The new hottest place on Earth: Death Valley, California

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:18 PM GMT on September 13, 2012

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As any weather aficionado can avow, Earth's most iconic weather record has long been the legendary all-time hottest temperature of 58°C (136.4°F) measured 90 years ago today at El Azizia, Libya on September 13, 1922. One hundred thirty six degrees! It's difficult to comprehend that heat like that could exist on our planet. For 90 years, no place on Earth has come close to beating the unbelievable 136 degree reading from Al Azizia, and for good reason--the record is simply not believable. But Earth's mightiest weather record has been officially cast down. Today, the official arbiter of Earth's weather records, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), announced that the all-time heat record held for exactly 90 years by El Azizia in Libya "is invalid because of an error in recording the temperature." The WMO committee found five major problems with the measurement. Most seriously, the temperature was measured in a paved courtyard over a black, asphalt-like material by a new and inexperienced observer, not trained in the use of an unsuitable replacement instrument that could be easily misread. The observer improperly recorded the observation, which was consequently in error by about 7°C (12.6°F.) The new official highest hottest place on the planet is now Death Valley, California. A remarkable high temperature of 56.7°C (134°F) was measured there on 10 July 1913, at Greenland Ranch.


Figure 1. The trading post at Al Azizia, Libya in 1923. The photo was taken from the Italian military fort located on a small hill just south of the trading post. It was at this fort that the temperature of 58°C (136.4°F) was observed on Sept. 13, 1922 (used with permission from the family of Gen. Enrico Pezzi).

The story behind the overturning of Earth's most hallowed weather record
Today's announcement is the culmination of a 3-year research effort begun by wunderground weather historian, Christopher C. Burt. His blog post today, World Heat Record Overturned--A Personal Account, provides a fascinating detective story on how the record came to be cast down--and how the Libyan revolution of 2012 almost prevented this from happening.


Figure 2. The new official hottest place on the planet: Death Valley, California. Wide open spaces, infinite views, intensely salty water, mind-boggling heat. What's not to love about this place? Image credit: Wunderphotographer SonomaCountyRAF.

Dead Heat: The Video
Don't miss the 25-minute wunderground video, Dead Heat, a detective story on how the El Azizia record was overturned.

Atlantic tropical update
Tropical Storm Nadine is recurving to the northwest and north well east of the Lesser Antilles Islands, on a track that would likely keep this storm far out at sea away from any land areas. However, Nadine may eventually threaten the Azores Islands or Newfoundland; the models are divided on how the steering currents will evolve next week, and we cannot be sure which way Nadine will go during the middle of next week.

The models predict that a trough of low pressure off the U.S. East Coast may serve as the focus for development of a non-tropical low pressure system on Sunday or Monday, but this low will likely form too far to the north to become a tropical storm. The GFS model has been predicting a tropical wave coming off the coast of Africa may develop next week, but has not been consistent with the timing or location of the development.

In the Western Pacific, Super Typhoon Sanba is an impressive top-end Category 4 storm with 155 mph winds, and is headed north-northwest towards a possible landfall in Korea early next week.

Given the importance of the new world record all-time high temperature, I'll leave this post up until Saturday afternoon, when I'll post an update on the tropics.

Jeff Masters

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SPECIAL WPAC UPDATE:
________________________

ST SANBA


bigger pic here...
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Quoting phunter:
I don't feel we have quite heard the last word about that now discredited 58C "record" from Al Azizia. I have just looked through the complete set of figures for the period 1913 to 1940 for Al Azizia, and see that at some point 133F was recorded in August, 127F in June, and 120F in October. These are all staggering figures, the 133F in August being only 1F short of the revised world record of 134F at Death Valley, while the 120F in October is equally remarkable and would be a world record I think for that month. They beg the question of whether they were all recorded under the same conditions above tarmac, and taken by that same dodgy observer, using a low precision U shaped mercury max/min thermometer of the type found in many greenhouses. These were all cited as evidence for overturning the Al Azizia record, along with computer analysis suggesting that temperature was impossible there. Oddly the date was not mentioned, September 13th being a little late in the year for a world record to be set at 30N lattitude - sometime in late July or any of August would be more likely.

