Hurricane Sandy pounding Jamaica, may hit U.S. this weekend; TS Tony forms

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:21 PM GMT on October 24, 2012

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Hurricane warnings are flying for Jamaica and Eastern Cuba, as an intensifying Hurricane Sandy plows north-northeast at 13 mph towards landfall. The Hurricane Hunters are in the storm, and measured surface winds of hurricane strength--75 to 80 mph--in the storm's northeast quadrant near 9:25 am EDT. Sandy's pressure at the time of the 9:28 am center fix was 973 mb, and the temperature in the eye had warmed 2°C since the 7:48 am fix, a sign of strengthening. Intermittent rain squalls from Sandy have been affecting Jamaica since Monday night, and Kingston, Jamaica has picked up 2.12" of rain from Sandy as of 9 am EDT. Winds in Jamaica have been below 20 mph as of 10 am EDT, but will start to rise quickly in the next few hours. The Hurricane Hunters found a large 55 mile-diameter eye that was open to the WNW this morning, and it is likely that Kingston will receive high winds of 55 - 65 mph from the western eyewall, which will cause considerable damage to Jamaica's capital. The eastern tip of Jamaica will likely see the eye pass overhead, and will receive the strongest winds. The eye is beginning to appear on visible satellite loops, and Sandy is showing an increasing degree of organization as it closes in on Jamaica. Sandy is the tenth hurricane of the 2012 hurricane season, which is now tied for eighth place for most hurricanes in a year since record keeping began in 1851.


Figure 1. Morning microwave satellite image of Tropical Storm Sandy taken at 8:45 am EDT. The large 55-mile diameter eye was just south of Jamaica. Image credit: Navy Research Lab, Monterey.

Near-term forecast for Sandy
Wind shear is forecast to be in the moderate range and ocean temperatures will be a warm 28°C through Thursday morning, which will favor intensification. However, Sandy doesn't have much time left over water before it encounters the high mountains of Jamaica this afternoon, which should interrupt the intensification process. The strongest Sandy is likely to be at landfall in Jamaica is a 90 mph Category 1 hurricanes. After encountering Jamaica, Sandy won't have time to re-organize much before making landfall in Eastern Cuba near 10 pm EDT tonight, and the strongest the storm is likely to be then is a 90 mph Category 1. Passage over the rugged terrain of Cuba should weaken Sandy's winds by 20 - 30 mph, and it will be difficult for the storm to regain all of that lost strength in the face of the high wind shear of 20 - 30 knots it will encounter Thursday and Friday. I expect that Sandy will be a 60 - 70 mph tropical storm as it traverses the Bahamas.


Figure 2. MODIS satellite image of Tropical Storm Sandy taken at 11:45 am EDT Tuesday, October 23, 2012. At the time, Sandy had top winds of 50 mph. Image credit: NASA.

Sandy: a potential billion-dollar storm for the mid-Atlantic and New England
On Friday, a very complicated meteorological situation unfolds, as Sandy interacts with a trough of low pressure approaching the U.S. East Coast and trough of low pressure over the Central Atlantic. The Central Atlantic trough may be strong enough to pull Sandy northeastwards, out to sea, as predicted by the official NHC forecast, and the 06Z GFS, 00Z UKMET, 00Z Canadian, and 06Z HWRF models (00Z is 8 pm EDT, and 06Z is 2 am EDT.) However, an alternative solution, shown by the 00Z ECMWF, 06Z GFDL, and 06Z NOGAPS models, is for Sandy to get caught up by the trough approaching the Eastern U.S., which will inject a large amount of energy into Sandy, converting it to a powerful subtropical storm that hits the mid-Atlantic or New England early next week with a central pressure below 960 mb and sustained winds of 60 - 70 mph. Such a storm would likely cause massive power outages and over a billion dollars in damage, as trees still in leaf take out power grids, and heavy rains and coastal storm surges create damaging flooding. The full moon is on Monday, which means astronomical tides will be at their peak for the month, increasing potential storm surge flooding. A similar meteorological situation occurred in October 1991, when Hurricane Grace became absorbed by a Nor'easter, becoming the so-called "Perfect Storm" that killed 13 people and did over $200 million in damage in the Northeast U.S.


