Why did Hurricane Sandy take such an unusual track into New Jersey?

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:33 PM GMT on October 31, 2012

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We're used to seeing hurricane-battered beaches and flooded cities in Florida, North Carolina, and the Gulf Coast. But to see these images from the Jersey Shore and New York City in the wake of Hurricane Sandy is a shocking experience. New Jersey only rarely gets hit by hurricanes because it lies in a portion of the coast that doesn't stick out much, and is too far north. How did this happen? How was a hurricane able to move from southeast to northwest at landfall, so far north, and so late in hurricane season? We expect hurricanes to move from east to west in the tropics, where the prevailing trade winds blow that direction. But the prevailing wind direction reverses at mid-latitudes, flowing predominately west-to-east, due to the spin of the Earth. Hurricanes that penetrate to about Florida's latitude usually get caught up in these westerly winds, and are whisked northeastwards, out to sea. However, the jet stream, that powerful band of upper-atmosphere west-to-east flowing air, has many dips and bulges. These troughs of low pressure and ridges of high pressure allow winds at mid-latitudes to flow more to the north or to the south. Every so often, a trough in the jet stream bends back on itself when encountering a ridge of high pressure stuck in place ahead of it. These "negatively tilted" troughs have winds that flow from southeast to northwest. It is this sort of negatively tilted trough that sucked in Sandy and allowed the hurricane to take such an unusual path into New Jersey.


Figure 1. Inlet section of Atlantic City, N.J., after Hurricane Sandy. Image credit: 6 ABC Action News.

The 1903 Vagabond Hurricane
The only other hurricane to hit New Jersey since 1851 besides Sandy was the 1903 Category 1 Vagabond Hurricane. According to Wikipedia, the Vagabond Hurricane caused heavy damage along the New Jersey coast ($180 million in 2006 dollars.) The hurricane killed 57 people, and endangered the life of President Theodore Roosevelt, who was sailing on a yacht near Long Island, NY, when the hurricane hit. However, the Vagabond Hurricane hit in September, when the jet stream is typically weaker and farther to the north. It is quite extraordinary that Sandy was able to hit New Jersey in late October, when the jet stream is typically stronger and farther south, making recurvature to the northeast much more likely than in September.


Figure 2. The path of the 1903 Vagabond Hurricane, the only other hurricane to hit New Jersey since 1851.

The blocking ridge that steered Sandy into New Jersey
A strong ridge of high pressure parked itself over Greenland beginning on October 20, creating a "blocking ridge" that prevented the normal west-to-east flow of winds over Eastern North America. Think of the blocking ridge like a big truck parked over Greenland. Storms approaching from the west (like the fall low pressure system that moved across the U.S. from California to Pennsylvania last week) or from the south (Hurricane Sandy) were blocked from heading to the northeast. Caught in the equivalent of an atmospheric traffic jam, the two storms collided over the Northeast U.S., combined into one, and are now waiting for the truck parked over Greenland to move. The strength of the blocking ridge, as measured by the strength of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), was quite high--about two standard deviations from average, something that occurs approximately 5% of the time. When the NAO is in a strong negative phase, we tend to have blocking ridges over Greenland.


Figure 3. Jet stream winds at a pressure of 300 mb on October 29, 2012, as Hurricane Sandy approached the coast of New Jersey. Note that the wind direction over New Jersey (black arrows) was from the southeast, due to a negatively tilted trough of low pressure over the Eastern U.S. caused by a strong blocking ridge of high pressure over Greenland. Image credit: NOAA/ESRL.

Arctic sea ice loss can cause blocking ridges
Blocking ridges occur naturally, but are uncommon over Greenland this time of year. According to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center, blocking near the longitude of Greenland (50°W) only occurs about 2% of the time in the fall. These odds rise to about 6% in winter and spring. As I discussed in an April post, Arctic sea ice loss tied to unusual jet stream patterns, three studies published in the past year have found that the jet stream has been getting stuck in unusually strong blocking patterns in recent years. These studies found that the recent record decline in Arctic sea ice could be responsible, since this heats up the pole, altering the Equator-to-pole temperature difference, forcing the jet stream to slow down, meander, and get stuck in large loops. The 2012 Arctic sea ice melt season was extreme, with sea ice extent hitting a record lows. Could sea ice loss have contributed to the blocking ridge that steered Sandy into New Jersey? It is possible, but we will need to much more research on the subject before we make such a link, as the studies of sea ice loss on jet stream patterns are so new. The author of one of the new studies, Dr. Jennifer Francis of Rutgers, had this say in a recent post by Andy Revkin in his Dot Earth blog: "While it’s impossible to say how this scenario might have unfolded if sea-ice had been as extensive as it was in the 1980s, the situation at hand is completely consistent with what I’d expect to see happen more often as a result of unabated warming and especially the amplification of that warming in the Arctic."