But my contention is that to confidently overturn that record, those other figures I mention above also need to be investigated, for otherwise they suggest that even if that 136F was invalid, Al Azizia was capable of approaching very close to it, contrary to the view expressed in that Weather Underground video.

So my question is were all those exceptional readings taken at Al Azizia also invalid, and if so for the same reasons? Otherwise I shall consider the investigation leading to the record being overturned insufficiently rigorous, and failing to dig deep into the microclimate around Al Azizia with its tendency for extreme fohn like effects, rather than focusing purely on the exact location of the Stephenson Screen itself.
The amount of research, analysis, and discussion that went into de-certifying the Libyan record was staggering--hundreds of hours' worth--and of course based on far more than the location of the thermometer, as described in the peer-reviewed BAMS article. At any rate, the investigative committee wasn't tasked with looking into the validity of the other readings you mentioned; it was only looking to see whether the Sep 13, 1922, reading was valid. And, of course, it wasn't.
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Quoting TomTaylor:
Any weather enthusiast?? This is the strongest tropical cyclone globally since Megi in 2010, as yqt mentioned.

I would imagine people in Korea and the islands of Japan would also be seriously concerned about Sanba...

He doesn't sound like a weather enthusiast.
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Quoting N3EG:


I'm not trying to disprove AGW by saying this, but isn't it easier to break a heat record than a cold record anyway? Without factors like a recent volcanic eruption to limit heating, wouldn't an open-ended heat scale allow for more records than a narrowing-toward-absolute-zero cold scale?

Of course, I never took college physics, so I could likely be wrong...

You can't ever reach absolute zero, so there is no end to getting ever colder and colder. Infinity is nice that way.
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Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:


I think the subject is starting to get a grasp on us.

- Source

If you are waiting to get a grasp on the subject of the Arctic sea ice, you had better hurry. Time is running out for you to do so.
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Quoting Thrawst:


BLOB ALERT!!!
Who is Blob? Is that'the son of Sanba? So is supposed to be in the Pacific.
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Quoting TomTaylor:
Sounds like an awful place to live, but it's extremely close proximity to the ocean (Red Sea) makes me doubt it would ever reach world record temperatures.


Hey Tom,

Agree on the awful part, won't complain over Louisiana's summer heat / humidity compared to Lake Assal's misery index... However doubt Red Sea offers very much maritime cooling influence to override other factors. While nothing resembling an official station is there, visitors to the area have recorded high temps near the recognized world record range of 134-136F. Also consider as the Wiki reference mentions, "During the summer season, the dry hot winds blow in two directions namely, the Sabo winds from the south-west and the Khamsin winds from the north-west."
But, until some organization records reliable observations, it's all open to reasonable speculation.
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Quoting CloudGatherer:
I don't think there's any doubt that this is a Category 5 Super Typhoon - and there's no real predicting whether it's done strengthening yet.
I mentioned this morning I didn't expect Sanba to strengthen more than another 5 knots (per dvorak estimates (showed 180MPH at the time), since the JTWC had an old advisory at the time (showed 155MPH at the time)). Reason being is that cloud tops surrounding the storm have not gotten any colder, and the eye has not gotten substantially warmer. If the temperature difference of either doesn't change substantially, you won't see dvorak estimates get much higher. Sure enough, ADT estimates have leveled off




Conditions are favorable enough for slightly more intensification, though right now Sanba has an asymmetric convective pattern it will want to work out as a result of a spiral band that has developed (seen well on microwave imagery). This band may be a sign that an EWRC is not far on the horizon, in which case we would expect weakening by late tonight, should the replacement cycle begin.
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 19 Comments: 4357
Quoting TomTaylor:
Any weather enthusiast?? This is the strongest tropical cyclone globally since Megi in 2010, as yqt mentioned.