Figure 3. The Wednesday morning 06Z (2 am EDT) run of the GFS model was done 20 times at lower resolution with slightly varying initial conditions of temperature, pressure, and moisture to generate an ensemble of forecast tracks for Sandy (pink lines). These forecasts show substantial uncertainty in Sandy's path after Friday, with a minority of the forecasts taking Sandy to the northeast, out to sea, and the majority now predicting a landfall in the Northeast or mid-Atlantic states of the U.S. The white line shows the official GFS forecast, run at higher resolution.

When might Sandy arrive in the mid-Atlantic and New England?
The models vary significantly in their predictions of when Sandy might arrive along the U.S. coast. The 06Z NOGAPS model predicts Sandy's heavy rains will arrive on North Carolina's Outer Banks on Saturday, then spread into the mid-Atlantic and New England on Sunday. The 00Z ECMWF model predicts that Sandy's rains won't affect North Carolina until Sunday, with the storm making landfall in New Jersey on Monday night. The GFDL model is in-between these extremes, taking Sandy ashore in Delaware on Monday morning. The trough of low pressure that Sandy will be interacting with just moved ashore over the Western U.S. this morning, and got sampled by the 12Z (8 am EDT) set of land-based balloon-borne radiosondes for the first time. One of the reasons the models have been in such poor agreement on the long-term fate of Sandy is that the strength of this trough has not been very well known, since it has been over the ocean where we have limited data. Now that the trough is over land, it will be better sampled, and the next set of 12Z model runs, due out this afternoon between 2 pm - 4pm EDT, will hopefully begin to converge on a common solution. I'll have an update this afternoon once the 12Z model runs are in.


Figure 4. Morning satellite image of Tropical Storm Tony.

Tropical Storm Tony forms in the middle Atlantic
Tropical Storm Tony formed Tuesday night in the middle Atlantic, becoming the nineteenth named storm of this very busy 2012 Atlantic hurricane season. Tony has a modest area of heavy thunderstorms, as seen on visible satellite images, but is battling dry air , wind shear, and ocean temperatures that have fallen below 26°C. Tony will not threaten any land areas, and will likely be dead by Thursday night.

Tony's place in history
Tony is the Nineteenth named storm of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season, tying this year with 1887, 1995, 2010, and 2011 for third busiest Atlantic season since the HURDAT historical data base began in 1851. With five more weeks left before the November 30 end of hurricane season, 2012 is likely to move into second place for most named storms before the year is out, as all six prior Atlantic hurricane seasons with nineteen or more named storms have had at least one named storm form after October 24. Here, then, is a list of the seven busiest Atlantic hurricane seasons on record:

2005 (28 named storms)
1933 (20 named storms, according to a new re-analysis)
2012 (19 named storms)
1887 (19 named storms)
2010 (19 named storms)
2011 (19 named storms)
1995 (19 named storms)

It's pretty remarkable that we've now had three straight years with nineteen named storms in the Atlantic. But how many of these storms might not have been counted in the pre-satellite era (before 1960)? Here's a list of weak and short-lived storms from 2010 - 2012 that stayed far out sea, and would likely have gone unnoticed in the pre-satellite era:

2012:
Tropical Storm Joyce
Tropical Storm Oscar
Tropical Storm Tony

2011:
Tropical Storm Jose
Tropical Storm Franklin

2010:
Tropical Storm Gaston

Even if we correct for the possible over-count of approximately two named storms per year during the 2010, 2011, and 2012 hurricane seasons, compared to the pre-satellite era, there is nothing in the HURDAT data base that compares to the type of activity we've seen the past three years. One likely contributor to the unusual string of active years is the fact hurricane season has gotten longer, perhaps due to warming ocean temperatures. I discussed in a 2008 blog post that Dr. Jim Kossin of the University of Wisconsin published a 2008 paper in Geophysical Research Letters titled, "Is the North Atlantic hurricane season getting longer?" He concluded that yes, there is a "apparent tendency toward more common early- and late-season storms that correlates with warming Sea Surface Temperature but the uncertainty in these relationships is high".

Jeff Masters

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Quoting SouthDadeFish:
Holy crap:

145030 1705N 07647W 6966 02930 9727 +163 +031 103003 012 014 002 00

972.7mb... Bombing right before Jamaica. I hope they are ready.


