Unanswered questions concerning Hurricane Isaac

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:35 PM GMT on August 31, 2012

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The top winds of Tropical Depression Isaac have fallen to 25 mph, but the storm continues to be a potent rain-maker as it heads north-northwest at 11 mph into Missouri. Isaac has spawned up to 20 suspected tornadoes, brought storm surges as high as 13.6' to the coast (in Lake Borgne, LA), and dumped 20" of rain at one station in New Orleans. The 13.27" of rain that fell at Hattiesburg, MS broke the record for wettest August in the city's history (previous record: 13.03" in 1987.) Major flooding is occurring on seven rivers in Louisiana and Mississippi. Isaac is being blamed for at least four deaths in the U.S., 24 in Haiti, and five in the Dominican Republic.

A few notable rainfall totals from Isaac, through 11 am EDT on Friday:

20.08" New Orleans, LA
15.02" Marion, MS
13.99" Pascagoula, MS
13.27" Hattiesburg, MS
10.85" Gulfport, MS
10.39" Slidell, LA
10.17" Biloxi, MS
9.85" Mobile, AL
7.38" Pine Bluff, AR
5.95" Baton Rouge, LA

A major reason for Isaac's heavy rainfall totals has been its very slow motion. This slow speed was due to the fact Isaac has been bumping into a ridge of high pressure that is unusually strong, due to the intense drought over the center of the U.S.; strong drought-amplified high pressure areas are very resistant to allowing any low pressure areas to intrude into their domain. The high pressure area was strong enough this week to allow several all-time records for heat this late in the year to be set:

112° on August 29 at Winner, SD
108° on August 29 at Valentine, NE
107° on August 29 at Corpus Christi, TX
97° on August 29 at Denver, CO (2nd highest so late in the year)


Figure 1. Nighttime view of Hurricane Isaac taken at 1:57 am CDT August 29, 2012, by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi-NPP satellite. The VIIRS day-night band detects light in a range of wavelengths from green to near-infrared, and uses light intensification to enable the detection of dim signals. In this case, the clouds of Isaac were lit by moonlight. Image credit: NASA.

Isaac's beneficial rains falling in drought-stricken regions
Hurricanes get a lot of attention because of the billions in damage they cost, and the lives they disrupt. AIR Worldwide estimated today that insured damage from Isaac would cost up to $2 billion. This does not include damage to infrastructure or uninsured damage, so the final price tag of Isaac's rampage will be more like $3 - $5 billion. However, Isaac is now dumping beneficial rains over Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Kentucky--regions stricken by the worst drought since the 1950s or 1930s, depending upon the exact location. These regions need 9 - 18 inches of rain to pull them out of drought. Isaac's 3 - 6 inches of rain will not end the drought, but will put a pretty good dent in it. I expect that 3 - 6 inches of rain for a wide swath of prime agricultural land in extreme drought is probably worth at least $5 billion, when you consider that a recent estimate by a Purdue economist put the cost of the great drought of 2012 at more than $77 billion. Only Hurricane Katrina ($146 billion) and the drought of 1988 ($78 billion) have been more expensive disasters, according to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center. Unfortunately, Isaac's arrival is poorly timed, as the storm is arriving during harvest season. The strong winds associated with the storm will flatten many crops, making it more difficult to harvest them, and Isaac's winds may cost farmers several hundred million dollars due to unharvestable crops. Still, the rains from Isaac will be highly beneficial for the success of the upcoming winter wheat season, and for next year's growing season.


Figure 2. Predicted precipitation for the five-day period ending on Tuesday evening shows that Isaac is expected to bring a large region of 3 - 6 inches of rain (red, orange, and brown colors) to Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Kentucky. Image credit: NOAA/HPC.


Figure 3. The great drought of 2012 has brought so little rain to the Midwest that some areas require over 15" of rain (dark purple colors) to end the drought. Image credit: NOAA/CPC.