Jeff Masters

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There are two parts to the job: forecast and communicate. An error on either side has bad consequences.

There were two tricky issues on the communication side. The hurricane, when it was a hurricane, had a surge much more dangerous than a Cat 1 storm. Comparing it to a Nor'Easter has the risk of people thinking itvwas like storms they see every year, which this one wasn't.

I don't think it matters if it was NWS or NHC that got those two points across. The only question is we're the warnings reaching the right people at the right time in a way they could understand.

If not, then the warning system needs revision and review.


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Quoting aislinnpaps:


Sad to say I haven't been 'home' in twenty years. I really do need to go visit and see friends and family. Of course, they could come to Louisiana... But even when home, no one goes down to the City (as it's called by locals there) unless they have to. When I would fly home, I'd have to take the shortline bus upstate. Country drivers hate to drive in the City.


i hear ya, i drove there this past christmas my family lives on 83rd and 3rd on the upper eastside, I hate driving there i park my car in the tuesday -sunday free parking spot when i go up, and my truck doesnt move until i leave, but when i was up there when i was little it was so crummy and dirty and nasty, now its way more glitz and glammor, city sqaure parks a way nicer, everything is nicer. from about 120th and south that is
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Quoting cyclonekid:
That's bologna. There wasn't a Hurricane Sandy in 1997. That year didn't even get past the "G" name. :P


It was a simulation hurricane or something of that sort. For fictional purposes.
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Quoting sfranz:
I saw a recent press conference with Bloomberg. He seems to have gotten that his evacuation order was a bit late and too conservative.

Guess he'll have to live with that call.

remember before sandy hit..two days out..no evac order..he said it wasnt needed..if you know the NY area..you know just how long it would take to fully evacuate from long island all the way along the coastline, even mahattan etc..maybe days..so he made a bad judgement call...but..in all fairness the storm strength fooled just about everyone until just hours away, remember when it started growing HUGE in size?..geez, im in florida and I was scared lol
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Sun setting on Rosa:

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Quoting clamshell:


Whats the best way to cook plantains?

I was taught to cook them in olive oil and then cover them in brown sugar and put them back in the skillet to brown it.

What about you?


Just fry the hell out of the things... lol

Evening all... unfortunately no plantains are frying here tonight. BUT if you are frying them, it's a good idea not to let the oil get too hot. They will swinge [get carbonized] without being done inside.

I'm still looking at the masses of damage Sandy has done. I'm still amazed at the scope of it...

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Quoting ktymisty:


Not a personal attack or anything, but have you read the broken window falacy? Here's a short summary

TLDR: Economics is not a short term subject. The effort you are seeing and the work you are seeing in the clean up is hiding the loss of work you can't see and never will...
Great quote.

Our economy needs a tourniquet to stop the bleeding.

Another 6 trillion in 4 years won't cut it for me....
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Quoting LargoFl:
yes the officials knew but the ordinary citizen thought it was just a cat-1..nothing tooo bad..surprise..i think everyone on all coastlines from now on..should'nt say..its just a cat-1 or cat-2 etc...each storm is different from the next..and we have all seen what Just a cat-1 can really do if the conditions are right huh


yeah a cat 1 combined with a noreaster, but a purely tropical cat 1 would have not done nearly as much damage as this did. If it would have made landfall in North Carolina as is were when it was approaching the N.C. coast we would have had all power back on and forgot about sandy by now.
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Quoting uncwhurricane85:


manhattan is a lot different than is was 10 years ago and 10 fold difference (for the better) of what it was 10+ years ago..thats also the difference now


Sad to say I haven't been 'home' in twenty years. I really do need to go visit and see friends and family. Of course, they could come to Louisiana... But even when home, no one goes down to the City (as it's called by locals there) unless they have to. When I would fly home, I'd have to take the shortline bus upstate. Country drivers hate to drive in the City.
Member Since: August 22, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 3112
NYC

COWS to the rescue


....Yesterday, 25 percent of wireless cell sites had been affected. And 25 percent of cable customers were without service. Today, David Teretsky, FCC Public Safety & Homeland Security Bureau Chief, told reporters on a conference call that the percentage of cell sites that were not functioning improved by a "few percentage points" compared to yesterday.
He wouldn't get much more specific than that, but said the improvements were roughly 3 to 4 percentage points better than yesterday when wireless operators had reported outages in 158 counties in 10 states. He also said that cable service outages had improved significantly compared to Tuesday with outages now at less than 20 percent.
"Water and power remain a problem in many areas," he said on the call "But that's improving, which is helping with service restoration."