I see she and Ernesto share the same twisted sense of humour. Perhaps they are related?
Member Since: August 26, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 612
This is not good for Jamaica. Thankfully the storm is about to make landfall soon or else I am afraid Sandy would really explode.

Prayers go out to those in the path of this one.
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Sandy is now a hurricane
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Welcome Hurricane Sandy!
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Quoting reedzone:
Henry Margusity is highly confident that the storm will not phase, but... move around the trough??

This isn't normal of him to downplay a potential disaster.

Henry Margusity:
The map below shows my scenario for the development of a nor'easter while Sandy is being whipped around the trough and getting absorbed into the developing storm. I do not buy the Euro model at all with Sandy coming full bore into the Northeast as a strong hurricane. Things like that just do not happen. What will happen, with the strongly negative NAO, in the development of a storm will most likely occur off the mid-Atlantic coast. The pattern dictates that. Even if Sandy was not in the picture, given the negative NAO, a storm would be developing there.
So what does that mean? When the storm develops, moisture from Sandy should be absorbed into the storm which will move into New England. Heavy rain and flooding will mostly like occur with gale-force winds along the coast. The storm should back west-northwest, and that could mean rain changing to wet snow in the Appalachians of Pennsylvania, West Virginia into western New York. While not the epic storm as shown by the Euro, it still will be a major storm for the Northeast.
I do think you will see the GFS come around to a storm developing off Long Island or New Jersey with time. The Euro should also change direction with time as well. Other models have started in that direction and should all come around to the solution with time as well.


GFS and CMC hinted at this happening, Sandy passes by and then a noreaster develops, thats how the GFS gives snow to the pennsylvania area

Sandy is up in the upper right, while the new noreaster is by cape cod
CMC:


GFS:
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It a Hurricane!!!
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I think I used F5 for a hundred times in the last 15 minutes.
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Quoting hurricanejunky:
Two more storms and we can tie for 2nd busiest season. Who woulda thunk it?




it is not un here of that we could see some in fourm in NOV i think we could see 2 name storms in NOV
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Will it be a hurricane at 11 a.m.?
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The NHC is holding its advisory on TS Sandy probably because it's a hurricane now and they have to change watches to warnings and issue watches for parts of South FL.
Member Since: August 31, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 5628
Lord Knows Im used to storms. It gets old after a while. But it would be nice to know what to realistically expect here in Wilmington NC. Guess i could check local NWS. Havent done that yet and sometimes they are wishy washy
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Holy crap:

145030 1705N 07647W 6966 02930 9727 +163 +031 103003 012 014 002 00

972.7mb... Bombing right before Jamaica. I hope they are ready.
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I have to slightly disagree with Henry, Sandy will be too large and powerful to just "absorb" into a system that no models are currently forecasting to develop.
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HAZARDOUS WEATHER OUTLOOK
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE TAMPA BAY RUSKIN FL
502 AM EDT WED OCT 24 2012

FLZ039-042-043-048>052-055>057-060>062-065-GMZ830 -850-853-856-870-
873-876-242115-
LEVY-CITRUS-SUMTER-HERNANDO-PASCO-PINELLAS-HILLSB OROUGH-POLK-
MANATEE-HARDEE-HIGHLANDS-SARASOTA-DESOTO-CHARLOTT E-LEE-
TAMPA BAY WATERS-TARPON SPRINGS TO SUWANNEE RIVER OUT 20 NM-
ENGLEWOOD TO TARPON SPRINGS OUT 20 NM-
BONITA BEACH TO ENGLEWOOD OUT 20 NM-
TARPON SPRINGS TO SUWANNEE RIVER OUT 20 TO 60 NM-
ENGLEWOOD TO TARPON SPRINGS OUT 20 TO 60 NM-
BONITA BEACH TO ENGLEWOOD OUT 20 TO 60 NM-
502 AM EDT WED OCT 24 2012

THIS HAZARDOUS WEATHER OUTLOOK IS FOR WEST CENTRAL AND SOUTHWEST
FLORIDA.

.DAY ONE...TODAY AND TONIGHT.

