Superstorm Sandy intensifying, bringing record storm surges

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:54 PM GMT on October 29, 2012

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The final countdown to Hurricane Sandy's arrival has begun, and this extraordinary and historic storm is already causing havoc all along the U.S. coast from North Carolina to Massachusetts. The scale of this massive storm truly earns Sandy the title of "superstorm". Sandy's tropical storm-force winds span an area of ocean 940 miles in diameter, and both North Carolina and the island of Bermuda, 700 miles to the east, are under tropical storm warnings. The region of ocean covered by 12-foot high seas spans an area of ocean an incredible 1560 miles in diameter. Winds near hurricane force are expected to affect waters from Virginia to Massachusetts today. Record storm surge flooding has already occurred in regions along the New Jersey coast this morning, and the highest water levels recorded in over a century of record keeping are expected over much of the New Jersey and New York coasts this evening during the 8 - 9 pm EDT high tide cycle. Sandy brought sustained winds of 60 mph and waves 30 feet high early this morning to the buoy east of Cape Hatteras, NC. A wind gust of 58 mph occurred at New York City's La Guardia Airport at 9:51 am EDT, and a buoy at Robins Reef, NJ recorded sustained winds of 42 mph, gusting to 55 mph. As of 8 am EDT, Sandy has dumped heavy rains of 7.87" at Cape Hatteras, NC; 4.01" at Ocean City, MD; 3.12" at Dover, DE; and 3.22" at Virginia Beach, VA. As of 9 am EDT, peak storm surge values of 5" were observed at Lewes, Delaware, 4.2' at Cape May, NJ, 4' at Atlantic City, NJ, 2.9' at Philadelphia, and 3.9' at New York City.

Latest data from the Hurricane Hunters shows that Sandy is intensifying as its core traverses the warm waters of the Gulf Stream. At 8 am EDT, an Air Force hurricane hunter aircraft found top winds of 98 mph in the heavy thunderstorms to the southwest of Sandy's center, at a point about 150 miles east-northeast of Cape Hatteras, NC. A dropsonde released in the eye measured a central pressure of 945 mb, but observed winds of 19 knots at the surface, so Sandy is probably a 943 mb hurricane that is very close to Category 2 strength. The Hurricane Hunters did not observe an eyewall, and saw very little temperature difference from inside to outside the eye, so Sandy is not going to be able to undergo rapid intensification. The storm could still see an increase of 5 mph in its winds before landfall tonight between 6 pm - 10 pm EDT, due, in part, to interaction with the low pressure system to its west that is pulling the hurricane towards the coast. The new, higher winds of Sandy don't have a lot of time to pile up additional storm surge water, so the NHC storm surge forecasts will probably not change today. But it is clear that Sandy is not going to pull its punch, and this superstorm is going to deliver a punishing multi-billion dollar blow to a huge area of the Eastern U.S.


Figure 1. Morning satellite image of Hurricane Sandy.

Sandy already producing a record storm surge
The National Weather Service in Atlantic City, NJ said that isolated record storm surge flooding already occurred along portions of the New Jersey coast with this morning's 7:30 am EDT high tide cycle. As the tide goes out late this morning and this afternoon, water levels will fall, since the difference in water levels between low tide and high tide is about 5'. However, this evening, as the core of Sandy moves ashore, the storm will carry with it a gigantic bulge of water that will raise waters levels to the highest storm tides ever seen in over a century of record keeping, along much of the coastline of New Jersey and New York. The peak danger will be between 7 pm - 10 pm, when storm surge rides in on top of the high tide. The full moon is today, which means astronomical high tide will be about 5% higher than the average high tide for the month, adding another 2 - 3" to water levels. This morning's 9:30 am EDT H*Wind analysis from NOAA's Hurricane Research Division put the destructive potential of Sandy's winds at a modest 2.9 on a scale of 0 to 6. However, the destructive potential of the storm surge was record high: 5.8 on a scale of 0 to 6. This is a higher destructive potential than any hurricane observed since 1969, including Category 5 storms like Katrina, Rita, Wilma, Camille, and Andrew. The previous highest destructive potential for storm surge was 5.6 on a scale of 0 to 6, set during Hurricane Isabel of 2003. Sandy's storm surge will be capable of overtopping the flood walls in Manhattan, which are only five feet above mean sea level. On August 28, 2011, Tropical Storm Irene brought a storm surge of 4.13' and a storm tide of 9.5' above MLLW to Battery Park on the south side of Manhattan. The waters poured over the flood walls into Lower Manhattan, but came 8 - 12" shy of being able to flood the New York City subway system. According to the latest storm surge forecast for NYC from NHC, Sandy's storm surge is expected to be 10 - 12' above MLLW. Since a storm tide of 10.5' is needed to flood the subway system, it appears likely that portions of the NYC subway system will flood. The record highest storm tide at The Battery was 10.5', set on September 15, 1960, during Hurricane Donna.


