Unanswered questions concerning Hurricane Isaac

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:35 PM GMT on August 31, 2012

Share this Blog
54
+

The top winds of Tropical Depression Isaac have fallen to 25 mph, but the storm continues to be a potent rain-maker as it heads north-northwest at 11 mph into Missouri. Isaac has spawned up to 20 suspected tornadoes, brought storm surges as high as 13.6' to the coast (in Lake Borgne, LA), and dumped 20" of rain at one station in New Orleans. The 13.27" of rain that fell at Hattiesburg, MS broke the record for wettest August in the city's history (previous record: 13.03" in 1987.) Major flooding is occurring on seven rivers in Louisiana and Mississippi. Isaac is being blamed for at least four deaths in the U.S., 24 in Haiti, and five in the Dominican Republic.

A few notable rainfall totals from Isaac, through 11 am EDT on Friday:

20.08" New Orleans, LA
15.02" Marion, MS
13.99" Pascagoula, MS
13.27" Hattiesburg, MS
10.85" Gulfport, MS
10.39" Slidell, LA
10.17" Biloxi, MS
9.85" Mobile, AL
7.38" Pine Bluff, AR
5.95" Baton Rouge, LA

A major reason for Isaac's heavy rainfall totals has been its very slow motion. This slow speed was due to the fact Isaac has been bumping into a ridge of high pressure that is unusually strong, due to the intense drought over the center of the U.S.; strong drought-amplified high pressure areas are very resistant to allowing any low pressure areas to intrude into their domain. The high pressure area was strong enough this week to allow several all-time records for heat this late in the year to be set:

112° on August 29 at Winner, SD
108° on August 29 at Valentine, NE
107° on August 29 at Corpus Christi, TX
97° on August 29 at Denver, CO (2nd highest so late in the year)


Figure 1. Nighttime view of Hurricane Isaac taken at 1:57 am CDT August 29, 2012, by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi-NPP satellite. The VIIRS day-night band detects light in a range of wavelengths from green to near-infrared, and uses light intensification to enable the detection of dim signals. In this case, the clouds of Isaac were lit by moonlight. Image credit: NASA.

Isaac's beneficial rains falling in drought-stricken regions
Hurricanes get a lot of attention because of the billions in damage they cost, and the lives they disrupt. AIR Worldwide estimated today that insured damage from Isaac would cost up to $2 billion. This does not include damage to infrastructure or uninsured damage, so the final price tag of Isaac's rampage will be more like $3 - $5 billion. However, Isaac is now dumping beneficial rains over Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Kentucky--regions stricken by the worst drought since the 1950s or 1930s, depending upon the exact location. These regions need 9 - 18 inches of rain to pull them out of drought. Isaac's 3 - 6 inches of rain will not end the drought, but will put a pretty good dent in it. I expect that 3 - 6 inches of rain for a wide swath of prime agricultural land in extreme drought is probably worth at least $5 billion, when you consider that a recent estimate by a Purdue economist put the cost of the great drought of 2012 at more than $77 billion. Only Hurricane Katrina ($146 billion) and the drought of 1988 ($78 billion) have been more expensive disasters, according to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center. Unfortunately, Isaac's arrival is poorly timed, as the storm is arriving during harvest season. The strong winds associated with the storm will flatten many crops, making it more difficult to harvest them, and Isaac's winds may cost farmers several hundred million dollars due to unharvestable crops. Still, the rains from Isaac will be highly beneficial for the success of the upcoming winter wheat season, and for next year's growing season.


Figure 2. Predicted precipitation for the five-day period ending on Tuesday evening shows that Isaac is expected to bring a large region of 3 - 6 inches of rain (red, orange, and brown colors) to Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Kentucky. Image credit: NOAA/HPC.


Figure 3. The great drought of 2012 has brought so little rain to the Midwest that some areas require over 15" of rain (dark purple colors) to end the drought. Image credit: NOAA/CPC.

Unanswered questions about Hurricane Isaac

1. Did the passage of Hurricane Isaac stir up oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill? Isaac was the first hurricane to pass over the site of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We know that large hurricanes are capable of creating currents in deep water at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico; Hurricane Ivan caused upwelling currents of 0.5 cm/s at a depth of about 500 meters. In an August 28 article in the Huffington Post, Nick Shay, professor of meteorology and physical oceanography at the University of Miami, said: "Winds will push water away from the center of a storm, which causes an upwelling as the ocean tries to adjust. It brings whatever is near the bottom up higher in the water column and currents can then push it towards the coast." Up to 1 million barrels of oil from the spill are estimated to still be present in the deep water sediment, on beaches, and in the marshes of Louisiana, and it is possible some of this oil will wash up on the Gulf Coast in coming months. The storm surge of Isaac also likely flushed out oil lodged in the coastal marshes of Louisiana, but it is unknown how much of a concern this might be.