Unanswered questions about Hurricane Isaac

1. Did the passage of Hurricane Isaac stir up oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill? Isaac was the first hurricane to pass over the site of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We know that large hurricanes are capable of creating currents in deep water at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico; Hurricane Ivan caused upwelling currents of 0.5 cm/s at a depth of about 500 meters. In an August 28 article in the Huffington Post, Nick Shay, professor of meteorology and physical oceanography at the University of Miami, said: "Winds will push water away from the center of a storm, which causes an upwelling as the ocean tries to adjust. It brings whatever is near the bottom up higher in the water column and currents can then push it towards the coast." Up to 1 million barrels of oil from the spill are estimated to still be present in the deep water sediment, on beaches, and in the marshes of Louisiana, and it is possible some of this oil will wash up on the Gulf Coast in coming months. The storm surge of Isaac also likely flushed out oil lodged in the coastal marshes of Louisiana, but it is unknown how much of a concern this might be.

2. What's the deal with these super-sized Category 1 and 2 hurricanes that have been hitting the U.S.? The past three landfalling hurricanes in the U.S.--Isaac (2012), Irene (2011), and Ike (2008)--have all been exceptionally large, among the top ten on record for horizontal extent of tropical storm-force winds. Each of these storms had an unusually low pressure characteristic of a storm one full Saffir-Simpson category stronger. Is this the new normal for U.S. hurricanes?

3. Did the new $14.5 billion upgrade to the New Orleans levee system cause worse flooding elsewhere? Whenever a new levee or flood control structure is created, you make someone else's flood problem worse, since the water has to go somewhere. Where did the water was stopped by the new $1.1 billion, 1.8 mile-long Lake Borgne flood barrier on the east side of New Orleans go? Did it flow south and contribute to the overtopping of the levees near Braithwaite? Or did it go north and contribute to the 36 hours of storm surge in excess of 5' observed along the Mississippi coast at Waveland? I posed this question to NHC's storm surge expert Jaime Rhome, and he said it was impossible to know without doing detailed storm surge modeling studies.

4. Can only hurricanes beginning with the letter "I" hit the U.S. now? Isaac (2012), Irene (2011), and Ike (2008) are the last three hurricanes to hit the U.S. It turns out that hurricanes that begin with the letter "I" and "C" have more names on the list of retired hurricanes than any other letter (nine each.) I'm thinking Isaac will get its name retired, letting storms beginning with "I" take over sole possession of first place on the retired storms list.

Hurricane Kirk in the Central Atlantic
Hurricane Kirk intensified into a 105 mph Category 2 hurricane this morning, becoming the 2nd strongest hurricane of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season. Hurricane Gordon was the only stronger storm; Gordon hit sustained winds of 110 mph just before reaching the Azores Islands on August 18. Kirk has probably peaked in intensity, and is about to move over colder waters and gradually decay. Kirk is not a threat to any land areas.


Figure 4. Morning satellite image of Tropical Storm Leslie.

Tropical Storm Leslie a long-range threat to Bermuda, Canada, and the U.S. East Coast
Tropical Storm Leslie formed on Thursday in the Central Atlantic. Leslie's formation date of August 30 puts 2012 in 2nd place for earliest formation date of the season's 12th tropical storm. Only 1995 had an earlier formation date of the season's 12th storm. With records dating back to 1851, this year is only the second time 8 total storms have formed in August. The other year was 2004, when the first storm of the season formed on August 1 (Alex), and the 8th storm (Hermine) formed on August 29th. Satellite loops show that Leslie has a modest amount of heavy thunderstorm activity, and respectable low-level spiral bands and upper-level outflow. Conditions appear ripe to allow Leslie to intensify into a Category 2 hurricane by Sunday. Fortunately, Hurricane Kirk is weakening the ridge of high pressure to the north of Leslie, and Leslie is expected to turn to the northwest and miss the Lesser Antilles Islands. However, steering currents for Leslie are expected to collapse early next week, as Leslie gets stuck between two upper level lows. The storm will then slowly meander over the open ocean for many days, potentially threatening Bermuda. Leslie will stay stuck until a strong trough of low pressure approaches the U.S. East Coast around September 8. This trough should be strong enough to pull Leslie to the north and then northeast by September 9. At that time, Leslie may be close enough to the coast that the storm will make landfall in New England, Canada, or the Mid-Atlantic states. Leslie could also miss land entirely; this all depends upon the timing and strength of the September 8 trough of low pressure. Regardless, Leslie is expected to bring an extended period of high waves to the U.S. coast. According to NOAA's Wavewatch III model, large swells from Leslie will reach Bermuda by Monday, and arrive along the U.S. East Coast on Tuesday. These waves will be capable of creating dangerous rip currents and beach erosion.