I would imagine people in Korea and the islands of Japan would also be seriously concerned about Sanba...
I have him on ignore for a reason...pure ignorance.No storm can go from the one end of the pacific to the next in one peace...For those concerned about the Atlantic we'll have some action next week closer to home.Nadine is failing to become a hurricane...
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I don't feel we have quite heard the last word about that now discredited 58C "record" from Al Azizia. I have just looked through the complete set of figures for the period 1913 to 1940 for Al Azizia, and see that at some point 133F was recorded in August, 127F in June, and 120F in October. These are all staggering figures, the 133F in August being only 1F short of the revised world record of 134F at Death Valley, while the 120F in October is equally remarkable and would be a world record I think for that month. They beg the question of whether they were all recorded under the same conditions above tarmac, and taken by that same dodgy observer, using a low precision U shaped mercury max/min thermometer of the type found in many greenhouses. These were all cited as evidence for overturning the Al Azizia record, along with computer analysis suggesting that temperature was impossible there. Oddly the date was not mentioned, September 13th being a little late in the year for a world record to be set at 30N lattitude - sometime in late July or any of August would be more likely.

But my contention is that to confidently overturn that record, those other figures I mention above also need to be investigated, for otherwise they suggest that even if that 136F was invalid, Al Azizia was capable of approaching very close to it, contrary to the view expressed in that Weather Underground video.

So my question is were all those exceptional readings taken at Al Azizia also invalid, and if so for the same reasons? Otherwise I shall consider the investigation leading to the record being overturned insufficiently rigorous, and failing to dig deep into the microclimate around Al Azizia with its tendency for extreme fohn like effects, rather than focusing purely on the exact location of the Stephenson Screen itself.
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With all the damn development going up everywhere to keep this "bubble fake economy" ticking, gotta keep building and using up every piece of land. I'm getting concerned with the heat island effects that are taking hold and expanding due to development. This causes vegetation more stress and need for more water for survival which then puts strain on water supply's. Less cooling at night which is why there are more record high lows ongoing and increasing. And when it rains too much with all this development you're gonna flood due to impervious features as far as the eye can see. Man is bringing about his own demise and I believe we are well on our way.
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Noting :-270. yonzabam
"At 59, I'm a little annoyed that I won't live to see the major effects of global warming. Not that I enjoy watching suffering, I don't. But it's coming, and I'd like to see what predictions pan out, and what totally unforeseen effects emerge. I'd anticipate completely new weather phenomena, never even suggested in the literature."

I think you are being pessimistic about the remaining time span you will have to see one of the greatest events in recent global history.
I am older than you and I'm anticipating seeing an ice free Arctic soon.
After that whole new weather frontiers will become apparent.
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Quoting Grothar:
Blob.



BLOB ALERT!!!
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Quoting KoritheMan:




Somebody's happy.


How could I not be? :P Sanba is the best storm globally since Megi which I missed. :( WPac is known for these storms but we didn't have any last year.
Member Since: November 19, 2010 Posts: 1 Comments: 1285
Quoting prcane4you:
Sanba here,Sanba there,Sanba this ,Sanba that.Who cares about that?.That's the way to spend your time.? Maybe Sanba is going to cross all the Pacific and hit San Francisco.
Any weather enthusiast?? This is the strongest tropical cyclone globally since Megi in 2010, as yqt mentioned.

I would imagine people in Korea and the islands of Japan would also be seriously concerned about Sanba...
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 19 Comments: 4357
The satellite fix from JTWC:
TPPN10 PGTW 131808

A. SUPER TYPHOON 17W (SANBA)

B. 13/1732Z

C. 17.2N

D. 129.7E

E. ONE/MTSAT

F. T7.5/7.5/D3.5/24HRS STT: S0.0/03HRS

G. IR/EIR

H. REMARKS: 01A/PBO EYE/ANMTN. WMG EYE SURROUNDED BY CMG YIELDS
AN E# OF 6.5. ADDED 1.0 FOR EYE ADJUSTMENT TO YIELD A DT OF 7.5.
MET IS A 7.0. PT AGREES WITH THE MET. DBO DT.