Figure 2. Observed storm tide (red line) and predicted storm surge for Hurricane Sandy at The Battery on the south shore of Manhattan, New York City, from the experimental Extratropical Storm Surge model, run by NOAA"s Meteorological Development Laboratory (green line) and the NYHOPS model from the Stevens Institute of Technology (pink curve), which uses a highly detailed 3D ocean model and even includes rainfall and tributary inflows. These models have a storm surge of 5 - 6', which brings the maximum storm tide--the water level reached as a result of the combined action of the tide and the storm surge--to 11' above MLLW (Mean Lower Low Water.) Irene brought a storm tide of 9.5' above MLLW to The Battery in 2011. At a storm tide of 10.5', water will likely pour into the Lower Manhattan subway system, unless efforts to sandbag the entrances are successful. The NWS in NYC is predicting a 10 - 12' storm tide at The Battery during tonight's 9 pm high tide cycle.


Figure 3. Observed storm tide (red line) and predicted storm surge for Hurricane Sandy at Atlantic City, New Jersey, from the experimental Extratropical Storm Surge model, run by NOAA"s Meteorological Development Laboratory (green line) and the NYHOPS model from the Stevens Institute of Technology (pink curve), which uses a highly detailed 3D ocean model and even includes rainfall and tributary inflows. These models predict a maximum storm tide--the water level reached as a result of the combined action of the tide and the storm surge--of ' above MLLW (Mean Lower Low Water.) Irene brought a storm tide of 9.5' above MLLW to The Battery in 2011. At a storm tide of 10.5', water will likely pour into the Lower Manhattan subway system, unless efforts to sandbag the entrances are successful. The NWS in Atlantic City is predicting a 9.5' storm tide for the city during tonight's 8 pm high tide cycle, which would be the highest water levels ever observed in Atlantic City.

Links for Sandy
To find out if you need to evacuate, please contact your local emergency management office. They will have the latest information. People living in New York City can find their evacuation zone here or use this map. FEMA has information on preparing for hurricanes.

People with disabilities and caregivers seeking information on accessible shelter and transportation can contact portlight.org

Atlantic City beach cam

Ocean City, MD webcam

Statue of Liberty cam

An impressive 1-minute resolution satellite loop of Sandy today is at the CSU RAMMB website.

Our Weather Historian, Christopher C. Burt, has an excellent post on Late Season Tropical Storms that have affected the U.S. north of Hatteras. He also has a post, Historic Hurricanes from New Jersey to New England.

Hurricane Sandy info from NASA.

Joe Romm at climateprogress.org has a thoughtful piece called, How Does Global Warming Make Hurricanes Like Irene More Destructive?

For those of you wanting to know your odds of receiving hurricane force or tropical storm force winds, I recommend the NHC wind probability product.

Wunderground has detailed storm surge maps for the U.S. coast.

The National Hurricane Center's Interactive Storm Surge RIsk Map, which allows one to pick a particular Category hurricane and zoom in, is a good source of storm surge risk information.

Storm Surge prediction model from the Stevens Institute of Technology, which use a highly detailed 3D ocean model and even includes rainfall and tributary inflows.

Research storm surge model run by SUNY Stonybrook for New York City.

Climate Central has a nice satellite image showing which parts of New York Harbor are below five feet in elevation.

I'll have an update this afternoon.

Jeff Masters

Hurricane Sandy 1 (gwegret)
Post-Hurricane Sandy waves pound the Deerfield Beach, FL fishing pier!
Hurricane Sandy 1
Hurricane Sandy Long Neck Delaware (mal247)
On Rehoboth Bay
Hurricane Sandy Long Neck Delaware

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Quoting CatfishJones:
There are things called storm shelters. It's generally advisable to go to one.
In this case, info given at the news conference indicated the storm shelter set up by the city is flooded. Who knows the exact circumstances? Certainly not you or me. Gov. Christie seemed to say the mayor went against recommendation by allowing people to stay. At this point, I wouldn't blame the citizens involved. Hopefully, there will be a good outcome and no need to investigate the "he said, she said" related to the non-evacuation of Atlantic City - except amongst emergency managers behind closed doors who want to see this situation does not happen again.
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1381. milo617
Quoting sar2401:

Almost all shelters have reps from animal control or the Humane Society that work with them, so pets are really not that big a problem, assuming you don't own something like a large vicious dog. A bigger issue, and one that's rarely talked about, is that shelters don't allow alcohol or illegal drugs. I've done security details at shelters and we've had problems with people who didn't want to follow the rules. I'm not saying that everyone who didn't evacuate is an alcoholic or drug addict, but there are more than you might imagine. The hard core addicts won't evacuate for this very reason.



Excellent Point! This is a good read on one addict's experience through Katrina and the post hurricane fix.
Link - Junkies in the Hurricane
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Land observations and recon suggests Sandy has not made landfall yet. It is close though.

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The east river is now flooding the south street sea port
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1378. jaseone
Quoting Bluestorm5:
Sandy is a worse than Storm of the Century it seems...


We are in a different century now.
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Quoting leftlink:
Updating my post. As I have been saying, Isaac was 13' above normal so I think the official prediction of 7' for Sandy above normal is a lowball number. I would not be surprised if we had 10' above normal, which would be a 16 foot tide.

I posted at 4:45... estimating it would take 90 minutes to break the all time record at Sandy Hook. Well, in just 35 minutes the rise has been from 8.6 feet to 9.9 feet. A record level of 10.1' should occur momentarily.



"This a station entering the mouth of new york harbor, at Sandy Hook."
http://water.weather.gov/ahps2/hydrograph.php?wfo =phi&gage=sdhn4

The hydro prediction center is updating live, it is much better than the tidesonline.nos.noaa.gov site.
Thank you, I was looking for the real time link.
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Quoting BaltOCane:
Link

It's gone :-(
The gazebo is gone...
That's very upsetting; I've been going there since I was very very young.


It appeared to be intact until it became submerged, I've been watching it.
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Jim Cantore did change his predictions for Battery Park. Earlier today he said "water should be 8ft deep where I'm standing."
At the same location just earlier he said "water should be 2ft deep where I'm standing."
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1374. snotly
Long beach getting nailed - sea wall failed?


Live Link

Must be getting barocyclonic since high winds are further out from center
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Bad thing is its about to be dark...You'll here things that will make you wonder....Stay safe to all the people in harms way...
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Not sure exactly what's going on with the lights here. They are flickering almost like flames, but could just be the wind & rain messing up the lens.

http://fagers.com/sandycams.html

I started watching this no more than 5 minutes ago & all THREE lights were flickering brightly. 1 minute later the farthest one goes out. Then the middle one goes out 2 minutes ago. Bet that closest one don't last much longer.
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Quoting JTDailyUpdate:


Damn, that record's from the 1993 Storm of the Century
Sandy is a worse than Storm of the Century it seems...
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Quoting TraderGuy:


Under / over on what percentage of atlantic city residents could identify the bolivar peninsula on a map?


Won't touch that one.... How about over/ under Texas.
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Live video from the area per New Jersey news:

Link
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1368. falloch
'They were warned over and over and made the decision to stay. They now have no right to ask someone else to risk their lives to save them. Hard but true. Regardless, I'm sure the first responder will try since they are heroic type of folks.'

Believe or not, there's a lot of people in Lower Manhattan who are poor, who are not internet-savvy (i.e. have no web connections), who don't speak English very well, who've been through terrible occurrences in their former countries of residence - and who don't quite take in a message of warning about a hurricane from Mayor Bloomberg. They're not stupid; they're day-to-day survivors, probably many of them undocumented, but that doesn't mean they're just supposed to drown. Ditto - the 12,000 prisoners on Rikers Island in NYC, who aren't being evacuated despite the fact that Rikers Island is simply a sandbank. They're prisoners - let them be terrified - who bloody cares? 'Hard but True'? Maybe someday you'll be on vacation in a country whose language you don't speak, in the middle of a climate crisis, like a super-hurricane, and you'll see what's it like to try and set up a survival scenario.
(Sorry, I'll be in the doghouse now for ranting...)
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Quoting DataNerd:



[...]the Governor issued a mandatory evac order to get off the island, but the mayor ignored him[...]
So wait, they were or were not in possession of the message "GTFO the island?" I'm just wondering, because for some reason I don't see a shelter turning evacuees away because they live in Atlantic City.
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Battery now at 9.74
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Long Beach NY - a barrier Island south and parallel to Long Island - getting their own private low-key Katrina.

http://abclocal.go.com/wabc/livenow?id=8857235
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1364. sar2401
Quoting BaltOCane:
Link

It's gone :-(
The gazebo is gone...
That's very upsetting; I've been going there since I was very very young.

