Superstorm Sandy intensifying, bringing record storm surges

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:54 PM GMT on October 29, 2012

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The final countdown to Hurricane Sandy's arrival has begun, and this extraordinary and historic storm is already causing havoc all along the U.S. coast from North Carolina to Massachusetts. The scale of this massive storm truly earns Sandy the title of "superstorm". Sandy's tropical storm-force winds span an area of ocean 940 miles in diameter, and both North Carolina and the island of Bermuda, 700 miles to the east, are under tropical storm warnings. The region of ocean covered by 12-foot high seas spans an area of ocean an incredible 1560 miles in diameter. Winds near hurricane force are expected to affect waters from Virginia to Massachusetts today. Record storm surge flooding has already occurred in regions along the New Jersey coast this morning, and the highest water levels recorded in over a century of record keeping are expected over much of the New Jersey and New York coasts this evening during the 8 - 9 pm EDT high tide cycle. Sandy brought sustained winds of 60 mph and waves 30 feet high early this morning to the buoy east of Cape Hatteras, NC. A wind gust of 58 mph occurred at New York City's La Guardia Airport at 9:51 am EDT, and a buoy at Robins Reef, NJ recorded sustained winds of 42 mph, gusting to 55 mph. As of 8 am EDT, Sandy has dumped heavy rains of 7.87" at Cape Hatteras, NC; 4.01" at Ocean City, MD; 3.12" at Dover, DE; and 3.22" at Virginia Beach, VA. As of 9 am EDT, peak storm surge values of 5" were observed at Lewes, Delaware, 4.2' at Cape May, NJ, 4' at Atlantic City, NJ, 2.9' at Philadelphia, and 3.9' at New York City.

Latest data from the Hurricane Hunters shows that Sandy is intensifying as its core traverses the warm waters of the Gulf Stream. At 8 am EDT, an Air Force hurricane hunter aircraft found top winds of 98 mph in the heavy thunderstorms to the southwest of Sandy's center, at a point about 150 miles east-northeast of Cape Hatteras, NC. A dropsonde released in the eye measured a central pressure of 945 mb, but observed winds of 19 knots at the surface, so Sandy is probably a 943 mb hurricane that is very close to Category 2 strength. The Hurricane Hunters did not observe an eyewall, and saw very little temperature difference from inside to outside the eye, so Sandy is not going to be able to undergo rapid intensification. The storm could still see an increase of 5 mph in its winds before landfall tonight between 6 pm - 10 pm EDT, due, in part, to interaction with the low pressure system to its west that is pulling the hurricane towards the coast. The new, higher winds of Sandy don't have a lot of time to pile up additional storm surge water, so the NHC storm surge forecasts will probably not change today. But it is clear that Sandy is not going to pull its punch, and this superstorm is going to deliver a punishing multi-billion dollar blow to a huge area of the Eastern U.S.


Figure 1. Morning satellite image of Hurricane Sandy.