I. ADDITIONAL POSITIONS:
13/1254Z 16.4N 129.7E MMHS


CASPER


JMA's latest update shows a storm with 900 HpA and ten-minute wind speeds of 55 m/s, or 110 kts. CIMSS is holding steady at a reading of 7.5. I don't think there's any doubt that this is a Category 5 Super Typhoon - and there's no real predicting whether it's done strengthening yet.
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Quoting GTcooliebai:
Dr. Jeff Masters flying through the eye of Hurricane Gilbert on this day 24 years ago, lots of respect for you Doc:



At the risk of a permaban, he looks A LOT older now than just what 24 years would account for.

Note - Only real old people, such as I, can say this and get away with it. ... At least I HOPE I get away with it. ... Somebody look and see if Doc is still smiling.
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GT posted this either tuesday or wednesday but the ensemble spread is still showing a system at florida and possibly riding up the east coast..





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Sanba here,Sanba there,Sanba this ,Sanba that.Who cares about that?.That's the way to spend your time.? Maybe Sanba is going to cross all the Pacific and hit San Francisco.
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Quoting MrMixon:


There are tons of facts to observe here:

--> National Climate Data Center<--





Does that show us:

A) Temperature rises because of more C02.
B) C02 rises because of higher temperatures.

Its hard to tell, is it man made, is it a natural cycle, is it both?

Take a look at the Relative SLR (NASA):


I'm not a non believer of global warming. You cannot deny glaciers are retreating, and ice is melting. However, if its fully man made, I do not know.

Don't forget we had a warm Viking period (Why is Greenland named Greenland?) And a cold period in the 1600 - 1800s. Why do you think all temperature rise statistics begin in this cold period? :).



EDIT: last image from better source. each line = different paper.
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Quoting yqt1001:
The URL for Sanba's images just went from 140kts to 150kts meaning JTWC might actually be at 150kts (or 175mph like Tom has said). If so, incredible, biggest storm I've tracked.

That's cool, I've never seen that little URL trick before, guess it will be 175MPH then.
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 19 Comments: 4357
Quoting yonzabam:
At 59, I'm a little annoyed that I won't live to see the major effects of global warming. Not that I enjoy watching suffering, I don't. But it's coming, and I'd like to see what predictions pan out, and what totally unforeseen effects emerge. I'd anticipate completely new weather phenomena, never even suggested in the literature.

It's quite clear that many of the IPCC predictions are major underestimates. I think Arctic Ocean ice was predicted to disappear in summer around 2100. It'll be a LOT sooner than that.

The jet stream is emerging as the 'joker in the pack' in the short term. It was predicted to move north, but it appears that its 'loops' are becoming a lot more southerly - something that wasn't predicted. Unusual southerly jet stream activity was responsible for the record Russian/Ukrainian heatwave and Pakistan floods of 2010.

Jet stream loops have also been responsible for the wettest UK summer in 100 years this year, and recent cold winters as it dragged cold air down from Greenland.

This unusual jet stream activity has been attributed to the 'Arctic dipole' which is a recently elucidated climatological phenomenon that is believed to be caused by record Arctic ocean ice melt.

There are going to be many such unanticipated surprises as the world warms. Some of them will take us by surprise big time.
Not sure what the life expectancy is in your family, but if you can hang around another 10-20 years, I think you'll see far more of warming's "major" effects than would have seemed possible just a few years ago. ;-\

Speaking of: the Los Angeles Times is out with a great article speculating that the lost Arctic sea ice may very well have some nasty surprises for us: Record loss of Arctic ice may trigger extreme weather
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Here are the latest dvorak estimates for Sanba

CIMSS ADT ... 7.5 ... 180MPH
JTWC PGTW ... 7.5 ... 180MPH
RAMMB CIRA .. 7.7 ... 185MPH

Dvorak consensus puts it at about 180MPH storm. JTWC will probably go with 175MPH on their next advisory (EDIT: yqt's post confirms JTWC likely to go with 175MPH), given their conservative background. I also think the dvorak estimates can be a little over done...I'd probably put this storm at 175MPH.