That's too bad. It's hard losing a friend, even when it's a structure. Amazingly, it looks like they still have power to that one surviving street light.
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Quoting GeoffreyWPB:
Just a reminder...Directv had dedicated channel 325 to Hurricane Sandy.


So is every local news channel in the Philadelphia Metro area
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Quoting stormchaser19:
Oh mother of ....Lynn, Massachussetts


That's a cool picture.
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Quoting aislinnpaps:


I thought I'd heard the coast guard was getting them out of the life boats as I left for work this morning. I guess I thought they had them all, they didn't?


They rescued 14 from the boats. 2 were missing. One has been found. Condition unknown other than "unresponsive".
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This is scary, I can't even lie. Long Island getting pounded badly right now. Waiting on the power to go out.
Member Since: September 12, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 140
Quoting JTDailyUpdate:


Damn, that record's from the 1993 Storm of the Century



So this makes it official. This is worse then the "storm of the century."

Pressure wise at least.


Getting reports of winds in the 70-80s all over the place. Surge still going up.

Battery now at 9.63 and apparently there are reports of wave action in Atlantic City itself. Beach/seawall thing and the boardwalk have been destroyed there.
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Pressure still dropping in Atlantic City. Down to 947.9 now. Water levels appear to be dropping though as the wind shifts parallel to the coast.

Link
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Quoting NCHurricane2009:
I see the 5 PM wind radius covers a lot of easterb NC and part of SC....but when I call folks I know down their well-inside that orange-shading...they say its just breezy. Does that mean that orange shading is not 40 mph sustained? Does it even mean 40 mph gust?

By the way...my thoughts are with those in the NE who are absolutley getting clobbered right now...looks like Sandy is making landfall faster than thought...
I am getting pretty strong gusts once in awhile. Sustained winds is about 25-30 mph with gusts up to 40-45 mph. (Raleigh)
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Sandy hook now at 10.48 feet, a full 6 inches above the record and rising. Battery has leveled off, however that is because the water is now over the hudson banks and until it fills up the streets it won't rise any more.

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Just a reminder...Directv had dedicated channel 325 to Hurricane Sandy.
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1354. Dakster
Landfall 3 hours or so earlier is not a bad thing... hopefully it goes away faster too.
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1353. acl8610
Quoting Articuno:
This will be one scary night folks. Stay safe if you are in a coastal area from surge and stay safe from winds as well even if it's "only" 90 mph. 90 mph can still do damage.

90 mph at the coast and even inland... Remember that the southern shorelines of lake erie and ontario will be impacted nearly the same as the atlantic coast. The winds will mix down late tonight and tomorrow morning in areas such as western ny and ne ohio, wind gusts to 80mph+ are possible then, plus lake shore flooding in cities such as cleveland and rochester....
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Quoting BaltOCane:
Link

It's gone :-(
The gazebo is gone...
That's very upsetting; I've been going there since I was very very young.


At least I saw it before it went. The sea doesn't seem to be particularly rough there, now.
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Quoting Pirate999:


For Pete's sake, didn't people see what Ike, a cat 1 did to the bolivar peninsula? Wiped it clean with the surge. Or was it that since it was in Texas they didn't watch? It's those southerns don't ya know. I got an idea.. Twc and nhc should broadcast pictures of bolivar and say "write your ss number on your arm with a sharpie" if you stay.


Under / over on what percentage of atlantic city residents could identify the bolivar peninsula on a map?
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Landfall:

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Moving WNW now at 27mph... this morning it was moving at 10mph, meaning that in the NW quadrant you have to adjust that effect of the increased movement in mph to the wind gust (17 mph)


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Long Beach, Long Island experiencing major flooding now..
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Quoting DataNerd:
Weather Underground@wundergroundPhiladelphia is the next city to break its all-time pressure record: 959.9mb, which breaks the old record of 962.8 in March 1993.


Damn, that record's from the 1993 Storm of the Century
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Landfall is now under way. Will be standing by for official NHC confirmation and the location data.