Sandy already producing a record storm surge
The National Weather Service in Atlantic City, NJ said that isolated record storm surge flooding already occurred along portions of the New Jersey coast with this morning's 7:30 am EDT high tide cycle. As the tide goes out late this morning and this afternoon, water levels will fall, since the difference in water levels between low tide and high tide is about 5'. However, this evening, as the core of Sandy moves ashore, the storm will carry with it a gigantic bulge of water that will raise waters levels to the highest storm tides ever seen in over a century of record keeping, along much of the coastline of New Jersey and New York. The peak danger will be between 7 pm - 10 pm, when storm surge rides in on top of the high tide. The full moon is today, which means astronomical high tide will be about 5% higher than the average high tide for the month, adding another 2 - 3" to water levels. This morning's 9:30 am EDT H*Wind analysis from NOAA's Hurricane Research Division put the destructive potential of Sandy's winds at a modest 2.9 on a scale of 0 to 6. However, the destructive potential of the storm surge was record high: 5.8 on a scale of 0 to 6. This is a higher destructive potential than any hurricane observed since 1969, including Category 5 storms like Katrina, Rita, Wilma, Camille, and Andrew. The previous highest destructive potential for storm surge was 5.6 on a scale of 0 to 6, set during Hurricane Isabel of 2003. Sandy's storm surge will be capable of overtopping the flood walls in Manhattan, which are only five feet above mean sea level. On August 28, 2011, Tropical Storm Irene brought a storm surge of 4.13' and a storm tide of 9.5' above MLLW to Battery Park on the south side of Manhattan. The waters poured over the flood walls into Lower Manhattan, but came 8 - 12" shy of being able to flood the New York City subway system. According to the latest storm surge forecast for NYC from NHC, Sandy's storm surge is expected to be 10 - 12' above MLLW. Since a storm tide of 10.5' is needed to flood the subway system, it appears likely that portions of the NYC subway system will flood. The record highest storm tide at The Battery was 10.5', set on September 15, 1960, during Hurricane Donna.


Figure 2. Observed storm tide (red line) and predicted storm surge for Hurricane Sandy at The Battery on the south shore of Manhattan, New York City, from the experimental Extratropical Storm Surge model, run by NOAA"s Meteorological Development Laboratory (green line) and the NYHOPS model from the Stevens Institute of Technology (pink curve), which uses a highly detailed 3D ocean model and even includes rainfall and tributary inflows. These models have a storm surge of 5 - 6', which brings the maximum storm tide--the water level reached as a result of the combined action of the tide and the storm surge--to 11' above MLLW (Mean Lower Low Water.) Irene brought a storm tide of 9.5' above MLLW to The Battery in 2011. At a storm tide of 10.5', water will likely pour into the Lower Manhattan subway system, unless efforts to sandbag the entrances are successful. The NWS in NYC is predicting a 10 - 12' storm tide at The Battery during tonight's 9 pm high tide cycle.


Figure 3. Observed storm tide (red line) and predicted storm surge for Hurricane Sandy at Atlantic City, New Jersey, from the experimental Extratropical Storm Surge model, run by NOAA"s Meteorological Development Laboratory (green line) and the NYHOPS model from the Stevens Institute of Technology (pink curve), which uses a highly detailed 3D ocean model and even includes rainfall and tributary inflows. These models predict a maximum storm tide--the water level reached as a result of the combined action of the tide and the storm surge--of ' above MLLW (Mean Lower Low Water.) Irene brought a storm tide of 9.5' above MLLW to The Battery in 2011. At a storm tide of 10.5', water will likely pour into the Lower Manhattan subway system, unless efforts to sandbag the entrances are successful. The NWS in Atlantic City is predicting a 9.5' storm tide for the city during tonight's 8 pm high tide cycle, which would be the highest water levels ever observed in Atlantic City.

Links for Sandy
To find out if you need to evacuate, please contact your local emergency management office. They will have the latest information. People living in New York City can find their evacuation zone here or use this map. FEMA has information on preparing for hurricanes.

People with disabilities and caregivers seeking information on accessible shelter and transportation can contact portlight.org

Atlantic City beach cam

Ocean City, MD webcam

Statue of Liberty cam

An impressive 1-minute resolution satellite loop of Sandy today is at the CSU RAMMB website.

Our Weather Historian, Christopher C. Burt, has an excellent post on Late Season Tropical Storms that have affected the U.S. north of Hatteras. He also has a post, Historic Hurricanes from New Jersey to New England.

Hurricane Sandy info from NASA.

Joe Romm at climateprogress.org has a thoughtful piece called, How Does Global Warming Make Hurricanes Like Irene More Destructive?

For those of you wanting to know your odds of receiving hurricane force or tropical storm force winds, I recommend the NHC wind probability product.

Wunderground has detailed storm surge maps for the U.S. coast.