...WIND AND SEA IMPACT...
PRESSURE GRADIENT BETWEEN HIGH PRESSURE TO THE NORTH AND
TROPICAL STORM SANDY TO THE SOUTH WILL CREATE BREEZY CONDITIONS
ON THE WATERS TODAY AND TONIGHT. BOATERS SHOULD EXERCISE CAUTION
DUE TO WINDS OF 15 TO 20 KNOTS.

.DAYS TWO THROUGH SEVEN...THURSDAY THROUGH TUESDAY.

...WIND AND SEA IMPACT...
WINDS AND SEAS WILL INCREASE FRIDAY AND SATURDAY AS TROPICAL STORM
SANDY PASSES EAST OF FLORIDA. SMALL CRAFT ADVISORY CONDITIONS
POSSIBLE INTO SATURDAY. A COLD FRONT WILL MOVE ACROSS THE WATERS
WITH STRONG HIGH PRESSURE BUILDING OVER THE REGION EARLY NEXT
WEEK WITH BREEZY CONDITIONS PERSISTING.


.SPOTTER INFORMATION STATEMENT...

SPOTTER ACTIVATION WILL NOT BE NEEDED TODAY.

$$

OGLESBY



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Quoting hurricanejunky:
Two more storms and we can tie for 2nd busiest season. Who woulda thunk it?

Actually, if you look at Dr. Master's entry, a recent re-analysis excluded one storm in the 1933 season, so it would be 20 storms that year.
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Both the 15k and 30k resolution models are similiar:

SW Florida gets lots of winds:


Goes way out like GFS ensembles:


Hooks back into Long Island, CT, and RI
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Pretty interesting none of the hurricane forecasts were correct LOL
TSR December 7, 2011 14 7 3
WSI December 21, 2011 12 7 3
CSU April 4, 2012 10 4 2
TSR April 12, 2012 13 6 3
TWC April 24, 2012 11 6 2
TSR May 23, 2012 13 6 3
UKMO May 24, 2012 10* N/A N/A
NOAA May 24, 2012 9-15 4-8 1-3
FSU COAPS May 30, 2012 13 7 N/A
CSU June 1, 2012 13 5 2
TSR June 6, 2012 14 6 3
NOAA August 9, 2012 12-17 5-8 2-3
–––––––––––––––– –––––––––––––––– –––––––––––––––– –––––
Actual activity
19 10 1
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Two more storms and we can tie for 2nd busiest season. Who woulda thunk it?
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Henry Margusity is highly confident that the storm will not phase, but... move around the trough??

This isn't normal of him to downplay a potential disaster.

Henry Margusity:
The map below shows my scenario for the development of a nor'easter while Sandy is being whipped around the trough and getting absorbed into the developing storm. I do not buy the Euro model at all with Sandy coming full bore into the Northeast as a strong hurricane. Things like that just do not happen. What will happen, with the strongly negative NAO, in the development of a storm will most likely occur off the mid-Atlantic coast. The pattern dictates that. Even if Sandy was not in the picture, given the negative NAO, a storm would be developing there.
So what does that mean? When the storm develops, moisture from Sandy should be absorbed into the storm which will move into New England. Heavy rain and flooding will mostly like occur with gale-force winds along the coast. The storm should back west-northwest, and that could mean rain changing to wet snow in the Appalachians of Pennsylvania, West Virginia into western New York. While not the epic storm as shown by the Euro, it still will be a major storm for the Northeast.
I do think you will see the GFS come around to a storm developing off Long Island or New Jersey with time. The Euro should also change direction with time as well. Other models have started in that direction and should all come around to the solution with time as well.
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An extract from a recent Jamaican "report"

There is grave concern for some 100 people on the Pedro Cays who have refused to leave despite offers from the military to airlift them to the mainland even the pleading of the Prime Minister.

All too often the case when persons who are probably not far from subsistence living (and I mean no disrespect by that comment)are fearful for the very means they live by. Sadly,I have personally witnessed it around the world.

Any Jamaican Blogger able to provide any update?
Member Since: September 21, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 309
My guess for the season is 20-10-1 or 20-10-2.
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Today is the 7th Anniversary of Hurricane Wilma. What an incredible storm...