JTWC also makes reference of KNES and RJTD dvorak estimates in their forecast discussion, but I honestly, have no idea where to find these estimates.
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 19 Comments: 4357

Quoting yqt1001:


Very impressive storm. JMA puts it at the strongest storm since Megi in 2010 globally. JMA has it 5kts stronger than any storm last year and a pressure of 900mb makes it lower than Bolaven from this year.



JTWC will have Sanba at 140kts in the next advisory, first category 5 in over a year.



Somebody's happy.
Member Since: March 7, 2007 Posts: 558 Comments: 19989
The URL for Sanba's images just went from 140kts to 150kts meaning JTWC might actually be at 150kts (or 175mph like Tom has said). If so, incredible, biggest storm I've tracked.

Member Since: November 19, 2010 Posts: 1 Comments: 1285
Dr. Jeff Masters flying through the eye of Hurricane Gilbert on this day 24 years ago, lots of respect for you Doc:

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Meanwhile Nadine in the Atlantic..
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At 59, I'm a little annoyed that I won't live to see the major effects of global warming. Not that I enjoy watching suffering, I don't. But it's coming, and I'd like to see what predictions pan out, and what totally unforeseen effects emerge. I'd anticipate completely new weather phenomena, never even suggested in the literature.

It's quite clear that many of the IPCC predictions are major underestimates. I think Arctic Ocean ice was predicted to disappear in summer around 2100. It'll be a LOT sooner than that.

The jet stream is emerging as the 'joker in the pack' in the short term. It was predicted to move north, but it appears that its 'loops' are becoming a lot more southerly - something that wasn't predicted. Unusual southerly jet stream activity was responsible for the record Russian/Ukrainian heatwave and Pakistan floods of 2010.

Jet stream loops have also been responsible for the wettest UK summer in 100 years this year, and recent cold winters as it dragged cold air down from Greenland.

This unusual jet stream activity has been attributed to the 'Arctic dipole' which is a recently elucidated climatological phenomenon that is believed to be caused by record Arctic ocean ice melt.

There are going to be many such unanticipated surprises as the world warms. Some of them will take us by surprise big time.
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Quoting MAweatherboy1:

Yeah all of them are messed up. Nadine is showing up as Kristy now, lol.
Aha! Here's the image we are looking for... Found it under 91W

Latest image of Sanba (1832z)

Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 19 Comments: 4357
Quoting TomTaylor:
Latest AMSU microwave pass shows banding extending from the western eyewall and covering the southern semisircle. This band explains the asymmetric convection scheme we are seeing with Sanba on infrared imagery. The eye still remains circular, symmetric, and warm/clear, with very cold surrounding cloud tops, however, which means that Sanba is likely still around a 175 MPH storm.

Latest AMSU Microwave Pass (1613z)




Latest IR Satellite Image (1732z)



Very impressive storm. JMA puts it at the strongest storm since Megi in 2010 globally. JMA has it 5kts stronger than any storm last year and a pressure of 900mb makes it lower than Bolaven from this year.



JTWC will have Sanba at 140kts in the next advisory, first category 5 in over a year.
Member Since: November 19, 2010 Posts: 1 Comments: 1285
Quoting Arisilde:


Yeah, it melts because its summer... happens every year... :P
Yep, it melts every summer--just not so darn much of it:

ice
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Quoting TomTaylor:
Lol idk what's going on. Hopefully they will fix it soon.