2. What's the deal with these super-sized Category 1 and 2 hurricanes that have been hitting the U.S.? The past three landfalling hurricanes in the U.S.--Isaac (2012), Irene (2011), and Ike (2008)--have all been exceptionally large, among the top ten on record for horizontal extent of tropical storm-force winds. Each of these storms had an unusually low pressure characteristic of a storm one full Saffir-Simpson category stronger. Is this the new normal for U.S. hurricanes?

3. Did the new $14.5 billion upgrade to the New Orleans levee system cause worse flooding elsewhere? Whenever a new levee or flood control structure is created, you make someone else's flood problem worse, since the water has to go somewhere. Where did the water was stopped by the new $1.1 billion, 1.8 mile-long Lake Borgne flood barrier on the east side of New Orleans go? Did it flow south and contribute to the overtopping of the levees near Braithwaite? Or did it go north and contribute to the 36 hours of storm surge in excess of 5' observed along the Mississippi coast at Waveland? I posed this question to NHC's storm surge expert Jaime Rhome, and he said it was impossible to know without doing detailed storm surge modeling studies.

4. Can only hurricanes beginning with the letter "I" hit the U.S. now? Isaac (2012), Irene (2011), and Ike (2008) are the last three hurricanes to hit the U.S. It turns out that hurricanes that begin with the letter "I" and "C" have more names on the list of retired hurricanes than any other letter (nine each.) I'm thinking Isaac will get its name retired, letting storms beginning with "I" take over sole possession of first place on the retired storms list.

Hurricane Kirk in the Central Atlantic
Hurricane Kirk intensified into a 105 mph Category 2 hurricane this morning, becoming the 2nd strongest hurricane of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season. Hurricane Gordon was the only stronger storm; Gordon hit sustained winds of 110 mph just before reaching the Azores Islands on August 18. Kirk has probably peaked in intensity, and is about to move over colder waters and gradually decay. Kirk is not a threat to any land areas.


Figure 4. Morning satellite image of Tropical Storm Leslie.

Tropical Storm Leslie a long-range threat to Bermuda, Canada, and the U.S. East Coast
Tropical Storm Leslie formed on Thursday in the Central Atlantic. Leslie's formation date of August 30 puts 2012 in 2nd place for earliest formation date of the season's 12th tropical storm. Only 1995 had an earlier formation date of the season's 12th storm. With records dating back to 1851, this year is only the second time 8 total storms have formed in August. The other year was 2004, when the first storm of the season formed on August 1 (Alex), and the 8th storm (Hermine) formed on August 29th. Satellite loops show that Leslie has a modest amount of heavy thunderstorm activity, and respectable low-level spiral bands and upper-level outflow. Conditions appear ripe to allow Leslie to intensify into a Category 2 hurricane by Sunday. Fortunately, Hurricane Kirk is weakening the ridge of high pressure to the north of Leslie, and Leslie is expected to turn to the northwest and miss the Lesser Antilles Islands. However, steering currents for Leslie are expected to collapse early next week, as Leslie gets stuck between two upper level lows. The storm will then slowly meander over the open ocean for many days, potentially threatening Bermuda. Leslie will stay stuck until a strong trough of low pressure approaches the U.S. East Coast around September 8. This trough should be strong enough to pull Leslie to the north and then northeast by September 9. At that time, Leslie may be close enough to the coast that the storm will make landfall in New England, Canada, or the Mid-Atlantic states. Leslie could also miss land entirely; this all depends upon the timing and strength of the September 8 trough of low pressure. Regardless, Leslie is expected to bring an extended period of high waves to the U.S. coast. According to NOAA's Wavewatch III model, large swells from Leslie will reach Bermuda by Monday, and arrive along the U.S. East Coast on Tuesday. These waves will be capable of creating dangerous rip currents and beach erosion.

Portlight disaster relief charity responds to Isaac
The Portlight.org disaster relief charity, founded and staffed by members of the wunderground community, are in Mississippi, helping out with Isaac relief efforts. You can check out their progress or donate to Portlight's disaster relief fund at the portlight.org website.