Turetsky said that wireless operators have been trucking in additional generators to cell sites without power. And they are also rolling in cellular towers on wheels or what the industry calls COWS to help restore service. He also mentioned that AT&T and T-Mobile USA have struck a roaming agreement that will allow the companies' customers to roam onto each other's networks when service and capacity are available.

This measure should improve service for customers of those services.
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Quoting uncwhurricane85:


well they predicted the surge right or slightly below, so they kinda knew what was coming.
yes the officials knew but the ordinary citizen thought it was just a cat-1..nothing tooo bad..surprise..i think everyone on all coastlines from now on..should'nt say..its just a cat-1 or cat-2 etc...each storm is different from the next..and we have all seen what Just a cat-1 can really do if the conditions are right huh
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Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:


I know that they did announced that.. They said Sandy to become extratropical LONG before landfall...not ONE HOUR before it actually happened..
I don't think they were so right about that.

I think hurricane warnings would alert people more if they were issued...
hurricane warnings are the big thing...although high wind warnings kind of covered the weight of such alert...

I want to see what the TCR for Sandy would be...

please...Im not trying to go against what you say however...this is the way I see it.
Sandy had a deep warm core at the time of landfall. It had convection over that center, and the convection was actually strengthening until she got far into the cooler shelf waters. She definitely was not like any extratropical storm I have seen in my life when she was landfalling. Anyone can go back and see that the NHC had long forecast that Sandy would be extratropical at landfall, and even though she was still at least partly tropical the hand-off to the NWS local centers was already in motion and could not be changed.
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Quoting aislinnpaps:


The images of the looting in NYC after the blackout of ?? are burned into my brain. I was at home in the Castkills when it happened and our 'news' there is always NYC even though it's a couple of hours away.


manhattan is a lot different than is was 10 years ago and 10 fold difference (for the better) of what it was 10+ years ago..thats also the difference now
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
Hurricane Sandy was forecast pretty accurately 15 years ago. Same name, same track. The intensity and dates were a bit off.

That's bologna. There wasn't a Hurricane Sandy in 1997. That year didn't even get past the "G" name. :P
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Quoting LargoFl:
not for nothing..but 1 hour out..even 5 hours out..wouldnt have made one bit of difference..NO ONE could ever imagine..what was coming, no one..


well they predicted the surge right or slightly below, so they kinda knew what was coming.
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Quoting uncwhurricane85:


of course there is looting, but in lower manhattan case they are not ghetto like new orleans, thats the difference!


The images of the looting in NYC after the blackout of ?? are burned into my brain. I was at home in the Castkills when it happened and our 'news' there is always NYC even though it's a couple of hours away.
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Quoting uncwhurricane85:



i agree, i understand hurricanes are warm/different storms than noreasters, but if its going to be a hurricane until right before landfall or have hurricane force winds over such a large area, some kind of warning should have been issued other than a high wind warning, we had high wind warnings in central N.C. but that was only for 50 mph gusts.....much different than 90 mph gusts....a lot of people did evacuate though so that helped out a lot unlike katrina
not for nothing..but 1 hour out..even 5 hours out..wouldnt have made one bit of difference..NO ONE could ever imagine..what was coming, no one..
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Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:


I know that they did announced that.. They said Sandy to become extratropical LONG before landfall...not ONE HOUR before it actually happened..
I don't think they were so right about that.

I think hurricane warnings would alert people more if they were issued...
hurricane warnings are the big thing...although high wind warnings kind of covered the weight of such alert...

I want to see what the TCR for Sandy would be...

please...Im not trying to go against what you say however...this is the way I see it.



i agree, i understand hurricanes are warm/different storms than noreasters, but if its going to be a hurricane until right before landfall or have hurricane force winds over such a large area, some kind of warning should have been issued other than a high wind warning, we had high wind warnings in central N.C. but that was only for 50 mph gusts.....much different than 90 mph gusts....a lot of people did evacuate though so that helped out a lot unlike katrina
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I saw a recent press conference with Bloomberg. He seems to have gotten that his evacuation order was a bit late and too conservative.