The National Hurricane Center's Interactive Storm Surge RIsk Map, which allows one to pick a particular Category hurricane and zoom in, is a good source of storm surge risk information.

Storm Surge prediction model from the Stevens Institute of Technology, which use a highly detailed 3D ocean model and even includes rainfall and tributary inflows.

Research storm surge model run by SUNY Stonybrook for New York City.

Climate Central has a nice satellite image showing which parts of New York Harbor are below five feet in elevation.

I'll have an update this afternoon.

Jeff Masters

Hurricane Sandy 1 (gwegret)
Post-Hurricane Sandy waves pound the Deerfield Beach, FL fishing pier!
Hurricane Sandy 1
Hurricane Sandy Long Neck Delaware (mal247)
On Rehoboth Bay
Hurricane Sandy Long Neck Delaware

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The wind field near appears to be dying back on radar somewhat...
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Quoting EricSpittle:
Sandy Hook guage just started climbing again after holding steady for about 30 minutes. 10.63'

That would have been really odd if Sandy made landfall in Sandy Hook, NJ...because her name is Sandy and she hooked left...
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Recon actually has the center farther north and east than I had it.

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1429. bappit
Looks like pressure has bottomed out at The Battery near 964.3 mb. Tide is still coming in. Curious, air and water temps have both bumped up. Surge is close to 7 feet and storm tide is almost 10 feet. High tide a few hours away.
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1428. MZT
Quoting Bluestorm5:
I am getting pretty strong gusts once in awhile. Sustained winds is about 25-30 mph with gusts up to 40-45 mph. (Raleigh)
Here in Charlotte it feels like a moderate winter storm. I can hear the gusts in my house, but the wind hasn't been mixing down to the ground too often.
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10.1' at the battery
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1426. guygee


Land-falling Sandy
Member Since: September 16, 2005 Posts: 0 Comments: 3188
1425. zawxdsk
Okay...weather radar and most of the TV commentary is that Sandy is ashore. However, pressure continues to drop in Southern New Jersey.

I think that Sandy has shed her clothes and is dancing around the beaches naked.
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1424. ncstorm
Quoting Bluestorm5:
No, but I could tell the wind speed pretty well while outside. One thing for sure is that the today's winds had been blowing way harder today than the last couple of days when Sandy is off coast of NC.

'
Member Since: August 19, 2006 Posts: 13 Comments: 16215
Quoting DataNerd:



So this makes it official. This is worse then the "storm of the century."

Pressure wise at least.


Getting reports of winds in the 70-80s all over the place. Surge still going up.

Battery now at 9.63 and apparently there are reports of wave action in Atlantic City itself. Beach/seawall thing and the boardwalk have been destroyed there.

There has NEVER been a storm quiet like this before...1st time I can think of a perfect storm scenario where the storm moves ashore...storms like the perfect storm in 1991 stay offshore...
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So apparently its not actually on land yet:
22:07:30Z
Coordinates: 38.8833N 74.1833W
Acft. Static Air Press: 842.9 mb (~ 24.89 inHg)
Acft. Geopotential Hgt: 976 meters (~ 3,202 feet)
Extrap. Sfc. Press: 945.1 mb (~ 27.91 inHg)
D-value: -
Flt. Lvl. Wind (30s): From 251° at 3 knots (From the WSW at ~ 3.4 mph)
Air Temp: 13.4°C (~ 56.1°F)
Dew Pt: 12.8°C (~ 55.0°F)
Peak (10s) Flt. Lvl. Wind: 6 knots (~ 6.9 mph)
SFMR Peak (10s) Sfc. Wind: 11 knots (~ 12.6 mph)
SFMR Rain Rate: 4 mm/hr (~ 0.16 in/hr)
(*) Denotes suspect data


Close but not as close as I thought. Apologies.
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Quoting CosmicEvents:
What do you estimate the wind to be now? Whatever it is now, I'd expect it to continue at that rate or higher for the next 2-4 hours at least. Be safe.