Portlight disaster relief charity responds to Isaac
The Portlight.org disaster relief charity, founded and staffed by members of the wunderground community, are in Mississippi, helping out with Isaac relief efforts. You can check out their progress or donate to Portlight's disaster relief fund at the portlight.org website.

I'm planning on taking Saturday off, but will have a new post for you on Sunday. Have a great holiday weekend, everyone!

Jeff Masters

Hurricane Isaac Louisiana (apphotos)
People play in the storm surge from Hurricane Isaac, on Lakeshore Drive along Lake Pontchartrain, as the storm nears land, in New Orleans, Tuesday, Aug. 28, 2012. (AP Photo/Gerald Herbert)
Hurricane Isaac Louisiana
Portlight volunteers at Biloxi shelter (Portlight)
Portlight volunteers at Biloxi shelter
Hurricane Isaac Louisiana (apphotos)
Research students from the the University of Alabama measure wind speeds as Hurricane Isaac makes landfall, Wednesday, Aug. 29, 2012, in New Orleans, La. Isaac was packing 80 mph winds, making it a Category 1 hurricane. It came ashore early Tuesday near the mouth of the Mississippi River, driving a wall of water nearly 11 feet high inland and soaking a neck of land that stretches into the Gulf. The storm stalled for several hours before resuming a slow trek inland, and forecasters said that was
Hurricane Isaac Louisiana
TS Isaac (Raine911)
Between the rain bands
TS Isaac

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Action looks to start picking back up around the 18th in the Caribbean and lasting into Oct. where Cape-Verde season might continue based on this chart.





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Does anyone have forecast model maps that show what new tropical systems may form at 96, 144, 168, or 216 hrs out?
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Quoting lobdelse81:

Bad year??????? We haven't had one of those since 2008. I am not buying that. I think at the very leat we have a year like 2003.
I'm saying for the general Atlantic, not the US. Also 2003 was not a good year either, even was a cat5. I don't mean a 2005 sized season but another active one is possible.
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7981
When Leslie stalls out next week, it could turn around and come back to slam the East Coast of Florida just like Hurricane Betsy did in September 1965. We can't let our guard down with this one!
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Quoting wxchaser97:

She is trying, still got a long way to go though.


I will take nuetral conditions for winter as I would get a good amount of snow. As for hurricane season it could be another bad year.

Bad year??????? We haven't had one of those since 2008. I am not buying that. I think at the very leat we have a year like 2003.
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Quoting JLPR2:


Yes, their gentilic is Bermudians and having a major so close for days would do some serious damage, even with their great concrete buildings.

Wow, lucky guess. For any place a stalled major hurricane equals bad news.
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7981
Quoting WeatherNerdPR:

Leslie's center is being covered by convection again.

She is trying, still got a long way to go though.

Quoting WeatherNerdPR:

Model forecasts barely show a weak El Niño before cooling off again later this year... I doubt 2013 will be an El Niño year.

I will take nuetral conditions for winter as I would get a good amount of snow. As for hurricane season it could be another bad year.
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7981
1765. JLPR2
Quoting wxchaser97:

For us yeah, but for Bermudians or whatever their nickname is it isn't.


Yes, their gentilic is Bermudians and having a major so close for days would do some serious damage, even with their great concrete buildings.
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Quoting BahaHurican:
I've seen pple driving these all across the midwest. I can certainly see the advantage to owning one, especially if you can also make use of it in the "off" season.

Only problem is, who has the $20,000 lying around right now... :o/

Sad. I kinda expected him to take it down almost right away... they might have let him slide. My advice is, no memes before November...

