Summer 2012: 3rd hottest in U.S. history

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:48 PM GMT on September 10, 2012

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The summer of 2012 was the 3rd hottest summer in U.S. history, said NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in today's State of the Climate report. June 2012 ranked as the 14th warmest June on record, August was the 16th warmest August on record, and July was the warmest month of any month in U.S. history, bringing the average summer temperature of the contiguous U.S. just 0.2°F shy of the hottest summer on record--the great Dust Bowl summer of 1936. Second place is held by 2011, which was just 0.1°F cooler than the summer of 1936. So far in 2012, we've had the warmest March on record, 3rd warmest April, 2nd warmest May, and warmest July. These remarkably warm months have helped push temperatures in the contiguous U.S. to the warmest on record for the year-to-date period of January - August. Temperatures this year in the U.S. have been so far above the previous record--a remarkable 1°F for the year-to-date period--that even if the remainder of 2012 ranks historically in the coldest one-third of September - Decembers on record, 2012 will beat out 1998 for the warmest year in history. Reliable weather records for the U.S. go back to 1895. The most recent 12-month period of September 2011 - August 2012 was the 4th warmest 12-month period in U.S. history, exceeded only by the 12-month periods ending in July, June, and May of this year.


Figure 1. The summer of 2012 was the warmest on record for Wyoming and Colorado, and ranked in the top-ten warmest on record for 22 other states. For the Contiguous U.S., it was the 3rd warmest summer since record keeping began in 1895. Image credit: NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC).


Figure 2. Year-to-date temperatures for the contiguous U.S. through August, compared to the previous record warmest years in U.S. history. Outcome scenarios based on persistence of temperature from September through December, the remaining five months of 2012, are shown. Even if the remainder of 2012 ranks historically in the coldest one-third of September - Decembers on record, 2012 will beat out 1998 for the warmest year in history. The January-August 2012 contiguous U.S. average temperature was 58.7°F, 4.0°F above average. The data for 2012 are preliminary. Image credit: NOAA/NCDC.

Most extreme January - August period on record
The year-to-date period was the most extreme in U.S. history, according to NOAA's U.S. Climate Extremes Index (CEI), which tracks the percentage area of the contiguous U.S. experiencing top-10% and bottom-10% extremes in temperature, precipitation, and drought. The CEI was 47% during the year-to-date January - August period. This is the highest value since CEI record-keeping began in 1910, and more than double the average value of 20%. Remarkably, 85% of the contiguous U.S. had maximum temperatures that were in the warmest 10% historically during the first eight months of 2012, and 75% of the U.S. of the U.S. had warm minimum temperatures in the top 10%. The percentage area of the U.S. experiencing top-10% drought conditions was 22%, which was the 11th greatest since 1910.


Figure 3. NOAA's U.S. Climate Extremes Index (CEI) for January - August shows that 2012 had the most extreme first eight months of the year on record, with 47% of the contiguous U.S. experiencing top-10% extreme weather.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting GTcooliebai:
Remember this one, Rita? A result of the Texas Death Ridge (TDR)



The black hole
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This afternoon's discussion by the San Juan NWS.No big changes to the dry and warm pattern until the 20th.

AREA FORECAST DISCUSSION...CORRECTED
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE SAN JUAN PR
321 PM AST MON SEP 10 2012

.SYNOPSIS...MID-UPPER LEVEL RIDGE NORTH OF HISPANIOLA WILL
RELOCATE TO THE BAHAMAS AS TUTT LOW ACROSS 55W RETROGRESS TOWARD
PR/USVI. TUTT THEN FILLS ON THU WITH STRONG RIDGE EXPECTED TO
BUILD AGAIN FOR NEXT WEEKEND.


&&

.DISCUSSION...TUTT WITH AXIS ALONG 55W WILL RETROGRESS TOWARD
PR/USVI OVER THE NEXT FEW DAYS AND PROVIDE SOME MID LEVEL
COOLING/DESTABILIZATION FOR A BETTER OPPORTUNITY OF SHOWERS AND
STORMS MAINLY WED AND THU DESPITE LACK OF MOISTURE. THIS WILL BE
JUST A SHORT/TEMPORARY RELIEF TO THE HOT AND DRY WEATHER AS TUTT
BEGINS TO FILL/WEAKEN THU WITH STRONG RIDGE BUILDING AGAIN NEXT
WEEKEND WITH A RETURN TO THE HOT AND DRY WEATHER THAT WE HAVE
EXPERIENCED SO FAR THIS MONTH.