It has to be 80mph when it gusts, it has to be. There is no doubt in my mind it's AT LEAST 80mph. I can't imagine this lasting hours, it's terrifying. Our house is almost 100 years old and the power is flickering non-stop.
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1420. centex
Quoting Tazmanian:
I think new York got vary lucky cant say for that DC
wait on the final surge.
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Lowest pressure reading at the moment is 27.96" at a school just north of cape may:

http://www.wunderground.com/weatherstation/WXDail yHistory.asp?ID=KNJESTEL1
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Quoting SyriboTigereyes:
This is scary, I can't even lie. Long Island getting pounded badly right now. Waiting on the power to go out.
WU hugs, (((SyriboTigereyes))) and (((everyone in scary Sandy)))

Heading back under the radar...
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Quoting NCHurricane2009:

My family & friends down in NC don't care about meteorology...LOL...that's probably why I can't get specific objective info...

Do you have an anemometer or something?
No, but I could tell the wind speed pretty well while outside. One thing for sure is that the today's winds had been blowing way harder today than the last couple of days when Sandy is off coast of NC.
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Sandy
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Little things to be happy about. The central pressure didn't drop to 928mb, like one model run. Not that it is going to make much difference, now. Waiting on the first oak tree to go on the upslope. By 8pm, for sure.
Member Since: August 26, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 122
Quoting Walshy:
Link
Thanks Walsh I have been looking for some videos on the winter side of this.
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Quoting DataNerd:
Well this sucks. The pressure is falling again.


From aircraft near the center but not even the center fix yet: me: 22:03:30Z
Coordinates: 39.0833N 74.0833W
Acft. Static Air Press: 842.9 mb (~ 24.89 inHg)
Acft. Geopotential Hgt: 969 meters (~ 3,179 feet)
Extrap. Sfc. Press: 942.3 mb (~ 27.83 inHg)
D-value: -
Flt. Lvl. Wind (30s): From 85° at 33 knots (From the E at ~ 37.9 mph)
Air Temp: 18.8°C (~ 65.8°F)
Dew Pt: 12.5°C (~ 54.5°F)
Peak (10s) Flt. Lvl. Wind: 34 knots (~ 39.1 mph)
SFMR Peak (10s) Sfc. Wind: 26 knots (~ 29.9 mph)
SFMR Rain Rate: 3 mm/hr (~ 0.12 in/hr)
(*) Denotes suspect data




So it went down a bit more before landfall.

I think the drop this morning was due to the combination of normal tropical processes (it did develop a nice eyewall for a short period there) and extratropical processes, but this one is purely baroclinic.
Member Since: August 2, 2006 Posts: 47 Comments: 11694
Quoting Neapolitan:
Mount Washington currently:

MWO

...and should get worse later.



Ouch. 122 gust.
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Quoting OracleDeAtlantis:
Yes, this will have enormous implications for insurance deductibles in some areas. This could be a big deal to a lot of folks.



Wonder if those will be negative or positive implications insurance wise. Here is to hoping its positive and they can cover it with existing coverage they might have had for Nor'easters/snow ect.
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I think new York got vary lucky cant say for that DC
Member Since: May 21, 2006 Posts: 5091 Comments: 115437
Mount Washington currently:

MWO

...and should get worse later.
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1408. HCW
10 inches of Snow today at Gatlinburg, TN
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1407. sar2401
Quoting aerojad:
Anyone else catch this from the 5pm update?





The light green-ness over Nova Scotia & New Brunswick - does that mean that by day 4 or 5 the leftovers of this thing are going to try to re-intensify?