I'm planning on taking Saturday off, but will have a new post for you on Sunday. Have a great holiday weekend, everyone!

Jeff Masters

Hurricane Isaac Louisiana (apphotos)
People play in the storm surge from Hurricane Isaac, on Lakeshore Drive along Lake Pontchartrain, as the storm nears land, in New Orleans, Tuesday, Aug. 28, 2012. (AP Photo/Gerald Herbert)
Hurricane Isaac Louisiana
Portlight volunteers at Biloxi shelter (Portlight)
Portlight volunteers at Biloxi shelter
Hurricane Isaac Louisiana (apphotos)
Research students from the the University of Alabama measure wind speeds as Hurricane Isaac makes landfall, Wednesday, Aug. 29, 2012, in New Orleans, La. Isaac was packing 80 mph winds, making it a Category 1 hurricane. It came ashore early Tuesday near the mouth of the Mississippi River, driving a wall of water nearly 11 feet high inland and soaking a neck of land that stretches into the Gulf. The storm stalled for several hours before resuming a slow trek inland, and forecasters said that was
Hurricane Isaac Louisiana
TS Isaac (Raine911)
Between the rain bands
TS Isaac

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

Sign In or Register Sign In or Register

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 772 - 722

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42Blog Index

Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
T.C.F.W.
12L/TC/L/CX
MARK
15.85N/53.55W

Eh ??
Member Since: October 24, 2005 Posts: 0 Comments: 25472
Quoting pottery:

Your emphasis on the 'yet' is suggesting that you expect to see it though. But you have doubts ?

I need to get some sleep, and you guys are keeping me up.......


I have some doubts, mostly due that I can be conservative on things such as LLC relocation until I see buoy data and or ASCAT data showing such a situation developing..
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
I would totally not want to be under that convection associated with Leslie, it looks terrifying right now haha.
Member Since: August 26, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 630
769. JLPR2
Quoting viman:
if the LLC does relocate under the MLC, would the movement still be to the WNW, or would it steer more to the west?? tia


Would move to the WNW or NW as predicted.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
T.C.F.W.
12L/TC/L/CX
MARK
15.85N/53.55W

It almost looks as if it shrunk.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting SLU:


lol ... I could have counted the number of clouds in the clear sky all the way down the Island chain until we got to Trinidad :D

LOL, true.
It rumbled and grumbled all around all day long.
Member Since: October 24, 2005 Posts: 0 Comments: 25472
No one should be considering 2012 a bust season, a season that was predicted at most to have 11 named is already at 12 and it's not even September yet (will be in a few hours). We got 8 named storms in August including a hurricane that caused bad damage to areas in the Gulf Coast, Isaac. If anything, this season is an unpleasant slap in the face to everyone that even El Nino years can be active.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Anybody heard from Patrap yet?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
T.C.F.W.
12L/TC/L/CX
MARK
15.85N/53.55W
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting NativeSun:
Grothar, it looks to be moving a little South of due W/NW or is that North of W/SW?


Are you trying to confuse me? :)
Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 27582
762. viman
if the LLC does relocate under the MLC, would the movement still be to the WNW, or would it steer more to the west?? tia
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting washingtonian115:
First the seasonal predictions made by many FAIL.Trying to track these storms this year have been no walk in the park FAIL,then you have storms falling apart when that wasn't the forecast FAIL,storms strengthening when that wasn't the forecast FAIL.FAIL FAIL EPIC FAIL.

So you think the 1 word to describe this season is "FAIL"?? Be glad its not 09!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Something strange is going on in there, that's for sure...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting CybrTeddy:
Starting to accept the idea now that the MLC and LLC are decoupled, significantly and weakening, I'm not seeing a lot of turning anymore in the NW quad where you would if a LLC was about to be exposed. Looking like the LLC is going to reform under the MLC which is directly under the deep convection as it is beginning to tighten up. Let's see what the NHC thinks - if they disagree then Leslie is becoming disorganized in a hurry, but usually when LLC's become exposed the convection fades quickly and begins to take on a more disorganized pattern. Not seeing that yet.

Your emphasis on the 'yet' is suggesting that you expect to see it though. But you have doubts ?