Who was it got banned for excessive posting of "the Chart"?

Yeah, I miss him and what he brought here.

Quoting cardinalcyn:
Who all has been banned from the Blog?? And has anyone heard from Pat??

WxGeekVa and TomTaylor recently and Pat was here earlier and was doing fine.
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7981
Quoting GTcooliebai:
Not a good run for Bermuda, Leslie is likely a major at that point.
Quoting Civicane49:


Not good for Bermuda.

Definitely not good for Bermuda, they don't need a major hurricane.
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7981


Note that while most storms do head out to sea, there are quite a few that also clip something...
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Quoting JLPR2:


Dang! Though that is basically drugs for a tropical weather junkie. XD

For us yeah, but for Bermudians or whatever their nickname is it isn't.
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7981
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

I didn't realize 12 named storms, 5 hurricanes, and three US landfalls made a season sucky. Especially by the first day of September.

Surferdude didn't get nice swells, so this season is a bust. Infallible logic. :)
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

As a major hurricane. 0.o

Not good for Bermuda even though they would be ready.
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7981
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

I didn't realize 12 named storms, 5 hurricanes, and three US landfalls made a season sucky.
No waves in his area. The big "fish" storms often mean good surf along the east coast.
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So many responses to my post, anyway GFS does not like Bermuda.
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7981
Besides, el nino conditions don't guarantee an uneventful season...
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Quoting Surferdude:
Was hoping to get a decent swell from Leslie...this hurricane season sucks big time :(

I didn't realize 12 named storms, 5 hurricanes, and three US landfalls made a season sucky. Especially by the first day of September.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 34089
Quoting lobdelse81:

And next year we may have full El Nino conditions in place. I guess we will have to wait till 2014 to get a noteworthy hurricane season again.

Model forecasts barely show a weak El Niño before cooling off again later this year... I doubt 2013 will be an El Niño year.
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There are considerably better analogues for the potential Leslie scenario, including the 1929 hurricane that was the subject of the song "Run Come See Jerusalem".



I am assuming this was an el nino year, looking at the mere 5 storms, with nothing developing in the MDR..

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Quoting Surferdude:
Was hoping to get a decent swell from Leslie...this hurricane season sucks big time :(

And next year we may have full El Nino conditions in place. I guess we will have to wait till 2014 to get a noteworthy hurricane season again.
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Leslie's center is being covered by convection again.
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Quoting BahaHurican:
I've seen pple driving these all across the midwest. I can certainly see the advantage to owning one, especially if you can also make use of it in the "off" season.

Only problem is, who has the $20,000 lying around right now... :o/

Sad. I kinda expected him to take it down almost right away... they might have let him slide. My advice is, no memes before November...

Who was it got banned for excessive posting of "the Chart"?

DestinJeff and P451.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 34089
1749. JLPR2
Closing in.


Station 41044 - South Atlantic
21.639 N 58.614 W



Highest 1-minute Wind Speed
Time (AST) WSPD WDIR
11:37 pm 40.8 kts E ( 100 deg true )
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Quoting wxchaser97:
GFS has Leslie stall just S of Bermuda as a hurricane.


no, really?
unless its a super tropical storm.
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Who all has been banned from the Blog?? And has anyone heard from Pat??
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Quoting sar2401:
Just some random thoughts while things are slow.

I live full time in my 1995 Safari Trek Motorhome. I've been living in it for about three years, and it has all the comforts of home. The difference between the Trek and regular home is that I'm always prepared to live off the grid. I have a battery bank that's kept up to charge by a solar system. The Trek has a 50 gallon aftermarket propane tank that runs a 4 Kw Onan generator, an 8 cu foot refrigerator, three burner stove, furnace, and hot water heater. The only thing I need the generator for is to run the A/C and the microwave. I;ve got a 2,000 watt inverter that will run everything else, including the satellite TV, from the battery bank. I have several 120 volt fans that do a good job of keeping the Trek liveable, even in hot weather, and I can use the A/C while running the generator to top off the batteries. I've also got 50 gallons of fresh water and can store 40 gallons of gray and black water each. Having a hot shower and a working toilet is really good when you've lost power for a few days. Between the battery power and generator, I can easily make it a week if I have no power or other souce of water