Yeah all of them are messed up. Nadine is showing up as Kristy now, lol.
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Quoting MAweatherboy1:
.
Lol idk what's going on. Hopefully they will fix it soon.
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 19 Comments: 4357
Quoting MAweatherboy1:
This is such a Cat 5:



All 7.5's on T numbers.
Yes...And I thought Gilbert was impressive.
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.
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Latest AMSU microwave pass shows banding extending from the western eyewall and covering the southern semisircle. This band explains the asymmetric convection scheme we are seeing with Sanba on infrared imagery. With time, this band has progressively gotten stronger and wrapped closer around the eye, which may be a sign that it will initiate or even form the replacement eyewall which we should see by late tonight or tomorrow. For now, however, the eye still remains circular, symmetric, and warm/clear, with very cold surrounding cloud tops, which means that Sanba is likely still around a 175 MPH storm.

Latest AMSU Microwave Pass (1613z)




Latest IR Satellite Image (1732z)

Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 19 Comments: 4357
Quoting Grothar:
Blob.


Gro, I wonder if anyone has done a "blob" analysis? :) These types of blobs/tropical waves are constant features in the eastern Gulf, tropical Atlantic, and the Caribbean at this time of the year. During my sailing days, I was always veering one direction or another to avoid the next "blob", and got hammered by quite a few while being anchored out. My question is - how many (or waht percentage) of these blobs ever develop into a tropical cyclone? Based on about 20 years of sailing the Caribbean, I'd guess very few, but I wonder of there are any solid numbers on something like this?
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260. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Japan Meteorological Agency
Tropical Cyclone Advisory #25
TYPHOON SANBA (T1216)
3:00 AM JST September 14 2012
======================================

SUBJECT: Category Five Typhoon In Sea East Of The Philippines

At 18:00 PM UTC, Typhoon Sanba (900 hPa) located at 17.2N 129.7E has 10 minute sustained winds of 110 knots with gusts of 155 knots. The cyclone is reported as moving north at 8 knots.

Dvorak Intensity: T7.0

Storm Force Winds
=================
120 NM from the center

Gale Force Winds
===============
270 NM from the center

Forecast and Intensity
=======================

24 HRS: 20.8N 128.5E - 105 knots (CAT 5/Intense Typhoon) South Of Okinawa
48 HRS: 25.0N 127.4E - 100 knots (CAT 4/Very Strong Typhoon) South Of Okinawa
72 HRS: 30.8N 126.4E - 95 knots (CAT 4/Very Strong Typhoon) East China Sea
Member Since: May 24, 2006 Posts: 50 Comments: 44845
Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:


I think the subject is starting to get a grasp on us.

- Source

If you are waiting to get a grasp on the subject of the Arctic sea ice, you had better hurry. Time is running out for you to do so.
I like this post.
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Quoting GTcooliebai:
There was a lot of hurricanes threatening land on this date: Gilbert, Ike, and Humberto to name a few a them.


Oh yeah I know, I just remember this one so well, cause my daddy stood in line for about 7 hrs for a bag of ice and paid 10.00 for it. I just remember Freddy so very well.

sheri
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Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:


I think we had a longer and colder winter from 2010-2011 than we did from the winter of 2011-2012. Last summer was hot, but the previous winter was more extended and colder than usual. RitaEvac may have some knowledge of this. .... Blast KOG and those darn fans of his!


Yes you are correct. I didn't even record a freeze at my house last year. In Feb of 2011 we had highs in the 20s and 30s for a few days.
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An EWRC is very likely in the next 24-36 hours.

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For whatever reason, the SSD is not updating their imagery on Sanba. I checked the NRL website and they still have updated imagery, so the satellite is not in a blackout.

Here is the SSD site's "latest" imagery (7hrs old)

Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 19 Comments: 4357
Quoting Invest80Lurk:
I hate global warming debates but i have to say it...so the record was set in 1913 and hasnt been topped since and in 2010, 1180 snowfall records were broken when 49 of the 50 states got snow. im no scientist but i can observe facts quite well ...tell me one more time how the earth is getting hotter?


We have numerous ground and satellites that all show warming over the past century (for ground records) and 30+ years (for satellite records) while glaciers are almost all in retreat and Arctic sea ice is at record lows.