Guess he'll have to live with that call.

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Quoting LargoFl:
NHC posted a long letter or notice..when sandy was still down by NC...and it pretty much said it..if its not a hurricane at landfall..(and sandy was NOT officially a hurricane at landfall) then they cannot issue a hurricane warning..they said when it stops being tropical in nature..the NWS will issue Their high wind and surge warnings.....wish i would have posted that..read it 4 times last week


I know that they did announced that.. They said Sandy to become extratropical LONG before landfall...not ONE HOUR before it actually happened..
I don't think they were so right about that.

I think hurricane warnings would alert people more if they were issued...
hurricane warnings are the big thing...although high wind warnings kind of covered the weight of such alert...

I want to see what the TCR for Sandy would be...

please...Im not trying to go against what you say however...this is the way I see it.
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Quoting aislinnpaps:


I remember reading about the one huge blackout in NYC years ago and all the looting that went on. And the looting after Katrina. Has this not been a problem with NYC and Sandy? I'm at work all day and don't have time to look at a computer.


of course there is looting, but in lower manhattan case they are not ghetto like new orleans, thats the difference!
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Hurricane Sandy is now the 30th deadliest hurricane to hit the US according to WU
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Quoting Astrometeor:
Don't worry, H. Sandy won't have any chance of sending us into recession/depression. It just won't have that big of an impact on our economy, what truly runs whether or not we are in a depression is the stock-market, and that is back open, so no loss there. Some analysts even think there might be an economic GAIN from Sandy as people are put to work and money is spent to recover-a fresh injection of money flow.
See I think it is just the opposite, the stock market has nothing to do with the real economy anymore. The stock market is a house of cards, based on a financial Ponzi scheme, propped up by TARP and QE1,2 and 3.

The real economy is measured by things like how many people are working and how much disposable income the median person has.

We will probably see the illusions breaking down shortly after the election. The Fed has its thumb in the dike and unlike the fairy tale it can't hold much longer. We are going to go down into a deflationary spiral.
Member Since: September 16, 2005 Posts: 0 Comments: 3055



Mitik, a walrus at the New York Aquarium in Coney Island, was attended to with 'around-the-clock care' during Hurricane Sandy by aquarium staff.

New York's newest walrus pup made it through the city's most recent storm in very good hands, receiving care all through the night from the staff at Coney Island's now-flooded aquarium.

"As an orphaned calf, [Mitik] was experiencing some health issues when he came to us as a rescue," Jim Breheny, the aquarium's executive vice president, said in a statement. "We have been monitoring his condition carefully since his arrival and continued this around-the-clock care throughout the duration of the storm."

Known as "Mit" for short, the 236-pound walrus arrived in New York from Alaska just a few weeks ago. Before Sandy hit, he had been making great progress in his adjustment to city life.

Just a week or so after landing on the East Coast, Mitik stopped taking antibiotics and started eating solid food. He also proved to caretakers that he has a personality that might be unique to New York.

"He's a little fighter," Director Jon Forrest Dohlin told the Daily News earlier in October. "He's kind of a typical New Yorker: he's opinionated and he sticks up for himself, but if you get to know him, he's totally sweet."

All 14 acres of the Wildlife Conservation Society New York Aquarium have been flooded, and officials say they will not be able to determine the effects of the storm until the waters subside. The aquarium was closed on Wednesday.

cwells@nydailynews.com
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Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:
AccuWeather Article.....+100 (thumbs up)

No Hurricane Warning for What Could Be the Most Expensive Storm in History

Hurricane Sandy may turn out to be the most expensive storm to hit the U.S.(east coast) -- causing damage to 15 states and power outages to over 8 million people -- yet the National Hurricane Center did not issue hurricane warnings north of North Carolina.
In the whole scheme of things, this is almost a non issue. It would not have changed the damage or the power outages. It seems that coastal evacuations largely occurred due to the job the NWS and local media did. Most deaths were inland, due to falling trees and not due to surge related flooding sweeping folks away.I don't think anything would have changed if hurricane warnings were raised, because folks would have said "its only a cat 1".

Regardless, NOAA will review the scenario and will make the changes they feel are necessary.