My point is not convince you to all move into a motorhome, but rather to have you think about it as an alternative when things get bad. At only 26', 6" long, it will fit in most driveways. You can pick up a '95 in excellent condition for about $20,000, which is less than some people have spent just to install a standby emergency generator. Even better, your alternative home can drive you to some place out of danger, and you can spend the days having a reasonably relaxing time instead of sitting in a hot, dark house, fuming because the power is still off. I've atttached a few pages of the original brochure so you can see what I'm talking about.

I've seen pple driving these all across the midwest. I can certainly see the advantage to owning one, especially if you can also make use of it in the "off" season.

Only problem is, who has the $20,000 lying around right now... :o/

Quoting wxchaser97:

He was banned indefinitely, he did send a letter to WunderBlog Admin.
Sad. I kinda expected him to take it down almost right away... they might have let him slide. My advice is, no memes before November...

Who was it got banned for excessive posting of "the Chart"?
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Quoting wxchaser97:
GFS has Leslie stall just S of Bermuda as a hurricane.


Not good for Bermuda.
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Quoting wxchaser97:
GFS has Leslie stall just S of Bermuda as a hurricane.
Not a good run for Bermuda, Leslie is likely a major at that point.
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

That "rule" doesn't always hold.






I like the Jeanne analogue. How many of you think that the synoptic weather pattern that Leslie will encounter resembles that of what Hurricane Jeanne encountered?
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1741. JLPR2
Quoting wxchaser97:
GFS has Leslie stall just S of Bermuda as a hurricane.


Dang! Though that is basically drugs for a tropical weather junkie. XD
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Quoting wxchaser97:
GFS has Leslie stall just S of Bermuda as a hurricane.

As a major hurricane. 0.o
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 34089
GFS has Leslie stalled just S of Bermuda as a hurricane.
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7981
On the meme posting... We had a rash of bloggers with 24-hr bans a few years ago... '08? 09? for posting pictures of fish [is that considered a fish meme?]. This mainly happens in August and September, when the blog is at its busiest. The same meme posted on March or April will not make much of a wave. I think the Admin figure fewer OT pictures posted, more bandwidth for wx-related imagery, including loops. I'd suggest re-reading the rules of the road, and keeping in mind that high-season rule enforcement is a lot stricter than the off-season version.
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Quoting cardinalcyn:
Hey all slow night....Just thought I would ck in to see what was going on w/Leslie

Well Leslie is having problems, she is decoupled. Her peak was 70mph before it happened. She is forecasted to go near Bermuda and stall. I think eventually she will rebound and so does the NHC.
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7981
Hey all slow night....Just thought I would ck in to see what was going on w/Leslie
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Quoting BahaHurican:
1. posting off topic photo. 2. swearing in the off topic photo. 3. did not take down same...

I guess Admin thought that was worse than posting loops, because the message with the OT image is gone...

Poor Tom... hope it is only a 24-hr... if at all...

He was banned indefinitely, he did send a letter to WunderBlog Admin.
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7981
Quoting pottery:

I really hope that people don't stop posting loops.


OK, Here's a good'n....