No, it just means that the center of Sandy's remnants will be over Nova Scotia at the end of the five day period, bringing stronger winds. That chart is the cumulative wind during five days, not a depiction of how any one area will fare during the five days.
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Quoting DataNerd:
Landfall:

Quoting DataNerd:
Yep its official. Extratropical storm. So now things get very interesting that wind field going to expand alot more. Also, for those wondering if its on land answer is yes, aircraft is putting the center fully on land. Gotta wait for NHC to post an update for that.
No. The storm has not made landfall yet and the storm is still officially a hurricane. Recon clearly shows the storm still over the ocean and the NHC still lists the storm as Hurricane Sandy.
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Battery park gauge is topping 10 ft.


So we have a 10 ft surge in the Battery. Yikes
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LurkyMcLurkerson: Maybe it's just because I live on the Pacific, but I cannot imagine why anybody would think some sand berms would stop an angry ocean. Watching them bust all over the local news over there, and I just -- really? Do they ever work? Loose sand?

Actually they do work... quite well... until some idiots decide that they can out-engineer Nature by eg plowing walkways through them or building seawalls or cutting canals through barrier islands (often a new sand berm on top of an old sand berm naturally cemented together through water-mediated chemical interactions on top of natural below-sea-level prominences).
Hurricanes and other LARGE storms are how they got there in the first place.
Storm surges&waves scour the seabed to depths approximately equal to their wave heights, churning the sand beneath upward and forward, then downward and a little backward before sending it upward and forward again... imparting an overall forward motion during their rolling process.
That sand is deposited way forward across the high tide line, then the more slowly draining seawater carries the smaller and lighter bits back out into the ocean.
Leaving behind a new berm or building up an old berm perfectly shaped by nature to resist movement by forces produced by waves coming from the same direction, and perfectly shaped to catch new sand carried up by waves coming from the same direction.
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Quoting TomTaylor:
NHC says Sandy is extratropical but for continuity they will keep her tropical. Most likely be changed to extratropical in post-season analysis.


THE CONVECTIVE STRUCTURE OF SANDY HAS DETERIORATED TODAY...EVEN AS
THE CENTRAL PRESSURE HAS CONTINUED TO SLOWLY FALL...SUGGESTING THAT
THE CONVECTION IS NO LONGER DRIVING THE BUS. THE INTENSIFICATION
OBSERVED THIS MORNING WAS ASSOCIATED WITH STRONG WINDS OCCURRING TO
THE SOUTHWEST OF THE CENTER...OUTSIDE OF THE CENTRAL CORE...AND WAS
ALMOST CERTAINLY DUE TO BAROCLINIC FORCING. IN ADDITION...AIRCRAFT
DATA INDICATE THAT THERE ARE STRONG TEMPERATURE CONTRASTS VERY NEAR
A MODEST RESIDUAL WARM CORE. WATER VAPOR IMAGERY INDICATES THAT
SANDY IS BECOMING ABSORBED WITHIN A LARGE MID-LATITUDE CYCLONIC
CIRCULATION. ALL OF THESE CONSIDERATIONS LEAD US TO CONCLUDE THAT
THE MOST APPROPRIATE CLASSIFICATION AT ADVISORY TIME IS
EXTRATROPICAL. HOWEVER...FOR CONTINUITY OF SERVICE NHC WILL
CONTINUE TO ISSUE ADVISORIES THROUGH LANDFALL. A POST-STORM
ANALYSIS WILL RE-EXAMINE THE TIMING OF EXTRATROPICAL TRANSITION.
Yes, this will have enormous implications for insurance deductibles in some areas. This could be a big deal to a lot of folks.
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Well this sucks. The pressure is falling again.