I need to get some sleep, and you guys are keeping me up.......
Member Since: October 24, 2005 Posts: 0 Comments: 25472
Grothar, it looks to be moving a little South of due W/NW or is that North of W/SW?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
757. SLU
Quoting pottery:

Yeah, it was heavy on the NW peninsula.
Fortunately, it didn't last long this time.....


lol ... I could have counted the number of clouds in the clear sky all the way down the Island chain until we got to Trinidad :D
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Felix2007:


Holy dry air!


The ULL to the NE, like with Isaac, holding it from moving WNW, .. But soon the trough will take over...

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting CybrTeddy:
Starting to accept the idea now that the MLC and LLC are decoupled, significantly and weakening, I'm not seeing a lot of turning anymore in the NW quad where you would if a LLC was about to be exposed. Looking like the LLC is going to reform under the MLC which is directly under the deep convection as it is beginning to tighten up. Let's see what the NHC thinks - if they disagree then Leslie is becoming disorganized in a hurry, but usually when LLC's become exposed the convection fades quickly and begins to take on a more disorganized pattern. Not seeing that yet.


No, neither am I.
Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 27582
Quoting WeatherNerdPR:

The Main Development Region. It is where most storms develop(and intensify) in a normal season, mostly the Central Atlantic. This year isn't normal, though.

Thanks!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Hi, Wanted to introduce myself. This is my second post. I have been a lurker for the last few years, just joined not to long ago. Have learned a lot from all of you, and have had many laughs reading some of your comments. Thank you for taking the time to help us learn about storms & thank you for the easy way you all explain questions. I was wondering, sometimes when I refresh or go to come into the blog, I get a message that says Access Denied. Most of the time, I will have to completely shut down my computer and come back on in a few minutes and then it will let me in. I use firefox. Anyone have any suggestions of what the problem could be? Thanks for your help! :-)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting viman:
Reading all the posts and is thinking that this thing is getting uncomfortably close for sonething that is supposed to pass 400 miles away to the NE... Just saying...
What is it with storms this year, Decision Makers worse nightmare...geesh man...
First the seasonal predictions made by many FAIL.Trying to track these storms this year have been no walk in the park FAIL,then you have storms falling apart when that wasn't the forecast FAIL,storms strengthening when that wasn't the forecast FAIL.FAIL FAIL EPIC FAIL.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 1900hurricane:

Main Development Region, the band from the African Coast through the Caribbean Sea where most african easterly waves develop into tropical cyclones.

Thank you!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Maineweatherguy20023:
What is the MDR?

The Main Development Region. It is where most storms develop(and intensify) in a normal season, mostly the Central Atlantic. This year isn't normal, though.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Articuno:

well I guess a while is 09 then, forgot about that piece of **** season..

No prob. HATED that one. Hope it never ever happens again! A to of CAT 5 fish would be good. Ship wilma to the middle of the ocean and you have a good storm!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Grothar:


It is still moving WNW.

Ah !
Member Since: October 24, 2005 Posts: 0 Comments: 25472
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

Should be a hurricane tomorrow morning if the LLC realigns itself with the MLC.


Keep talking an you'll be up to 21,000 posts soon. Of course, 15,000 of them were the NHC updates.
Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 27582
Quoting Maineweatherguy20023:
What is the MDR?

Main Development Region, the band from the African Coast through the Caribbean Sea where most african easterly waves develop into tropical cyclones.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting SLU:


Flew in to Trinidad this afternoon just after the rains passed and I could see the muddy rivers in Diego/Petit Valley and the surrounding coastal areas looking very brown and muddy from over 5000 feet in the air.

Yeah, it was heavy on the NW peninsula.
Fortunately, it didn't last long this time.....
Member Since: October 24, 2005 Posts: 0 Comments: 25472
Starting to accept the idea now that the MLC and LLC are decoupled, significantly and weakening, I'm not seeing a lot of turning anymore in the NW quad where you would if a LLC was about to be exposed. Looking like the LLC is going to reform under the MLC which is directly under the deep convection as it is beginning to tighten up. Let's see what the NHC thinks - if they disagree then Leslie is becoming disorganized in a hurry, but usually when LLC's become exposed the convection fades quickly and begins to take on a more disorganized pattern. Not seeing that yet.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting GTcooliebai:
I'm glad you made it out safe and glad to have you back. So how did your house fare and the street?


hhouse fine street not so much
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting WeatherNerdPR:

And yet parts of the equatorial pacific are cooling. It's possible we won't have more than a weak el Niño before heading towards neutral/weak la Niña conditions in 2013.

If Dry air is a El nino symtom than the nino SSTS are what 15C above norm?? LOL
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting pottery:

Good loop there.
Rather disturbing, too....