The snow thing is a matter of various things coming together, in particular the strongly negative AO values we were under. Even then, despite all the snow temperatures weren't actually all that cold and were above average in most of the US.
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Post # 242, yeah it does melt every summer, but not to this extent. Look at Post # 225's charts, they are very telling.
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really interested to see the visible on Sanba.. i bet there have been/will be some interesting cloud vortices within that eye!
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Also San Juan has gotten a lot of rain this afternoon. In my area at Santurce,it has been raining hard with plenty of thunder for more than an hour.

FLOOD ADVISORY
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE SAN JUAN PR
1238 PM AST THU SEP 13 2012

PRC127-131930-
/O.NEW.TJSJ.FA.Y.0327.120913T1638Z-120913T1930Z/
/00000.N.ER.000000T0000Z.000000T0000Z.000000T0000 Z.OO/
SAN JUAN PR-
1238 PM AST THU SEP 13 2012

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN SAN JUAN HAS ISSUED AN

* URBAN AND SMALL STREAM FLOOD ADVISORY
FOR THE FOLLOWING MUNICIPALITY...

IN PUERTO RICO
SAN JUAN

* UNTIL 330 PM AST

* AT 1235 PM AST...DOPPLER RADAR INDICATED SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS
OVER RIO PIEDRAS WITH MOVEMENT NEARLY STATIONARY. UP TO TWO INCHES
OF RAIN MAY HAVE FALLEN WITH THIS ACTIVITY OVER THE PAST HOUR. THIS
WILL CAUSE FLOODING OF URBAN AND POOR DRAINAGE AREAS. SOME PORTIONS
OF ROUTE 3 IN RIO PIEDRAS MAY ALSO FLOOD.

EXCESSIVE RUNOFF FROM HEAVY RAINFALL WILL CAUSE ELEVATED LEVELS ON
SMALL CREEKS AND STREAMS...AND PONDING OF WATER IN URBAN AREAS...
HIGHWAYS...STREETS AND UNDERPASSES AS WELL AS OTHER POOR DRAINAGE
AREAS AND LOW LYING SPOTS.

MOST FLOOD DEATHS OCCUR IN AUTOMOBILES. NEVER DRIVE YOUR VEHICLE INTO
AREAS WHERE THE WATER COVERS THE ROADWAY. FLOOD WATERS ARE USUALLY
DEEPER THAN THEY APPEAR. JUST ONE FOOT OF FLOWING WATER IS POWERFUL
ENOUGH TO SWEEP VEHICLES OFF THE ROAD. WHEN ENCOUNTERING FLOODED
ROADS MAKE THE SMART CHOICE...TURN AROUND...DONT DROWN.

&&

LAT...LON 1843 6603 1842 6602 1841 6600 1840 6599
1838 6600 1838 6603 1844 6604

$$

ROS
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This is such a Cat 5:



All 7.5's on T numbers.
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Quoting Neapolitan:
The difference between even the coldest temperature ever measured on Earth -- -128.5F in Antarctica -- and absolute zero -- -459.67F -- is 331 degrees. That leaves a whole lot of slack to take up before temps start any "narrowing".

The fact is, in a stable climate, record highs and record lows would be expected to occur with roughly the same frequency over the long term. That they're not doing so is yet more evidence of a warming climate.
Besides Nea, it's not really how hot or how cold it is going to get for man to record, but at what temperatures does man cease to exist? That is the real question in all of this.
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Quoting DavidHOUTX:
Houston is on pace for it's warmest year. Kind of hard to believe after last year but as of now Houston's avg temperature is 0.4 degrees higher than this mark last year.




The national avg temp is blowing 1998 away



I think we had a longer and colder winter from 2010-2011 than we did from the winter of 2011-2012. Last summer was hot, but the previous winter was more extended and colder than usual. RitaEvac may have some knowledge of this. .... Blast KOG and those darn fans of his!
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Quoting TomTaylor:
me bad then
just trying to cut-off any arguments before they start.. i mean, the mistaken ones at least :P
let the other arguments continue!
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.