Looks like it was close to Cape May. Atlantic city getting slammed with surge and high wind.
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Oh mother of ....Lynn, Massachussetts
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Quoting Articuno:
This will be one scary night folks. Stay safe if you are in a coastal area from surge and stay safe from winds as well even if it's "only" 90 mph. 90 mph can still do damage.


Now on bonus time with electricy, the wind is starting to speak loudly on the upslope. I can only imagine conditions on the Delaware/MD/NJ coast.
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1343. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
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Again - center has made landfall according to TWC.
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Battery @ 9.62
Member Since: July 12, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 5995
Weather Underground@wundergroundPhiladelphia is the next city to break its all-time pressure record: 959.9mb, which breaks the old record of 962.8 in March 1993.
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1339. sar2401
Quoting Dakster:


They have these things called 'Shelters' and 'Buses'... If you can't go to a friends/relatives house or a hotel room, there are places for you to go. Most areas in the U.S. when an evacuation is ordered provide transportation to a shelter. The problem arises when you have pets as most shelters will not allow them. Now, it isn't the ritz carlton with private rooms, but it is a place to ride out the storm safely. (Unless you were in New Orleans during 'K' - you got bused there, but the superdome didn't exactly hold up)

I choose to figure out a way to LEAVE.

Almost all shelters have reps from animal control or the Humane Society that work with them, so pets are really not that big a problem, assuming you don't own something like a large vicious dog. A bigger issue, and one that's rarely talked about, is that shelters don't allow alcohol or illegal drugs. I've done security details at shelters and we've had problems with people who didn't want to follow the rules. I'm not saying that everyone who didn't evacuate is an alcoholic or drug addict, but there are more than you might imagine. The hard core addicts won't evacuate for this very reason.
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One of the newscasters was saying his Inn lost electric about an hour and a half ago. He said there'll be alot of candlelight dinners tonight. I wonder if he realizes there won't be heat?
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Quoting ncstorm:
I really hope some of you guys dont become first responders..
Why? "I was warned to a degree such that any rational human being would comply, but I decided, of my own volition, to stay in a high risk zone and now that the storm is on top of me, I want you brave souls to journey out into the thick of it and possibly die trying to rescue me and my drunk friends that thought a hurricane party sounded like a totally rad idea." Or some similar excuse. Either way you look at it, it's spot rescue. You're sending a crew out to save a civilian individual...and then which one do you save first?
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I just don't think first responders should risk their lives to save these people that choose to stay behind to guard their "stuff". The hardship cases are another story and there should be some method of helping them to shelters prior to the storms arrival. But if you chose to be there then you should have to wait until conditions are safe to be rescued.
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Link to SUNY Stony Brook surge model. Updated at 6PM to 4.0 meter peak at 10PM at the Battery - that's 13.1 ft

http://stormy.msrc.sunysb.edu/on_battery.htm
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1334. Jaevyn
Quoting aerojad:
Anyone else catch this from the 5pm update?





The light green-ness over Nova Scotia - does that mean that by day 4 or 5 the leftovers of this thing are going to try to re-intensify?


Unlikely at that far north that SST's would support a restrengthening tropical system. Most likely it would be extra-tropical processes causing that.
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000
WTNT43 KNHC 292157
TCDAT3

HURRICANE SANDY DISCUSSION NUMBER 30...CORRECTED
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL182012
500 PM EDT MON OCT 29 2012

THE CONVECTIVE STRUCTURE OF SANDY HAS DETERIORATED TODAY...EVEN AS
THE CENTRAL PRESSURE HAS CONTINUED TO SLOWLY FALL...SUGGESTING THAT
THE CONVECTION IS NO LONGER DRIVING THE BUS. THE INTENSIFICATION
OBSERVED THIS MORNING WAS ASSOCIATED WITH STRONG WINDS OCCURRING TO
THE SOUTHWEST OF THE CENTER...OUTSIDE OF THE CENTRAL CORE...AND WAS
ALMOST CERTAINLY DUE TO BAROCLINIC FORCING. IN ADDITION...AIRCRAFT
DATA INDICATE THAT THERE ARE STRONG TEMPERATURE CONTRASTS VERY NEAR
A MODEST RESIDUAL WARM CORE. WATER VAPOR IMAGERY INDICATES THAT
SANDY IS BECOMING ABSORBED WITHIN A LARGE MID-LATITUDE CYCLONIC
CIRCULATION. ALL OF THESE CONSIDERATIONS LEAD US TO CONCLUDE THAT
THE MOST APPROPRIATE CLASSIFICATION AT ADVISORY TIME IS
EXTRATROPICAL. HOWEVER...FOR CONTINUITY OF SERVICE NHC WILL
CONTINUE TO ISSUE ADVISORIES THROUGH LANDFALL. A POST-STORM
ANALYSIS WILL RE-EXAMINE THE TIMING OF EXTRATROPICAL TRANSITION.