REMEMBERING WILMA

STORIES ABOUT WILMA
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Quoting GTcooliebai:
BULLETIN
TROPICAL STORM TONY ADVISORY NUMBER 8
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL192012
1100 AM AST WED OCT 24 2012

...TONY A LITTLE STRONGER YET...
...ACCELERATING EAST-NORTHEASTWARD...


SUMMARY OF 1100 AM AST...1500 UTC...INFORMATION
-----------------------------------------------
LOCATION...28.5N 45.4W
ABOUT 1245 MI...2005 KM WSW OF THE AZORES
MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS...50 MPH...85 KM/H
PRESENT MOVEMENT...ENE OR 60 DEGREES AT 21 MPH...33 KM/H
MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE...1000 MB...29.53 INCHES


WATCHES AND WARNINGS
--------------------
THERE ARE NO COASTAL WATCHES OR WARNINGS IN EFFECT.


DISCUSSION AND 48-HOUR OUTLOOK
------------------------------
AT 1100 AM AST...1500 UTC...THE CENTER OF TROPICAL STORM TONY WAS
LOCATED NEAR LATITUDE 28.5 NORTH...LONGITUDE 45.4 WEST. TONY IS
MOVING TOWARD THE EAST-NORTHEAST NEAR 21 MPH...33 KM/H...AND THIS
MOTION IS EXPECTED TO CONTINUE FOR THE NEXT COUPLE OF DAYS.

MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS ARE NEAR 50 MPH...85 KM/H...WITH HIGHER
GUSTS. LITTLE CHANGE IS EXPECTED TODAY...FOLLOWED BY GRADUAL
WEAKENING AFTER THAT. TONY IS EXPECTED TO BECOME A POST-TROPICAL
CYCLONE ON THURSDAY.

TROPICAL-STORM-FORCE WINDS EXTEND OUTWARD UP TO 70 MILES...110 KM
FROM THE CENTER.

THE ESTIMATED MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE IS 1000 MB...29.53 INCHES.


HAZARDS AFFECTING LAND
----------------------
NONE.


NEXT ADVISORY
-------------
NEXT COMPLETE ADVISORY...500 PM AST.

$$
FORECASTER KIMBERLAIN
Tony on his way.
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Quoting washingtonian115:
Anyone think we'll have one more storm after Tony? to make 20 named storms even?.


I'm feeling one more before season's end is not unreasonable; perhaps even another one somewhere in the open Atlantic in December.
Member Since: August 26, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 612
I was just wondering, where's Patrap I haven't seen and and a few others?

sheri
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BULLETIN
TROPICAL STORM TONY ADVISORY NUMBER 8
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL192012
1100 AM AST WED OCT 24 2012

...TONY A LITTLE STRONGER YET...
...ACCELERATING EAST-NORTHEASTWARD...


SUMMARY OF 1100 AM AST...1500 UTC...INFORMATION
-----------------------------------------------
LOCATION...28.5N 45.4W
ABOUT 1245 MI...2005 KM WSW OF THE AZORES
MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS...50 MPH...85 KM/H
PRESENT MOVEMENT...ENE OR 60 DEGREES AT 21 MPH...33 KM/H
MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE...1000 MB...29.53 INCHES


WATCHES AND WARNINGS
--------------------
THERE ARE NO COASTAL WATCHES OR WARNINGS IN EFFECT.


DISCUSSION AND 48-HOUR OUTLOOK
------------------------------
AT 1100 AM AST...1500 UTC...THE CENTER OF TROPICAL STORM TONY WAS
LOCATED NEAR LATITUDE 28.5 NORTH...LONGITUDE 45.4 WEST. TONY IS
MOVING TOWARD THE EAST-NORTHEAST NEAR 21 MPH...33 KM/H...AND THIS
MOTION IS EXPECTED TO CONTINUE FOR THE NEXT COUPLE OF DAYS.

MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS ARE NEAR 50 MPH...85 KM/H...WITH HIGHER
GUSTS. LITTLE CHANGE IS EXPECTED TODAY...FOLLOWED BY GRADUAL
WEAKENING AFTER THAT. TONY IS EXPECTED TO BECOME A POST-TROPICAL
CYCLONE ON THURSDAY.