Perhaps the psychologists on board can chime in.
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Quoting aislinnpaps:


I remember reading about the one huge blackout in NYC years ago and all the looting that went on. And the looting after Katrina. Has this not been a problem with NYC and Sandy? I'm at work all day and don't have time to look at a computer.
read something about some looting going on, one would expect that i guess..
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Quoting clark1mt:


I don't think this storm will have a resounding economic impact any more than any other single storm. As others have said, by and large, Sandy didn't fundamentally alter anything from an economic standpoint. Aside from the two-day closure of the stock markets (which is hardly unprecedented), and except for the people who directly felt the storm, it was business as usual for the rest of the country. There isn't a financial panic or any run on banks or anything that was triggered by this storm. At worst, Sandy would accelerate by a few months what was already going to happen.

If Katrina didn't throw the world into a depression by itself, neither will Sandy.

(First time commenter)
well TY and welcome
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i can use some rain here by me......
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Quoting procharged:


I think this incident will put a huge strain on the economy and puts us one step further to a depression. The world economy is in a very fragil state and all eyes are on us right now and how we are doing. There is alot of fear out there about the world economy and this just creates even more.


I don't think this storm will have a resounding economic impact any more than any other single storm. As others have said, by and large, Sandy didn't fundamentally alter anything from an economic standpoint. Aside from the two-day closure of the stock markets (which is hardly unprecedented), and except for the people who directly felt the storm, it was business as usual for the rest of the country. There isn't a financial panic or any run on banks or anything that was triggered by this storm. At worst, Sandy would accelerate by a few months what was already going to happen.

If Katrina didn't throw the world into a depression by itself, neither will Sandy.

(First time commenter)
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So the NWS say it going to be 56 but it 56 now and it 9:26PM lol in LOXAHATCHEE FL
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Quoting LargoFl:
I remember living up there during a blackout, let me tell you..NYC can be a very scary place in that kind of situation at night


I remember reading about the one huge blackout in NYC years ago and all the looting that went on. And the looting after Katrina. Has this not been a problem with NYC and Sandy? I'm at work all day and don't have time to look at a computer.
Member Since: August 22, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 3112
Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:
AccuWeather Article.....+100 (thumbs up)

No Hurricane Warning for What Could Be the Most Expensive Storm in History

Hurricane Sandy may turn out to be the most expensive storm to hit the U.S.(east coast) -- causing damage to 15 states and power outages to over 8 million people -- yet the National Hurricane Center did not issue hurricane warnings north of North Carolina.


Why would they issue hurricane warnings? The forecast called for a strong nontropical low at landfall. Not to mention with a blizzard in West Virginia, a hurricane warning was simply counterintuitive. I was in the storm zone and trust me, people got the message just fine.
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Quoting sigh:


That's nothing. It's not tropical, it's just a run-of-the-mill low pressure area.
yes but rain and wind those folks surely dont need right now
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Quoting LargoFl:
NHC posted a long letter or notice..when sandy was still down by NC...and it pretty much said it..if its not a hurricane at landfall..(and sandy was NOT officially a hurricane at landfall) then they cannot issue a hurricane warning..they said when it stops being tropical in nature..the NWS will issue Their high wind and surge warnings.....wish i would have posted that..read it 4 times last week


Yup, and they said if you need information, check out your local NWS office's web page, the HPC, and follow what your government officials were saying in their emergency broadcasts.
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Quoting bassis:


They need to set up a system to rate by wind and or danger of storm/Nor'easter
yes they do..but it is the NWS that issues those warnings..NOt the NHC....and for sandy..the NHC is being blamed, which..with the rules the way they are, should'nt be.
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Quoting Dakster:


Maybe, but maybe not. There are going to be a whole lot of jobs created do to the cleanup, rebuild, and fixing that needs to be done.

What happens, at least down here, is that it throws off the natural cycle of roof, remodel, and housing repairs beacuse everyone got them done at the same time. The typical feast or famine cliche'.

So - in the immediate - it could stimulate the economu and possible help pull us OUT of the recession. However, if we don't, it kicks the can down the road for potential economic crash.


Not a personal attack or anything, but have you read the broken window falacy? Here's a short summary

TLDR: Economics is not a short term subject. The effort you are seeing and the work you are seeing in the clean up is hiding the loss of work you can't see and never will...
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328. sigh
Quoting LargoFl:
GFS at 138 hours,yep something coming up the coast
That's nothing. It's not tropical, it's just a run-of-the-mill low pressure area.
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Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:

?
NHC posted a long letter or notice..when sandy was still down by NC...and it pretty much said it..if its not a hurricane at landfall..(and sandy was NOT officially a hurricane at landfall) then they cannot issue a hurricane warning..they said when it stops being tropical in nature..the NWS will issue Their high wind and surge warnings.....wish i would have posted that..read it 4 times last week
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Quoting airmet3:


This really is amazing and tells alot about how we live our lives. Makes you wonder what would happen if someone was able to hack into the grid.