INVEST 91L IS FCST BY GLOBAL MODELS TO BECOME A LARGE AND INTENSE
HURRICANE AS IT RECURVES TO THE NORTH OVER THE WEEKEND. TROPICAL
WAVE TO THE EAST OF INVEST 91L IS FCST TO TAKE A MORE SOUTHERN
ROUTE AND HAS A BETTER CHANCE OF MAKING IT FARTHER WEST AT A LOWER
LATITUDE THAN INVEST 91L. HOWEVER...MOST OF THE GFES ENSEMBLE MEMBERS
SHOW THIS SECOND SYSTEM EVENTUALLY RECURVING AND GETTING ABSORBED
BY THE LARGER INVEST 91L. OVERALL...IT LOOKS LIKE WE WILL CONTINUE
TO EXPERIENCE WELL ABOVE NORMAL TEMPERATURES AND WELL BELOW NORMAL
RAINFALL WITH NO SIG CHANGES TO THIS PATTERN EXPECTED UNTIL AFTER
SEP 20TH

&&

.AVIATION...VFR CONDITIONS WILL CONTINUE TO PREVAIL ACROSS ALL TAF
SITES THROUGHOUT THE FORECAST PERIOD.


&&

.MARINE...SEAS GENERALLY 2-4 FT OFFSHORE AND 1-3 FT NEARSHORE.
ISOLD-SCT TSTMS EXPECTED MID WEEK CARIBBEAN COASTAL WATERS.


&&

.PRELIMINARY POINT TEMPS/POPS...
SJU 78 91 78 91 / 0 20 10 10
STT 80 88 80 88 / 0 20 30 30


Member Since: April 29, 2009 Posts: 75 Comments: 15654
Quoting GTcooliebai:
Hopefully you all have had enough rains so no wildfire gets started.


Around here we've had a lot of rain since last winter. To my west there was elevated fire danger with this front coming through. They're still drier than we are.
Return flow off the gulf supposed to start back up tomorrow and with it the humidity.
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Quoting auburn:


But they flex...


And are, either, aerodynamic or, "fly by wire" to allow them to move/adjust as they do - interesting thought a "fly by wire house".
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Quoting E46Pilot:
You know what is funny. Between 1960-1970 when our air-quality was at it's worst, when there were no emission protections, we had our lowest temperatures. Now with all of our emission protection in place we have the highest temps. Maybe all that smog was actually good for us, keeping us cooler.


The smog did reflect sunlight and this was partially responsible for the cooler temps. However, the smog was not "good for us". Heavy smog days caused respiratory problems and difficult breathing for even those that did not suffer from respiratory problems. The smog also sped the deterioration of many structures. Millions of dollars were spent in restoring museum art work and stone statues that suffered in the smog. Filling the atmosphere with particulates would only have a short term effect until we could no longer tolerate the smog. .... Then the warming would continue in earnest. You only need to look at Mexico City and the industrialized zones of China and India to see the true impacts of smog, ... Do you ask if we would rather smother ourselves or bake ourselves?
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Quoting PlazaRed:

Considering that planes can fly at well over 1000 MPH and are made of metal then the solution must be to clad the buildings in metal.
Sheet metal suitably anchored into concrete should have no problem with 200 MPH winds, as long as the basic structure has sufficient weight to withstand the pressure.
It would be simple enough to clad a slab of concrete with steel and place it in a wind tunnel and air blast it or subject it to pressure at high velocity from a jet engine exhaust.
I would doubt that winds of 200 MPH would cause the surface much damage.
Added to this the winds will probably not be sustained for more than a few hours at most, planes with only alloy skins fly at 600MPH for up to 14 hours non stop.
If I may change the subject for a minute, but it is still is regarding wind....My wonderful little Chihuahua dog Manny hates it when I blow in his face... He gets so PO'd at me...BUT when he rides with me in my car he loves to hang his head out of the car at 70 MPH winds.... Ok, Nuff said.
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Quoting RitaEvac:
One year ago



Remember this one, Rita? A result of the Texas Death Ridge (TDR)

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Quoting auburn:


But they flex...