Hi pottery. She is starting to get too close for confort.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting sunlinepr:



Whoa, looks like mother nature accidentaly put a sandstorm in the ocean..
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting WeatherNerdPR:

And yet parts of the equatorial pacific are cooling. It's possible we won't have more than a weak el Niño before heading towards neutral/weak la Niña conditions in 2013.

I'm starting to doubt we get one at all.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 33863
Quoting pottery:

Good loop there.
Rather disturbing, too....


It is still moving WNW.
Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 27582
737. JLPR2
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

Should be a hurricane tomorrow morning if the LLC realigns itself with the MLC.


Yeah, really powerful MLC, might end up reforming under it.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
736. SLU
Quoting pottery:

Hey DDR.
Did you notice very heavy rains in Diego at noon, caused a lot of concern that the river would overflow again.

That was the tail end of a feeder from Leslie.
Check the Rainbow loops...


Flew in to Trinidad this afternoon just after the rains passed and I could see the muddy rivers in Diego/Petit Valley and the surrounding coastal areas looking very brown and muddy from over 5000 feet in the air.

By the way, Happy Independence day Pottery and DDR!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting washingtonian115:
No.
Good. We have had enough for this season. I am sure you would agree for the New Orleans area.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Is Leslie near or in the dreaded Herbert Box? just hope the high coming off the east coast dosen't move to far east or this could be a dare I say Florida or east coast storm.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting TomTaylor:
Fast trade wind flow and dry air...both are symptoms of an El Nino.

And yet parts of the equatorial pacific are cooling. It's possible we won't have more than a weak el Niño before heading towards neutral/weak la Niña conditions in 2013.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Grothar:

Good loop there.
Rather disturbing, too....
Member Since: October 24, 2005 Posts: 0 Comments: 25472
Quoting Maineweatherguy20023:

more annoying than 09!!???!! that was the worst. NOTHING and the only 2 "powerful" ones looked AWFUL.

well I guess a while is 09 then, forgot about that piece of **** season..
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting WeatherNerdPR:
The MDR can't have a single, well organized storm this year. The better organized storms (Chris, Gordon and Kirk) have formed way north of the MDR. Ernesto and Isaac didn't become better organized until they were near landfall, while the other two storms (Florence and Joyce) failed to organize significantly and died in the middle of the MDR. Alberto and Beryl didn't even form in the actual season, and don't even get me started on Debby and Helene.
Bizarre season so far. More interesting than last year for sure.
What is the MDR?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting weatherh98:
hello everyone ended up with 8.75 inches of rain


wrote a blog With pictures of the devestation.

feel free to take a look and comment.Link
I'm glad you made it out safe and glad to have you back. So how did your house fare and the street?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
What's more bizarre is how this season wasn't even supposed to be this active at all, was supposed to be on pair with 1997, 2009 and 2006, now it's looking like it might be on pair with the rest of the seasons since 1995 excluding the three mentioned.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Grothar:
Wow lol i don't know what to say to that.
Member Since: August 2, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 2461
Quoting JLPR2:
A mid level hurricane! XD


Should be a hurricane tomorrow morning if the LLC realigns itself with the MLC.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 33863
Quoting bigeasystormcaster:
















Do you think a path somewhat similar to Isaac is possible?
No.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting ZeusWrath:
So vixen Leslie another example of don't under estimate the sub tropical ridge because it's strengthening in the east of the system as we speak and the trough is dipping but however the shear and trade winds could play it part in weakening leslie so it wobbles a bit south west could be intresting to watch tonight for the Antilles

IMO...

btw fellow trinis happy 50 independence..

Same to you.
Member Since: October 24, 2005 Posts: 0 Comments: 25472
Quoting Articuno:

To say the least, it is the most annoying year in a while.

more annoying than 09!!???!! that was the worst. NOTHING and the only 2 "powerful" ones looked AWFUL.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
722. viman
Reading all the posts and is thinking that this thing is getting uncomfortably close for sonething that is supposed to pass 400 miles away to the NE... Just saying...
What is it with storms this year, Decision Makers worse nightmare...geesh man...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Viewing: 772 - 722

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

Local Weather

Partly Cloudy
76 °F
Partly Cloudy

JeffMasters's Recent Photos

Carrot Nose in Danger
Deep Snow in Brookline, MA
Sunset at Fort DeSoto
New Years Day Sunset in Death Valley