WE ANTICIPATES THAT THE LAST NHC ADVISORY ON SANDY WILL BE ISSUED AT
11 PM EDT TONIGHT. SINCE ALL COASTAL TROPICAL CYCLONE WARNINGS HAVE
BEEN DISCONTINUED...THERE WILL BE NO INTERMEDIATE PUBLIC ADVISORIES
ISSUED BETWEEN NOW AND THE 11 PM NHC ADVISORY. TO PROVIDE A
CONTINUOUS FLOW OF INFORMATION...NHC WILL ISSUE TROPICAL CYCLONE
UPDATES AT 7 PM AND 9 PM EDT...AND AT THE TIME OF LANDFALL. THESE
UPDATES ARE ISSUED UNDER WMO HEADER WTNT63...AND AWIPS HEADER
TCUAT3...AND WILL ALSO BE AVAILABLE ON THE NHC WEBSITE. BEGINNING
AT 5 AM EDT TUESDAY...PUBLIC ADVISORIES WILL BE ISSUED BY THE
HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL PREDICTION CENTER...HPC...UNDER THE SAME WMO
AND AWIPS HEADERS AS THE NHC PUBLIC ADVISORIES...WHICH WILL ALSO BE
AVAILABLE VIA THE NHC WEBSITE.

THERE HAS BEEN NO SIGNIFICANT CHANGE TO THE POST-LANDFALL TRACK OR
INTENSITY FORECAST. DESPITE THE RAPID FORWARD MOTION TODAY...SANDY
IS EXPECTED TO STALL INLAND TOMORROW. THIS...COUPLED WITH THE VERY
LARGE SIZE OF THE SYSTEM...WILL MEAN THAT CONDITIONS WILL BE SLOW
TO IMPROVE IN THE AFFECTED AREAS. STRONG WINDS WILL PERSIST ALONG
THE COAST AND SPREAD FARTHER INLAND THROUGH AT LEAST TUESDAY. OF
PARTICULAR CONCERN ARE THE UPPER FLOORS OF HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS...AS
RECONNAISSANCE DATA INDICATE THAT WINDS JUST A FEW HUNDRED FEET IN
ALTITUDE ARE VERY MUCH STRONGER THAN THOSE NEAR THE SURFACE. EVEN
AS SANDY WEAKENS...HEAVY RAINS WILL PERSIST OVER A LARGE
AREA...POSING A VERY SIGNIFICANT INLAND FLOOD RISK.

TO AVOID A HIGHLY DISRUPTIVE CHANGE FROM TROPICAL TO NON-TROPICAL
WARNINGS AS SANDY BECOMES POST-TROPICAL...THE WIND AND OTHER
HAZARDS WILL CONTINUE TO BE CONVEYED THROUGH HIGH WIND WARNINGS
ISSUED BY LOCAL NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE OFFICES.

FORECAST POSITIONS AND MAX WINDS

INIT 29/2100Z 38.8N 74.4W 80 KT 90 MPH
12H 30/0600Z 39.8N 76.6W 65 KT 75 MPH...POST-TROP/EXTRATROP
24H 30/1800Z 40.4N 78.3W 50 KT 60 MPH...POST-TROP/EXTRATROP
36H 31/0600Z 41.3N 78.2W 40 KT 45 MPH...POST-TROP/EXTRATROP
48H 31/1800Z 42.8N 77.5W 30 KT 35 MPH...POST-TROP/EXTRATROP
72H 01/1800Z 45.1N 75.5W 30 KT 35 MPH...POST-TROP/EXTRATROP
96H 02/1800Z 46.3N 72.2W 25 KT 30 MPH...POST-TROP/EXTRATROP
120H 03/1800Z 47.5N 65.5W 20 KT 25 MPH...POST-TROP/EXTRATROP

$$
FORECASTER KNABB/FRANKLIN














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Quoting weathermanwannabe:
Have not had access to TV all day......Does anyone know what NYC did to try and shore up or barricade the salt water entry points for the subway stations near the coastal areas?


Here is a news article from the International Business Times about the MTA and storm preparations.

Oh, and it happens to quote Dr. Masters :)

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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