And they dont fly into other buildings, trees, etc
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226. auburn (Mod)
Quoting PlazaRed:

Considering that planes can fly at well over 1000 MPH and are made of metal then the solution must be to clad the buildings in metal.
Sheet metal suitably anchored into concrete should have no problem with 200 MPH winds, as long as the basic structure has sufficient weight to withstand the pressure.
It would be simple enough to clad a slab of concrete with steel and place it in a wind tunnel and air blast it or subject it to pressure at high velocity from a jet engine exhaust.
I would doubt that winds of 200 MPH would cause the surface much damage.
Added to this the winds will probably not be sustained for more than a few hours at most, planes with only alloy skins fly at 600MPH for up to 14 hours non stop.


But they flex...
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Quoting stormwatcherCI:
Good afternoon. Strangely enough during Ivan the older limestone homes withstood the hurricane much better than the newer "built to code" homes. I do believe since Ivan the building code has become even stricter than it was before.


Same survival happened with a couple of the really old ironwood cottages on the Brac during Paloma and "Yes" Code is now even stricter.
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Quoting JLPR2:


The second vort related to 91L is now moving north circling our invest, should end up merging with it.
Actually, it looks to me like the westernmost vort has moved further south.
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Quoting Grothar:


I saw bomb-proof concrete hangars demolished at Homestead AFB. Nothing to do with bad code. They are currently trying to build structure to withstand winds higher than 150 mph. Very little stands up to winds above 150mph.

Considering that planes can fly at well over 1000 MPH and are made of metal then the solution must be to clad the buildings in metal.
Sheet metal suitably anchored into concrete should have no problem with 200 MPH winds, as long as the basic structure has sufficient weight to withstand the pressure.
It would be simple enough to clad a slab of concrete with steel and place it in a wind tunnel and air blast it or subject it to pressure at high velocity from a jet engine exhaust.
I would doubt that winds of 200 MPH would cause the surface much damage.
Added to this the winds will probably not be sustained for more than a few hours at most, planes with only alloy skins fly at 600MPH for up to 14 hours non stop.
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Quoting GTcooliebai:
Well now they no what they are up against, so build it stronger. Maybe instead of concrete go with steel? Idk, but there are things out there that can withstand these types of winds if built correctly.


They knew previously and in terms of Lessons Learned, have further strengthened Codes.

I respectfully disagree that the type of structure that you allude to actually exists - even if it did, it is likely to be in the domain of the Military (or perhaps a Bank Vault)and way outside what average "joe blow" citizens could reasonably afford ( and Cayman Islands are not necessarily poor) - after Ivan, I saw steel I beams that were almost twisted into knots, reinforced concrete walls, with vertical and horizontal rebar as well as mat, that were merely "brushed aside" by the wind.
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our roof are made of concrete

tipical houses in PR


Quoting aspectre:
PRweathercenter: Puerto Rico is very well prepared for Hurricanes, Even a 180 mph Category 5 Hurricane would do nothing to Concrete homes, except rip the paint off, like sand blasted
158 PalmBeachWeather ...ok with 180 MPH winds because of the concrete structures... I wonder what % of the structures are actually prepared for 180 MPH...? Not a large percentage I am sure.

I'm wondering if PuertoRicans have an overconfidence in their concrete block homes. Cat.5 winds can take apart simple concrete block structures.
It takes a LOT of rebar through those hollow blocks and a LOT of concrete filling in those empty spaces around the rebar before ya have a structure that'll survive a Cat.5
Then there are the ceramic tile roofs...

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Quoting charlottefl:
I also saw houses with metal roll down shutters during Charley where the debris hit just right, and went clean though, and then the roof went.. Once winds get to a certain point it's hard to give certainties....
I have a large Mahogany tree in my front yard, During Wilma a very large limb broke off and fell on my daughter's brand new Ford Focus. During the eye four of us ran out and tried to remove the limb off of her car. We couldn't budge it. Then the back half of Wilma came... After Wilma left we walked outside , the big limb had been picked up off of her car and was now 50 yards down the street.
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219. auburn (Mod)
Quoting seminolesfan:



Increase in surface divergence caused by the downslope from the Cumberland plateau...

Quoting GeorgiaStormz:


No but its something, we cant really blame the appalachians like NC can, and we dont have any major geographic obstacle on the GA/AL border but its something.
The only reason the western tier of GA counties even has more tornado warnings is that the storms are in AL and get their warning extended to GA, but they die and the GA warning ends up being a bust much of the time.

We just call it the state line curse, storms chug along and promptly die nearly exactly on the border.