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1733. guygee
Quoting popartpete:
Who thinks Leslie will hit the U.S. east coast, where, and why? Thanks!!
I am currently doubtful that Leslie will impact the US, but the forecast isn't totally nailed and I think she is worth watching just in case. Today's HPC long-range discussion leaves some room for concern:
[...]
FROM LATE THU ONWARD THERE IS INCREASED UNCERTAINTY IN DETAILS OF PACIFIC/NOAM FLOW ORIGINATING FROM DIFFS IN HOW FLOW WITHIN THE AK/NRN PAC TROF SEPARATES. AS IS TYPICALLY THE CASE IN SITUATIONS OF FCST FLOW SEPARATION... THE ENSEMBLE MEANS TAKE A LITTLE LONGER TO INDICATE SEPARATION OF THE NRN PAC TROF VERSUS OPERATIONAL MODEL RUNS... LEADING THE ENSEMBLE MEANS TO HOLD ONTO A SLIGHTLY DEEPER MEAN TROF THAT MOVES INTO ERN NOAM... WHILE SHOWING LESS AMPLITUDE THAN SOME OPERATIONAL GUIDANCE FOR ENERGY TRACKING SEWD OVER THE PLAINS. TELECONNECTIONS RELATIVE TO THE CORE OF POSITIVE HGT ANOMALIES FCST TO BE OVER THE NERN PAC/BC COAST BY LATE IN THE PERIOD DO NOT APPEAR TO OFFER GREAT SUPPORT FOR THE WEAK NEGATIVE ANOMALIES FCST OVER/NEAR THE GRTLKS IN THE MULTI-DAY MEANS BY THE END OF THE PERIOD... RATHER EMPHASIZING A TROF FARTHER WWD. POSITIVE HGT ANOMALIES OVER THE NERN ATLC YIELD ONLY MODEST NEG ANOMALIES OVER EXTREME ERN CANADA. HOWEVER GIVEN THE RECENT SPREAD AND SIGNIFICANT RUN TO RUN CONTINUITY CHANGES IN THE OPERATIONAL MODELS BY DAYS 6-7 THE ENSEMBLE MEANS STILL PROVIDE THE MOST APPEALING STARTING POINT FOR HOPEFULLY MINIMIZING THE MAGNITUDE OF FUTURE CONTINUITY CHANGES UNTIL GUIDANCE SHOWS BETTER AGREEMENT.
[...]
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

Well Admin, that wasn't very nice.

Please tell me it wasn't permanently.
1. posting off topic photo. 2. swearing in the off topic photo. 3. did not take down same...

I guess Admin thought that was worse than posting loops, because the message with the OT image is gone...

Poor Tom... hope it is only a 24-hr... if at all...
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Quoting popartpete:
Who thinks Leslie will hit the U.S. east coast, where, and why? Thanks!!

I don't think the US will get hit by Leslie. All the models are showing Leslie recurving and she is already following the weakness. Canada could get a hit but even that is not that likely.
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7981
1730. JLPR2




Has a lot of work to do.
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1729. JLPR2
Quoting msphar:
You can keep that storm in Carolina JLPR No need to send it beyond the rain forest.


Nah, I don't want it. XD
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1728. msphar
You can keep that storm in Carolina JLPR No need to send it beyond the rain forest.
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1727. guygee
Quoting Hurricanes101:
To be fair, 13 different loops of Leslie were posted in a short time, I have no issue with loops, but that many is overkill
The blog tide ebbs and flows. You just have to get used to it. I am thankful that there is no central coordinator.
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Who thinks Leslie will hit the U.S. east coast, where, and why? Thanks!!
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1725. JLPR2
Little thunderstorm on its way to Eastern PR, besides this type of action I don't think we'll see much else.

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1724. JLPR2
Quoting sunlinepr:
5 days on schedule and will almost be stationary.... up to 8PM thursday





Looking rather bad for Bermuda. :\ We didn't get to meet Leslie but they might get to spend too much time with her.
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1723. msphar
Also 40 foot sailboats don't do well in sage brush and sand, thats why my interest in the NW caribbean.

I don't think the Jeanne track supports whatever aspect of this 20X60, 48 state rule ta13 was trying to support. Jeanne was a rather unique storm making landfall at the same place as Francis a few weeks before her. That button hook caught a lot of people myself included of guard.
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1722. guygee
Quoting seer2012:
The "Tropical Cyclone Forecaster's Guide",section 2.5,para. b discusses cold-core cyclones.The description seems to desribe Leslie's characteristics.Question for you experts,"Is this a cold core storm?"
There are many texts and papers that discuss cold-core cyclones. It does not take an expert to see that Leslie is almost certainly not a cold-core cyclone. I only say almost because "ground truth" is needed for certainty.
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Dr. Masters co-founded wunderground in 1995. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990. Co-blogging with him: Bob Henson, @bhensonweather

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