From aircraft near the center but not even the center fix yet: me: 22:03:30Z
Coordinates: 39.0833N 74.0833W
Acft. Static Air Press: 842.9 mb (~ 24.89 inHg)
Acft. Geopotential Hgt: 969 meters (~ 3,179 feet)
Extrap. Sfc. Press: 942.3 mb (~ 27.83 inHg)
D-value: -
Flt. Lvl. Wind (30s): From 85° at 33 knots (From the E at ~ 37.9 mph)
Air Temp: 18.8°C (~ 65.8°F)
Dew Pt: 12.5°C (~ 54.5°F)
Peak (10s) Flt. Lvl. Wind: 34 knots (~ 39.1 mph)
SFMR Peak (10s) Sfc. Wind: 26 knots (~ 29.9 mph)
SFMR Rain Rate: 3 mm/hr (~ 0.12 in/hr)
(*) Denotes suspect data




So it went down a bit more before landfall.
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Sandy Hook guage just started climbing again after holding steady for about 30 minutes. 10.63'
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As soon as the huge gusts kicked in, I watched the outages from LIPA go from 316,000 to 450,000 in just an hour!

I know so many have been through Cat 3s and Cat 4s... but this storm is scaring me, no lie. It's absolutely insane outside.
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1399. Walshy
Link
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Look that mayor of NY should of been in different clothes not a suit and tie...Really he's not getting wet..
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Quoting SyriboTigereyes:
I have never experienced wind like this in my life. This is absolutely crazy and makes Irene look like nothing.
What do you estimate the wind to be now? Whatever it is now, I'd expect it to continue at that rate or higher for the next 2-4 hours at least. Be safe.
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Battery now at 9.95'
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Wind shift now about 10nm offshore...
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Quoting Bluestorm5:
I am getting pretty strong gusts once in awhile. Sustained winds is about 25-30 mph with gusts up to 40-45 mph. (Raleigh)

My family & friends down in NC don't care about meteorology...LOL...that's probably why I can't get specific objective info...

Do you have an anemometer or something?
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Quoting stribe37:
Check out Lake Erie right nbow at Cleveland. They're calling for 20 foot waves.. and probably getting them now. Angry lake



Won't the Waves get higher as Sandy gets closer?
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1392. Walshy
Mark File with Romanticasheville.com at Roan Mtn which is over 6000 feet.

Link
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Quoting TomTaylor:
NHC says Sandy is extratropical but for continuity they will keep her tropical. Most likely be changed to extratropical in post-season analysis.


THE CONVECTIVE STRUCTURE OF SANDY HAS DETERIORATED TODAY...EVEN AS
THE CENTRAL PRESSURE HAS CONTINUED TO SLOWLY FALL...SUGGESTING THAT
THE CONVECTION IS NO LONGER DRIVING THE BUS. THE INTENSIFICATION
OBSERVED THIS MORNING WAS ASSOCIATED WITH STRONG WINDS OCCURRING TO
THE SOUTHWEST OF THE CENTER...OUTSIDE OF THE CENTRAL CORE...AND WAS
ALMOST CERTAINLY DUE TO BAROCLINIC FORCING. IN ADDITION...AIRCRAFT
DATA INDICATE THAT THERE ARE STRONG TEMPERATURE CONTRASTS VERY NEAR
A MODEST RESIDUAL WARM CORE. WATER VAPOR IMAGERY INDICATES THAT
SANDY IS BECOMING ABSORBED WITHIN A LARGE MID-LATITUDE CYCLONIC
CIRCULATION. ALL OF THESE CONSIDERATIONS LEAD US TO CONCLUDE THAT
THE MOST APPROPRIATE CLASSIFICATION AT ADVISORY TIME IS
EXTRATROPICAL. HOWEVER...FOR CONTINUITY OF SERVICE NHC WILL
CONTINUE TO ISSUE ADVISORIES THROUGH LANDFALL. A POST-STORM
ANALYSIS WILL RE-EXAMINE THE TIMING OF EXTRATROPICAL TRANSITION.




Yep its official. Extratropical storm. So now things get very interesting that wind field going to expand alot more.


Also, for those wondering if its on land answer is yes, aircraft is putting the center fully on land.


Gotta wait for NHC to post an update for that.
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1390. airmet3
Quoting ncstorm:
I really hope some of you guys dont become first responders..