I live right on the line..this is so true..
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Quoting SSideBrac:


A dangerous generalisation and one I am sure that people in Grand Cayman would disagree with post Ivan
Good afternoon. Strangely enough during Ivan the older limestone homes withstood the hurricane much better than the newer "built to code" homes. I do believe since Ivan the building code has become even stricter than it was before.
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One year ago



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The center of Leslie is actually tucked under some convection now!
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The Global Hawk will fly to 91L on Tuesday.

SUBJECT: TROPICAL CYCLONE PLAN OF THE DAY (TCPOD)
VALID 11/1100Z TO 12/1100Z SEPTEMBER 2012
TCPOD NUMBER.....12-114

I. ATLANTIC REQUIREMENTS
1. SUSPECT AREA (AL91)
FLIGHT ONE --NASA 872--
A. 11/1430Z
B. NA872 0214A AL91 SURVEILLANCE AV-6
C. 11/1015Z
D. 18N 45W
E. 11/1430Z TO 12/0530Z
F. 55,000 TO 65,000 FT
G. IP 25.6N 53.7W LAWNMOWER WITH 6 NORTH-SOUTH
LEGS BETWEEN 52W TO 39W.

2. OUTLOOK FOR SUCCEEDING DAY: POSSIBLE NASA GLOBAL
HAWK MISSION AROUND CENTRAL ATLANTIC SUSPECT AL91.

Member Since: April 29, 2009 Posts: 75 Comments: 15654
One would think the EPAC Hurricane season is over based on how dead it has been over there lately, in an El Nino year and all.

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213. JLPR2


The second vort related to 91L is now moving north circling our invest, should end up merging with it.
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Quoting GTcooliebai:
Has Leslie ever looked great as anticipated by the models? Michael outworked her.


ECMWF went to 910mb with her once.

Michael? never showed any strengthening at all. Just goes to show how the weather isn't really forecast, more rather just throwing a dart at a board luck. :P
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Quoting wxchaser97:
Good afternoon everyone, after that cold front came through the weather has been great where I am. I see 91L is still at 90% and Leslie is not doing so good.
Has Leslie ever looked great as anticipated by the models? Michael outworked her.
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I also saw houses with metal roll down shutters during Charley where the debris hit just right, and went clean though, and then the roof went.. Once winds get to a certain point it's hard to give certainties....
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Quoting goosegirl1:


Not addressed to me... not my business maybe... but I will take true over nice any day. If we listen to what makes us feel better or seems "nicer", we will make no progress towards what is actually the truth.



i didnt say lessen the truth, just increase the nice.

Give someone the gift of truth, rather than beat them over the head with the truthhammer.

The truth hurts....especially coming from Neapolitan.
He always tells to truth but some people tend to feel alienated by his answers and explanations.
It would help him to change that.

Even i cringe reading his response to some people, and thats when i agree with him.
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Quoting AtHomeInTX:


Lol. I'm glad you're enjoying it. I would say the humidity witch is dead here but more like on vacation. But I'll take it. :) This never happens here.


Fair

82°F

28°C

Humidity40%
Wind SpeedNE 10 mph
Barometer30.08 in
Dewpoint55°F (13°C)
Visibility10.00 mi
Heat Index81°F (27°C)

Hopefully you all have had enough rains so no wildfire gets started.
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Our roof are also made of concrete (in PR)
Quoting PalmBeachWeather:
It's the roof... Concrete walls will not protect you if there is a place that the wind can enter which is usually the roof. One little corner can let the wind in and then the whole roof goes. Then the whole house is exposed...Not a fun place to be even if the wall are intact.

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Good afternoon everyone, after that cold front came through the weather has been great where I am. I see 91L is still at 90% and Leslie is not doing so good.
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7981
Quoting PalmBeachWeather:
Gro.....I worked as a volunteer at Tamiami Airport for 2 months... The very large I-Beams were twisted like paper straws, I worked helping out FPL and contractor crews from other states... I saw things that I though were impossible that wind could do..


Yeah a lot of folks forget about the impact of the debris hitting a structure at those high speeds. A 100 lb chunk of metal catching a wind gust of 150+ mph and then hitting a building can easily comprimise the structural integrity of the building.
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Quoting Neapolitan:
Remember, asking a person to provide valid sources isn't "being rude"; it's just seeking the truth. (Now, you said that Ireland had been cooler than normal; I pointed out, quite correctly, that Ireland makes up just a tiny, infinitesimal portion of the planet's surface, so no assumptions about the state of the global climate could be based on what happens there over the short term. If you tell me where that's incorrect, I'll address it.)

In the meantime: have a good day...


