER IN PLACE WARNING
KENTUCKY EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY LOUISVILLE KENTUCKY
RELAYED BY NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE LOUISVILLE KY
214 PM EDT WED OCT 31 2012

THE FOLLOWING MESSAGE IS TRANSMITTED AT THE REQUEST OF THE
KENTUCKY EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY AND METROSAFE IN LOUISVILLE
KENTUCKY.

LOUISVILLE METROSAFE ASKS THAT PEOPLE LIVING WITHIN A FIVE MILE
RADIUS OF DIXIE HIGHWAY AND KATHERINE STATION ROAD SHELTER IN
PLACE UNTIL THE ALL CLEAR IS GIVEN. AN EXPLOSION OCCURRED EARLIER
THIS AFTERNOON AT THE TRAIN DERAILMENT SITE. TO SHELTER IN
PLACE...CLOSE ALL DOORS AND WINDOWS AND TURN OFF ANY SYSTEM THAT
PULLS IN OUTSIDE AIR. STAY TUNED FOR UPDATES.


Story: http://www.kltv.com/story/19965147/5-workers-injur ed-in-accident-and-fire-at-train-derailment-site

Sounds like an accident during the cleanup phase.
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Louisville Metrosafe asks that people living within a five mile radius of Dixie Highway and Katherine Station Road shelter in place until the all clear is given. An explosion occurred earlier this afternoon at the train derailment site.

Here is information about %u201Cshelter in place%u201D

From the National Weather Service: A warning of an event where the public is recommended to shelter in place (go inside, close doors and windows, turn off air conditioning or heating systems, and turn on the radio or TV for more information). Examples include the release of hazardous materials where toxic fumes or radioactivity may affect designated areas.

Sheltering in place can provide some protection against all airborne contaminants, because proper sheltering reduces contact with the contaminated air.
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After Sandy..one Risk NO one is thinking about..........Beware of the rats: One of the hardest hit areas in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy was New York City (NYC). As with most large cities, NYC has an enormous population of rats, most living beneath the city streets, and when the lower levels of the subways began to flood, the rats had no choice but to come to the surface. Now, according to a report from the Daily Mail, those displaced rats will move into buildings in an attempt to find food and shelter. Rats can spread a number of diseases to humans, including leptospirosis, hantavirus, salmonella, the plague, and typhus. Do not reach for dark places and make sure all your food supplies are isolated and contained.


Read more: http://www.voxxi.com/storm-damage-hurricane-sandy- clean-up/#ixzz2AuFBwhUL
Member Since: August 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 33272
Ummmmmmmm what?????

URGENT - IMMEDIATE BROADCAST REQUESTED
SHELTER IN PLACE WARNING
KENTUCKY EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY LOUISVILLE KENTUCKY
RELAYED BY NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE LOUISVILLE KY
214 PM EDT WED OCT 31 2012

THE FOLLOWING MESSAGE IS TRANSMITTED AT THE REQUEST OF THE
KENTUCKY EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY AND METROSAFE IN LOUISVILLE
KENTUCKY.

LOUISVILLE METROSAFE ASKS THAT PEOPLE LIVING WITHIN A FIVE MILE
RADIUS OF DIXIE HIGHWAY AND KATHERINE STATION ROAD SHELTER IN
PLACE UNTIL THE ALL CLEAR IS GIVEN. AN EXPLOSION OCCURRED EARLIER
THIS AFTERNOON AT THE TRAIN DERAILMENT SITE. TO SHELTER IN
PLACE...CLOSE ALL DOORS AND WINDOWS AND TURN OFF ANY SYSTEM THAT
PULLS IN OUTSIDE AIR. STAY TUNED FOR UPDATES.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
From the Department of Energy's most recent situation report released at 10 CDT today:

DOE

Not sure why they don't tally the last two columns, so I did; the "Peak Outages Reported in DOE SitReps" column adds up to 8,428,078 customers without power at peak, and 2,178,681 customers for whom power has been restored.
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13259
TROPICAL WEATHER OUTLOOK
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL
200 PM EDT WED OCT 31 2012

FOR THE NORTH ATLANTIC...CARIBBEAN SEA AND THE GULF OF MEXICO...

THE HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL PREDICTION CENTER HAS ISSUED THE LAST PUBLIC
ADVISORY ON THE REMNANTS OF SANDY...LOCATED OVER SOUTHERN ONTARIO.

ELSEWHERE...TROPICAL STORM FORMATION IS NOT EXPECTED DURING THE
NEXT 48 HOURS.
Member Since: August 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 33272
Quoting BADHYPEAGAIN:
could have a cat 3 or 4 next week near florida




wishcaster
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A near-record low barometric pressure occurred with Sandy offshore Monday afternoon. The pressure bottomed at 27.76 inches. For a storm north of Cape Hatteras, N.C., Hurricane Gladys of 1977 holds the record at 27.73 inches. Gladys was a Category 4 hurricane which remained off the coast of the U.S.
Member Since: August 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 33272

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About JeffMasters

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.