I am puzzled why folks haven't got anything that will work.

A standard UPS can do a lot of cell phone recharges. Amazon sells a foldable small watt camping solar panel that can manage mobiles.

Outside of the city, car lighter plug adapters for cell phones are a good investment and you can get adaptive transformers for them to plug in other things, too. If you have the right connector you can recharge a mobile off a laptop.

Full on generators may be impractical in NYC but a kit with the smaller options could be handy.
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Quoting procharged:


I think this incident will put a huge strain on the economy and puts us one step further to a depression. The world economy is in a very fragil state and all eyes are on us right now and how we are doing. There is alot of fear out there about the world economy and this just creates even more.


Don't worry, H. Sandy won't have any chance of sending us into recession/depression. It just won't have that big of an impact on our economy, what truly runs whether or not we are in a depression is the stock-market, and that is back open, so no loss there. Some analysts even think there might be an economic GAIN from Sandy as people are put to work and money is spent to recover-a fresh injection of money flow.
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Quoting LargoFl:
there seems to be something going on..RULE wise between the NHC and the NWS..nhc cannot issue a hurricane warning..if at landfall..it is NOT a hurricane but a monster noreaster...........rules will get you every time huh


They need to set up a system to rate by wind and or danger of storm/Nor'easter
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Quoting LargoFl:
there seems to be something going on..RULE wise between the NHC and the NWS..nhc cannot issue a hurricane warning..if at landfall..it is NOT a hurricane but a monster noreaster...........rules will get you every time huh

?
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Quoting CaicosRetiredSailor:


MANTOLOKING, N.J. (AP) — New Jersey's delicate barrier islands, long and slender strips of land cherished by generations of sunbathing vacationers and full-time residents alike, are a hazardous wasteland of badly eroded shore, ruined beachfront homes, flooded streets and damaged utilities.

The full extent of the devastation on the island that hosts MTV's "Jersey Shore" came into sharper focus Wednesday, and it wasn't a pretty sight. Signs of the good life that had defined wealthy enclaves like Bayhead and Mantoloking lie scattered and broken: $3,000 barbecue grills buried beneath the sand and hot tubs cracked and filled with seawater.

Nearly all the homes were seriously damaged, and many were destroyed — no trace of them left.

"This," said Harry Typaldos, who owns the Grenville Inn in Mantoloking, "I just can't comprehend."
those poor rich people guess its time to dump some of the coin back in to rebuilding
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Quoting CaicosRetiredSailor:


Looking North from 7th ave & 16th St.

via NY Daily News
I remember living up there during a blackout, let me tell you..NYC can be a very scary place in that kind of situation at night
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Quoting Slamguitar:
Rapid scan of Sandy. 6 days total.



It's mind boggling to see how much mass this storm was moving at one time
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Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:
AccuWeather Article.....+100 (thumbs up)

No Hurricane Warning for What Could Be the Most Expensive Storm in History

Hurricane Sandy may turn out to be the most expensive storm to hit the U.S.(east coast) -- causing damage to 15 states and power outages to over 8 million people -- yet the National Hurricane Center did not issue hurricane warnings north of North Carolina.
there seems to be something going on..RULE wise between the NHC and the NWS..nhc cannot issue a hurricane warning..if at landfall..it is NOT a hurricane but a monster noreaster...........rules will get you every time huh
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Quoting CaicosRetiredSailor:
GRIDLOCK... leads to:

Mayor to mandate car passenger minimums in Manhattan

By JENNIFER FERMINO and SALLY GOLDENBERG
Last Updated: 5:57 PM, October 31, 2012
Posted: 2:09 PM, October 31, 2012

Cars with less than three passengers will be virtually barred from entering Manhattan, Mayor Bloomberg announced today, -


I know after the earthquake in San Francisco they both increased telecommuting and started casual carpooling where people would pick up riders on their way into the city. I wonder if New York will go that direction.

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Looking North from 7th ave & West 16th St.

via NY Daily News

for more recent photos see:

http://live.nydailynews.com/Event/Tracking_Hurric ane_Sandy_2
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About JeffMasters

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.