I can't find the initial reports I read about it, but here's an Independant story about how the UK could actually get colder with GW.

Link

That said, there's also the case that sunspot activity has an effect on UK winters too (and Europe I should add)

Link

So, sort of one for either side of the debate for ya!
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Quoting Grothar:


I know what you mean. I was there. I have been through many, many hurricanes. I have never seen anything to even come close to Andrew in winds.
Gro......... Maybe I saw you... I worked on the Western end of the airport... There was a Tamiami Blue and a Tamiami Red..I was red... I met my current boyfriend there.. 20 years later we are still great friends.
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Quoting benirica:
By the way... we should keep in mind that perhaps we MUST build stronger homes the way people build tornado shelters.

We live on islands, we can't evacuate.


I agree 100% - BUT - many people cannot afford to do so, regardless of living in Caribbean or USA.
We had that problem in Cayman Brac post Paloma - may of the older homes (pre-Code)that had been destroyed/badly damaged were owned by older people with either, inadequate or, no insurance - for many, they could not even re-construct let alone to an expensive and stringent Code.
I do, however, think that Shelters in hurricane areas MUST be built to the highest possible specifications known.
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PRweathercenter: Puerto Rico is very well prepared for Hurricanes, Even a 180 mph Category 5 Hurricane would do nothing to Concrete homes, except rip the paint off, like sand blasted
158 PalmBeachWeather ...ok with 180 MPH winds because of the concrete structures... I wonder what % of the structures are actually prepared for 180 MPH...? Not a large percentage I am sure.

I'm wondering if PuertoRicans have an overconfidence in their concrete block homes. Cat.5 winds can take apart simple concrete block structures.
It takes a LOT of rebar through those hollow blocks and a LOT of concrete filling in those empty spaces around the rebar before ya have a structure that'll survive a Cat.5
Then there are the ceramic tile roofs...
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Hopefully a TD at 5pm EDT.

Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 34176
Quoting SSideBrac:


A dangerous generalisation and one I am sure that people in Grand Cayman would disagree with post Ivan
Well now they no what they are up against, so build it stronger. Maybe instead of concrete go with steel? Idk, but there are things out there that can withstand these types of winds if built correctly.
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Quoting PalmBeachWeather:
It's the roof... Concrete walls will not protect you if there is a place that the wind can enter which is usually the roof. One little corner can let the wind in and then the whole roof goes. Then the whole house is exposed...Not a fun place to be even if the wall are intact.


Exactly, Wind uplift causes the greatest damage. Just as a wing flies. As the wind blows over the roof you create a low pressure on top of the roof causing uplift. Everything has to be tied down. You can build a wall as strong as you want, but if you don't tie the roof down to withstand the uplift...all bets are off.
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One of the 12Z ENSEMBLE
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at least 90% of our houses are concrete structures
Quoting PalmBeachWeather:
Tomball......I disagree, This person was stating that PR would be ok with 180 MPH winds because of the concrete structures.....I wonder what % of the structures are actually prepared for 180 MPH.. ? Not a large percentage I am sure.

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Quoting PalmBeachWeather:
Gro.....I worked as a volunteer at Tamiami Airport for 2 months... The very large I-Beams were twisted like paper straws, I worked helping out FPL and contractor crews from other states... I saw things that I though were impossible that wind could do..


I know what you mean. I was there. I have been through many, many hurricanes. I have never seen anything to even come close to Andrew in winds.
Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 28041
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@ Benirica - Tips my hat to you - wise words!
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By the way... we should keep in mind that perhaps we MUST build stronger homes the way people build tornado shelters.

We live on islands, we can't evacuate.
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Quoting benirica:
Had to jump in on this one...
While here in Puerto Rico we do have many concrete buildings, most homes in fact are reinforced concrete with think steel rods... 180 mph is out of the question.
Sustained 180mph winds means probable gusts of 200+ mph, most of those nice "Valcor" windows are designed for 150mph, they well be ripped off.

Also, the truth is that most houses may be concrete and well built, but a lot of the aren't designed by engineers and are more "ad ons" that many people have made.

Even a good home would be in danger if a 180mph storm came. You'd sin of being foolish if you didn't realize that would be a bulldozer pushing against your home for hours on end... Not to mention what a branch flying through the air at that speed could do.

During Georges my Valcor "hurricane proof" windows didn't fly off, but even with the shutters geyser of water were shooting out of them and these windows were bending inwards greatly. It was terrifying to watch helplessly. They didn't break, and for all I know this is how they react and is what makes them survive (like a swaying building).