TROPICAL-STORM-FORCE WINDS EXTEND OUTWARD UP TO 70 MILES...110 KM
FROM THE CENTER.

THE ESTIMATED MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE IS 1000 MB...29.53 INCHES.


HAZARDS AFFECTING LAND
----------------------
NONE.


NEXT ADVISORY
-------------
NEXT COMPLETE ADVISORY...500 PM AST.

$$
FORECASTER KIMBERLAIN
Member Since: August 31, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 5628
Flight level winds:
86 knots
(~ 98.9 mph)

Guaranteed hurricane here.
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Anyone think we'll have one more storm after Tony? to make 20 named storms even?.
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69HR that is big rain in SE FL on the GFS
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Recon finding 86 knot flight level winds on the SE side. We should have Hurricane Sandy here shortly.
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Quoting fmbill:
I know it's the NAM (non-tropical), but if this plays out this way, the folks in SE Florida will have a few hours of panick.

12Z NAM


Nice loop it does by FL.
I know Levi mentioned with Isaac that storms can get slung west a tad by the islands, I wonder if that could happen to Sandy. That would help its phasing chances
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Quoting CybrTeddy:
Who's up for a game of eye-spy?

Boooo.lol.
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lol
Quoting CybrTeddy:
Who's up for a game of eye-spy?

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doubt if we will see many more post from jamaica no doubt they will experience the eye wall as the eye hopefully wobbles east around the island.
Member Since: September 11, 2010 Posts: 1 Comments: 4862
Who's up for a game of eye-spy?

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I know it's the NAM (non-tropical), but if this plays out this way, the folks in SE Florida will have a few hours of panick.

12Z NAM
Member Since: May 27, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 466
To All Friends, Colleagues, Work Mates - Everyone in Jamaica, Haiti, Cuba and, down the realistically foreseen line, Bahamas - Stay safe, be sensible and do NOT take stupid risks - wishing you safety during the Storm and a rapid recovery in the aftermath.

My anxiety is especially high for Haiti as the forecast rainfall amounts could be catastrophic - to all my fellow Red Cross/Red Crescent, MSF and other NGO workers in Haiti, be very careful and observant - recall the "flood zones" and try to stay away from them - stay "out of harm's way".
Member Since: September 21, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 309
Thanks Doc.

Does it head more west if Cuba does a number on it? If so, does that give it a greater chance of a New England impact?

Personally, I think it weakens over Jamaica, more over Cuba, and then becomes subtropical as it goes past Bermuda.
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For those thinking that Sandy was moving NNW based on satellite, the last three vortex fixes:

15.37N 77.13W

16.57N 76.93W

16.85N 76.73W


So 1.48N and 0.4 EAST

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Wave height from Sandy





Member Since: August 19, 2006 Posts: 13 Comments: 15999
Quoting TomballTXPride:

I see your thinking is pretty much in line with the Euro. Are you more confident in it's abilities now? The Euro sure nailed Isaac taking him west of NOLA when other posters on here were certain he would stay primarily over Florida...

The GFS ensembles shifting is a bit disturbing, I must add. Not too mention the 06Z GFS shifted even closer to the OBX.

Maybe the timing will be right afterall, because the ingredients are sure all there for a monster in the making.


I wasn't sure until today when we are seeing more model support for it. I was always mentioning the possibility of it.. Since it is the EURO, couldn't completely discount it. I'm in agreement with Levi.
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A big blow up of Convection on the North-side!
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Quoting TomballTXPride:

Wash. I thought you want some snow though. This might be your opportunity, no?
Yeah snow later..in December where it belongs.
Quoting LostTomorrows:


Haha, I didn't even notice your post when I was typing mine. Great/average minds think alike, no?
Lol I just thought I'd point that out.Still think Tony will make a run for it.The NHC is being conserative as usual.
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Quoting reedzone:


Tropical Depression 7 didn't get named, it dissipated in the Caribbean in August.

It became Helene in the BOC.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32505
Thank you Dr. Masters
Member Since: October 3, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 5927
Quoting washingtonian115:
Tony looks like Kirk before he took off in R.I...


Haha, I didn't even notice your post when I was typing mine. Great/average minds think alike, no?
Member Since: August 26, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 612

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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