I am not a first responder, though I know about a dozen. Part of their training is the mental aspect of knowing that folks need assistance but it is too dangerous to act.

Cruel, perhaps. The first responders do not deserve to be injured or worse in exchange for their service.
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Quoting WatchingThisOne:


It appeared to be intact until it became submerged, I've been watching it.


That was one of the best spots in Ocean City, MD. They would play the 1812 Overture as the sun set and it was wonderful.
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Has anyone noticed that Sandy is hooking to the left and making lanfdall quiet a bit quicker than previously forecast? What is this going to do to the storm track I wonder? My first guess is she is going to go more inland than preiously thought...perhaps even make a brief SW dip or cyclonic loop in her track?
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Check out Lake Erie right now at Cleveland. They're calling for 20 foot waves.. and probably getting them now. Angry lake

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Quoting CatfishJones:
So wait, they were or were not in possession of the message "GTFO the island?" I'm just wondering, because for some reason I don't see a shelter turning evacuees away because they live in Atlantic City.



Look if elected officials tell you two different things it can be bloody hard to understand for some folks.


The problem is the Mayor, this is on him as are any deaths. He sent a conflicting (and illegal) message at a critical time. Lay blame there.

Granted if you ever find yourself in that position listen to the State authority not the local authority, state takes precedent (governor).
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1384. centex
I've detected some threads suggesting over hype or over reaction by government. I could not disagree more with anyone suggesting that. Maybe they think end of the world only merits these reactions. For example Irene stats - Damage estimates throughout the United States are estimated near $15.6 billion,[1] which made it the 5th costliest hurricane in United States history, only behind Hurricane Andrew of 1992, hurricanes Wilma and Katrina of 2005, and Hurricane Ike of 2008.
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NHC says Sandy is extratropical but for continuity they will keep her tropical. Most likely be changed to extratropical in post-season analysis.


THE CONVECTIVE STRUCTURE OF SANDY HAS DETERIORATED TODAY...EVEN AS
THE CENTRAL PRESSURE HAS CONTINUED TO SLOWLY FALL...SUGGESTING THAT
THE CONVECTION IS NO LONGER DRIVING THE BUS. THE INTENSIFICATION
OBSERVED THIS MORNING WAS ASSOCIATED WITH STRONG WINDS OCCURRING TO
THE SOUTHWEST OF THE CENTER...OUTSIDE OF THE CENTRAL CORE...AND WAS
ALMOST CERTAINLY DUE TO BAROCLINIC FORCING. IN ADDITION...AIRCRAFT
DATA INDICATE THAT THERE ARE STRONG TEMPERATURE CONTRASTS VERY NEAR
A MODEST RESIDUAL WARM CORE. WATER VAPOR IMAGERY INDICATES THAT
SANDY IS BECOMING ABSORBED WITHIN A LARGE MID-LATITUDE CYCLONIC
CIRCULATION. ALL OF THESE CONSIDERATIONS LEAD US TO CONCLUDE THAT
THE MOST APPROPRIATE CLASSIFICATION AT ADVISORY TIME IS
EXTRATROPICAL. HOWEVER...FOR CONTINUITY OF SERVICE NHC WILL
CONTINUE TO ISSUE ADVISORIES THROUGH LANDFALL. A POST-STORM
ANALYSIS WILL RE-EXAMINE THE TIMING OF EXTRATROPICAL TRANSITION.
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Quoting CatfishJones:
There are things called storm shelters. It's generally advisable to go to one.
In this case, info given at the news conference indicated the storm shelter set up by the city is flooded. Who knows the exact circumstances? Certainly not you or me. Gov. Christie seemed to say the mayor went against recommendation by allowing people to stay. At this point, I wouldn't blame the citizens involved. Hopefully, there will be a good outcome and no need to investigate the "he said, she said" related to the non-evacuation of Atlantic City - except amongst emergency managers behind closed doors who want to see this situation does not happen again.
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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