Either way, we are well prepared and used to these catastrophes. We do loose electricity for a while, being that it takes a while to reach some critical ruptures in remote places. But thankfully, Puerto Ricans and many in the Caribbean (with the sad exception of Haiti and occasionally the DR) do well with hurricanes.

Many people did loose their roof with Georges, but thankfully most loss was material and life was protected well. All in all, a Georges with the strength it hit Puerto Rico hitting somewhere like Florida usually leaves scenes of entire neighborhoods reduced to foundations of buildings.

To wrap it up... I do think places in the US need stricter building codes if they are going to allow so many people to live in dangerous areas, particularly storm surge prone coasts.
Right
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Quoting ncstorm:
It is a beeaauuutttiiiffull day here in eastern NC..fall is here and ding dong the humidity witch is dead and I am loving it! Hope everyone is having a great day so far!


Lol. I'm glad you're enjoying it. I would say the humidity witch is dead here but more like on vacation. But I'll take it. :) This never happens here.


Fair

82°F

28°C

Humidity40%
Wind SpeedNE 10 mph
Barometer30.08 in
Dewpoint55°F (13°C)
Visibility10.00 mi
Heat Index81°F (27°C)

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting benirica:
Had to jump in on this one...
While here in Puerto Rico we do have many concrete buildings, most homes in fact are reinforced concrete with think steel rods... 180 mph is out of the question.
Sustained 180mph winds means probable gusts of 200+ mph, most of those nice "Valcor" windows are designed for 150mph, they well be ripped off.

Also, the truth is that most houses may be concrete and well built, but a lot of the aren't designed by engineers and are more "ad ons" that many people have made.

Even a good home would be in danger if a 180mph storm came. You'd sin of being foolish if you didn't realize that would be a bulldozer pushing against your home for hours on end... Not to mention what a branch flying through the air at that speed could do.

During Georges my Valcor "hurricane proof" windows didn't fly off, but even with the shutters geyser of water were shooting out of them and these windows were bending inwards greatly. It was terrifying to watch helplessly. They didn't break, and for all I know this is how they react and is what makes them survive (like a swaying building).


Either way, we are well prepared and used to these catastrophes. We do loose electricity for a while, being that it takes a while to reach some critical ruptures in remote places. But thankfully, Puerto Ricans and many in the Caribbean (with the sad exception of Haiti and occasionally the DR) do well with hurricanes.

Many people did loose their roof with Georges, but thankfully most loss was material and life was protected well. All in all, a Georges with the strength it hit Puerto Rico hitting somewhere like Florida usually leaves scenes of entire neighborhoods reduced to foundations of buildings.

To wrap it up... I do think places in the US need stricter building codes if they are going to allow so many people to live in dangerous areas, particularly storm surge prone coasts.


Well said.
Member Since: April 29, 2009 Posts: 75 Comments: 15654
Quoting charlottefl:


There were many concrete buildings in the Port Charlotte/Punta Gorda area that were destroyed during hurricane Charley. It really is a bad assumption that just because it's concrete it will survive. Every building is just a large sealed pressure envelope, and if you have enough force to break the seal it's gonna come down (or be severely compromised)
It's the roof... Concrete walls will not protect you if there is a place that the wind can enter which is usually the roof. One little corner can let the wind in and then the whole roof goes. Then the whole house is exposed...Not a fun place to be even if the wall are intact.
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You know what is funny. Between 1960-1970 when our air-quality was at it's worst, when there were no emission protections, we had our lowest temperatures. Now with all of our emission protection in place we have the highest temps. Maybe all that smog was actually good for us, keeping us cooler.
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Quoting Grothar:


I saw bomb-proof concrete hangars demolished at Homestead AFB. Nothing to do with bad code. They are currently trying to build structure to withstand winds higher than 150 mph. Very little stands up to winds above 150mph.


Yep Gro - did not see with my own eyes but did see pictures of Hardened Aircraft Shelters (HAS) demolished by Andrew (and more effectively than some weapons could achieve)- was especially interested as I was then involved in NATO Infrastructure programmes and HASs were a major expenditure issue.
Additionally, IMO - there is concrete and there is concrete - how good is the steel, what is slump rate of concrete etc
Mother Nature is a foe that is at times well nigh impossible to defeat, however hard we may try.
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Dr. Masters co-founded wunderground in 1995. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990. Co-blogging with him: Bob Henson, @bhensonweather

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